The heavy bomber TB-3 (ANT-6)

This aircraft Tupolev design is one of the more famous not only for its time. He was the world's first four-engine monoplane svobodnonesushim-bomber with engines mounted in a row along the span of the wing in a sock. His scheme — the development of TB-1 scheme — became dominant for all aircraft of this type and for different purposes. For the years 1930-1932. TB-3 was a huge step forward, and stood at the height of sophistication. This award Tupolev and ASSC team, this is our value. The creation of this traditional aircraft is all the more valuable that together with him was mastered the design and development of similar machines and has been launched serial production of large.

The history of the creation of the TB-3 began in 1925 with the TsAGI Ostekhbyuro talks about building a languid bombers capacity of 2,000 liters. s. to land and float versions. Designing such aircraft began running AN Tupolev in May 1926 Requirements from Air Force control a couple of times and was refined final form in December 1929

Experienced copy. Were selected four engine "Curtis Konkveror" to 600 liters. s. with the substitution of them later on M-17. Were calculated and purge models. March 21, 1930 was approved layout. Construction was completed in rather short time, and 31 October 1930 plane had already gathered at the airport. First flight Gromov December 22, 1930 showed that the plane was successful. This assessment was left for him to continue in all of its versions

Tests plane took skiing, specially manufactured. Turrets have been delivered but without guns, bomb armament was not. By 20 February 1931 g was taken out Air Force evaluation "ANT-6 with" Curtis "on its flight to the thoroughly modern bomber at the best foreign aircraft. Aircraft operating properties allow counsel for the serial construction with M-17 ".

The aircraft was returned to the ASSC to change engines and eliminate defects. Were made to the following configuration: set-VIz Engines BMW 500/730 liters. and with increased accordingly radiators hanging obliquely on the type of R-6, screws TsAGI — wooden, with a diameter of 3.5 m, horny joints ailerons abolished (pp decreased by 1 m) in the ailerons and rudders made crevice compensation, increased horizontal tail area; crutch redesigned according to the standard TB-1; plane delivered to the wheels of the British company Palmer — with pneumatics 2000 X 450 mm. But the wheels of these were weak and were modified tandem carts with wheels Russian 1350 X 300 mm. The introduction of the series was performed by the second half of 1931

The parent instance. TB-3 (ANT-6) — 4 M-17 was launched at the airfield January 4, 1932, flown by test pilot Andrei Borisovich Yumashev, a leading engineer-pilot Ivan Petrov. It was recognized that the aircraft boesposoben and can be taken as an ideal standard for construction in 1932

This aircraft had a pull-spinning machine gun turret (similar to R-6) in the center section, between the second and third spars, closer to the latest engine. Bomb racks were installed beam type and radio. Wheel chassis — in tandem carts. Small arms — Tour turret-6 with single or coaxial machine gun in the nose fuselage YES, YES to one of the tower, turrets Tour-5 (erratic) per unit, with one or with 2 YES Ammo — only 100 discs on 63 cartridge. The total mass of small arms — 439 kg. Bomb armament — holders for 2000 kg of various bombs weighing up to 1,000 kg (9-Der, Der-13, 15, and Der-Der-16), the release gear Clear All Mem 9 total mass of 437 kg Weight of the equipment (if included up to one hundred percent of the load) — 349 lbs.

Tests were performed on an instance of the head and skiing on wheels with a full small and bomber weapons in different compositions. Alignment Empty 30.2% MAR-laden 30.8% MAC. Flying characteristics on wheels and on skis were similar.

Start TB-3 (ANT-6) in the series took place in the criteria for success when it as such did not cause vibrations. Another six months before the first flight of Plant. 10 Years of October started to get acquainted with the drawings. During the tests, the drawings were finished. In September 1931, it was decided to change all nodes aircraft imported chrome molybdenum steel HMA Russian hromansil HNZA, not counting the semi-axes of the chassis that were still imported.

After the test, the head of aircraft began construction on the serial 2-plants. The first event, which had to face — significant production aircraft of overweight compared with the parent, reach 10-12% by weight of the glider. Premise is central to the thicker plates and pipes due to the impending plus tolerances to add equipment and weapons from their mounts, adding nodes in the construction related to the needs of operation (mount, partitions, seats, steps, etc.). It was found that many of the electrical lines have a cross section substantially greater than that required by the current strength that rough welds, unreasonably heavy wagon chassis. Seasoned aircraft took to the air station, being covered with a thin layer of varnish, and in a series of protective coloring was done very crudely spray: a layer of varnish and paint was fat. On the experimental aircraft was all done cleaner. In the case of substitution of steel CMA myagenkoy steel grade M, respectively, increased cross-section parts. There was also a number of other circumstances.

