November 25, 2011 18:04
For her to ancient Egypt changed the system of government, where the first place so first belonged to men. But for some reason it was buried in the royal tomb nurse. Identify the famous female pharaoh help computer analysis — and a broken tooth …
Name of Queen Hatshepsut — one of the most famous in Egyptian history. No, it was not the "only" female pharaoh, as is sometimes written in the newspapers. There were Hentkaus, Neytikeret, Nefrusebek — to Hatshepsut and one more — Userti — after. Still, Hatshepsut, who ruled in the XV century. BC, has surpassed them all as individual scale and eccentricity of its history.
For the queen, pulling away after the early death of her husband from the throne minor stepchild, the future of the famous warrior pharaoh Thutmose III, was adapted to the state system of royal power, which by long tradition of first place could belong exclusively to men. Images of Hatshepsut in the guise of a male ruler with a bandaged ritual beard, royal aprons and hats for men are well known.
On the walls of her famous mortuary temple, located on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes, in the natural rocky amphitheater of Deir el-Bahri was sealed the legend of the divine birth of the queen of the god Amun — the creator of the universe.
God took the form of her earthly father, Thutmose I, and looked into the bedchamber to Queen Ahmes, who since that night, knowing deity intoxicating fragrance of frankincense and myrrh, which emanated from him, carried in her womb the divine child.
Hatshepsut's reign was successful, Egypt her time — prosperous. On the walls of the same snow-white temple at Deir el-Bahri was immortalized expedition to the mysterious land of Punt, modern Somalia, where the fleet queen brought gifts of exotic African and including precious incense and incense in the bush even baskets of earth, which were later planted front of the temple dedicated to the queen and her heavenly father — Amon. In Karnak, the main church of Egypt at the time, in honor of Amun and Pharaoh, women were erected grandiose granite obelisks brought by barge from distant quarries of Aswan.
Mystery mummy of Queen
Among the many mysteries surrounding the story of Hatshepsut — the mystery of her mummy. Five centuries after the death of the queen in the era of strife and crisis of statehood suffered many priests of Amon king's remains from their ancestral tombs in the caches hidden in the rocks. Neither in the famous "royal cache" in the Deir el-Bahri, or the tomb of Amenhotep II in the Valley of the Kings, which is also in a mess was dumped the bodies of other rulers, the mummy of Hatshepsut, yet to be found.
In the unfinished tomb of female Pharaoh in the Valley of the Kings in 1920 by archaeologist Howard Carter, barely breaking the 213 meters of its corridors and chambers, found two empty very beautiful quartzite sarcophagus. One was for most of Hatshepsut, the other, according to the inscriptions, for her father — Tuthmosis I.
Even earlier, in 1903, Carter was faced with another mystery related to Hatshepsut: in one of the abandoned tombs and the Valley of the Kings, he found two of the sarcophagus. One belonged to the nurse of Hatshepsut, a noble lady Satra Ying, and there is still a woman's body lay. In the second, unnamed, lay another woman. Of particular interest to find Carter did not cause. Three years later, another archaeologist, Edward Ayrton, newly opened this tomb and sarcophagus Satra sent John to the body in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. On the tomb was forgotten.
Only in 1989, archaeologist David Ryan, having received permission of the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt, discovered a ruined tomb. The second mummy lying on the floor of the burial sheets. Well preserved body of a plump lady with long hair that was behind shriveled skin on the skull, was in excellent zapelenato canvas.
Attention all Egyptologists then drew one important detail: the one hand the mummies, right, lay across his chest, the left — was extended along the body, it is in this position, the ancient Egyptians buried their queens. It was strange is that the left hand had to lie on his chest, here it was the opposite.
Was not in the tomb of Hatshepsut reburied his nurse? This was argued repeatedly. Many factors, which in their study stopped Egyptologist Elizabeth Thomas, showed that the mummy was buried at the XVIII dynasty, to which belonged Hatshepsut, body posture — royal, part of the wooden sarcophagus mask Hatshepsut was found in the same tomb …
Mummy — an impostor?
However, when the Supreme Council of Antiquities of Egypt (SAR) began a five-year research project on the mummies kept in the Egyptian Museum in Cairo, there was hope that the identity of the two women will be set. "In the Valley of the Kings, I visited the tomb with the sixtieth Egyptologist Salima Ikram — says Dr. Zahi Hawass, head of the BSA — to examine the mummy, stay there, and make a documentary.
In search of the mummy of Hatshepsut
Half obliterated by rough stages, researchers went down and passed through the rough cut in the rock hall and barely got into the burial chamber, which was designed as if to hide from the eyes of the robbers royal body. "
"Despite the fact that Elizabeth Thomas believes that the mummy belongs to Hatshepsut, left in the tomb of Ayrton, what is its support David Ryan — continues Dr. Hawass — I do not believe that this is the mummy of the queen." According to him, the body is too massive, does not match the images of Hatshepsut, huge breasts are more suited royal nurse, rather than queen, known for its elegance and, finally, the regal posture may be just a sign of respect that accompanied their last lady to feed once a great queen .
Only after that the keepers of the Egyptian Museum in Cairo looked closer to the body, which is in the sarcophagus Satra John was moved to Cairo from the Valley of the Kings. It was stored on the third floor of the museum is closed to visitors. In the massive sarcophagus inscribed titles royal nurse and had a length of 2.13 m, lay a miniature mummy growth of just 1.5 meters.
The sarcophagus is completely unsuitable for her, but the ladies of the dense body is Valley of the Kings would fit into it perfectly. Right hand fragile woman was stretched along the body, while the left was lying on his stomach, as if originally held "hetes" — grand scepter queen.
At the head of a woman long hair perfectly preserved. The body was zapelenato the fabric of the highest quality, the fingers — zapelenaty separately, as has often happened in Egypt with royal bodies. But at the bottom of the sarcophagus fragments were completely different sheets, where the worst quality.
Both bodies are now investigated by the imager and a variety of modern technologies. For the first time in order to determine whether the body belongs to the famous queen of Egypt has given permission to the DNA of the two mummies. Work is carried out exclusively by Egyptian experts.
And one more interesting fact about which not everyone knows. Do mummies fragile woman in excellent shrouds broken tooth. That's the tooth, apparently, and was found in the box with the embalmed human liver, found in 1881 in the royal cache in the valley of Deir el-Bahri. On the surface of the box perfectly preserved the names of the great Queen Hatshepsut, the first among respectable. Ancient history is striking: sometimes from one tooth fate depends royal remains.
Source: "Interesting newspaper. Mysteries of civilization »№ 22 2011,