Against that were taken a few extraordinary measures. Independently of the work of designers and calculators TSAGI the plants was announced proposals for facilitating the collection of aircraft parts to the payment of 100 rubles per kilogram, taken in the series. Later abolished rotary tower, discarded a number of partitions in the fuselage, lightened chassis carts, tanks, bomb armament suspension and much more.

In the end, managed to remove more than 800 kg of empty aircraft, but all the same differences in mass between individual aircraft reached the 10-s and even hundreds of kilograms, not always successfully passed reproof, from time to time there and there were small vibration damage due to weakening structure. But the main goal was achieved and the empty weight of M-17 to install about 10,970 kg without removable equipment and weapons. Flight weight was installed 17 200 kg, and with congestion — up to 19 300 kg.

TB-3-4M-17F serial (Fig. 246, a) 1. The ego was more untold chip airplane TB-3 (about half of the full amount). The design of the aircraft was a model for all of the following options, which differed in the main propulsion system, fuselage, landing gear and trim.

The fuselage is in their own circuits was formed by straight lines on top and bottom, in a trapezoidal cross-section was a bit of a convex deck, above the wing sides were vertical. Structurally, it was divided into three parts, with an average of (F-2) was a single one-piece unit with the center section between the first and the last of his spars construction is repeated in a larger size fuselage TB-1. Frames were of the A sections, with braces of some pipes were fitted with bulkheads with doors almost human growth than were formed separate cabins pilots, a navigator and a radio operator. Under the nose of the fuselage turret — glassed, cockpit — open, that was in the spirit of the day. Lantern placed exclusively in the Arctic variant. Closed front turret came much later, and the rear and remained open.

The wing consisted of a center wing span of about 7 m and 2-consoles. The length of the sides of the fuselage chord 8.0 m in front of wingtips — 2.95 m, the relative thickness profiles A0 (Tupolev) — 20% in the center section and 10% in the wingtips. Profi
le-lenticular, ordinates the top of the arch was 60% of its thickness. Wing — chetyrehlonzheronnoe with several performance connectors. In the center section were weaned socks and tail parts, consoles — the tail of the original plot of the sock. So Makar, the whole bulk of the center-cum-F-2, also wing disassembled had a width of less than 4 m, and could be transported by rail. All spars are shaped from the pipes with a large cross-section of 100 x 90 mm. Rib consisted of external A-profiles and tubular struts with KNITs. In the console was on nine ribs at a distance of 1.8 m corrugated sheathing supported by the wing spars and stringers several triangular-shaped light beams from sheets with holes of relief.

Corrugated sheathing of the wing and the fuselage has a thickness of 0.3 mm in the main, in the F-2 and F-3 (in part) on top and in the center section — 0.5 mm, and in some places, where were frequently feet — 0.8 mm. Wave height of corrugation was 13 mm pitch — 50 mm. For all surfaces could go to myagenkoy shoes, and in designated locations and boots. In the center-piece detachable sock was made into a very comfortable folding ladders to service engines

Since 1934, the wingspan was increased from 39.5 to 41.85 m by lengthening all. It was likely due to the strong increase in the limit! Duralumin and new brands. Wing area increased from 230 to 234.5 m2

Stabilizer — Variable-pitch in flight. Management rudders and ailerons — virtually Rope, with efforts to reduce the pilot when operating the ailerons were introduced two hoist. To distinguish the rudder in case of stopping the engines on one side was arranged special idler with rubber cords since 1934 replaced the installation of servo.

Pyramidal type chassis to an axle, strut and strut bar with rubber strips 12, 1934 replaced with oil-air cushioning. Two pairs of wheels were set in tandem on the welded pipe of the cart. Spoke wheels were usually without fairings spokes. Later, the rear wheels were manufactured brake. Since 1935, the carts were changed brake wheels with pneumatics size of 2000 x 450 mm.

In winter, ski plane mounted on wood standard design dimensions 5540 x 1460 mm. The tail skid — size 1000 x 450 mm. Specific load of skis was about 1,100 kg/m2. Skis were equipped with braces of 10 16 mm rubber cord in front and 4 rear.

Motor frame under slider M-17 was welded pipes of Myagenko and were attached to the 3 points (two on top) to the nodes of the front spar of center. By the frames were hung beveled back radiators, surrounded by a common hood with the engine. By plane had four tank to 1950 liters. Each tank was divided into three compartments. Fittings — type AM. Fuel tanks — riveted sheet duralumin on the pads of drawing paper with shellac, using a 4-mm duralyuminovyh barrel-head rivets and a 1.5 mm duralyuminovymi washers under both heads of this type of tank held about 15 years, so as to protect them perfectly density seams.

By plane TB-3-4M-17 techno range by a series of events at a special adjustment of carburetors and ignition was brought up to 3120 km at the loading weight of 19.5 tons

TB-3 "zadraenny." In 1933, on the same plane TB-3-4M-17 were removed one by one bomb racks, towers, turrets, patched all the holes on the carts delivered fairings removed all that protrude from the skin. The rate increased by only 4.5% in the same range of "zadraennogo" of the aircraft.

The conclusion was clear. For large and relatively slow-moving aircraft benefit from the smooth skin compared with ribbed speed was low, with the main importance was smooth paneling on the toe and top of the wing to the rear spar.

TB-3-4M-17 were in service from 1932 to 1939 In the process of their gradual substitution be transferred to Aeroflot, where under the name G-2 (cargo second) were used for freight number of years.

TB-3-4M-34. The design has remained generally the same. Were placed cell vertical radiators, assigned much back and enclosed in separate hoods under the wing ("beard"). Added-oil radiators. Question about setting engines M-34 appeared in the autumn of 1931 in February 1933 they were installed on the aircraft were completed in October municipal tests are 2-production aircraft. These were slightly higher than the M-plane 17. Aircraft with M-34 had a few 10-s.

TB-3-4M-34R. In conjunction with the installation of the motor and gear M-34P on the plane were made some changes: There is a tail rifle point at first without changing shape of the fuselage crutch, without communication with the fuselage. The design was a time (up to rework the fuselage). The towers were still under the wing. At the tail were also made little configuration. The rear-wheel carts are made in the brake with hydraulic control. Rubber cushioning replaced by oil-air. Municipal test aircraft were completed October 16, 1933 Flight properties due to the reduction gear motor are significantly better. The aircraft was approved in 1934 as an ideal after tests it was remade aft fuselage aft point of organically infused into its contours, crutch replaced tailwheel

An aircraft production in 1934, a series of measures to improve the aerodynamics of the wing fairings set, stabilizer and air keel, hoods engines to the wing. Were placed on the half-fairing and wagon wheels, but this design was awkward to use and not kept Altered radiator cowlings, and the dynamo with a retractable windmills are made fuselage.

TB-3-4M-34R was reached long duration of the flight — 18 hours and 30 minutes.

ANT-6 (TB-3) -4 AM-34RD (see Table. 31). In 1933-1934. for 3 international flights — in Warsaw, Paris and Rome — were released nine specially decorated aircraft with a new fuselage with turrets and closed with brake wheels to carts. In addition, it was made a few planes with bolshennymi two-meter three-blade wheels and metal screws. Their data were significantly higher than the mass-produced.

All three flights, each of which was attended by three aircraft were perfectly executed. Our bolshennye machines produced abroad a great effect, showing once again the success Russian aircraft.

TB-3-AM-34RN. Until 1935, all previous engines to altitude and therefore lacked the ceiling TB-3 in all cases was small. When installing a new motor AM-34RN with high-rise 4200 m situation has become better. The aircraft passed the tests in August and October 1935 in medium engines were installed with four-wood screws on the latter — bladed. The fuselage was a stern turret and tail wheel landing gear wheels first with the carts were modified two-meter, firearms Tour-8 with machine guns ShKAS-fore, middle, covers (back down) and fodder plant 2,000 kg bombs on the supports CD-2 der 19 and der-20 bomb dropper SBR-9 and ESBR-2, sights SPB-2, GSP-1 and KV-5.

The speed at an altitude of 4200 m reached 288 km / h, the ceiling — 7740 m The success was great, but in a test report had indicated that the plane TB-3 is inferior to foreign ones. It was evident that the size, shape and design of the TB-3 is already out of date. Needed another plane and he has developed in the type of TB-7.

TB-3-4-AM and AM-34FRN 34FRNV. With the installation of a plane TB-3 engines of new modifications in the form of M-and M-34FRN 34FRNV an opportunity to make some better tactical flight data plane, set several new records. Thus, the pilot AB Yumashev 11 September 1936. headed for the height of 8116m with a control load 5000 kg, 28 October — the height of 8980 m with the same load, September 16, 6605 m altitude with a load of 10,000 kg and 20 September 1936 — the height of 2700 m with a load of 12,000 kg (no limit). The design of production aircraft at all it was not exposed to any amplification. In the wings were delivered two more gas tank on the rudder put fletner, wheels — two-meter bra
king, the nose fuselage redesigned front turret — shielded, improved wing fairings, radiator forehead reduced.

Aircraft M-34FRN issued in 1936 and 1937. (The end of their series-built). The aircraft was brought to the probable degree of perfection. The speed at an altitude higher than 300 km / h But the plane TB-3 is uniformly lost its importance as a heavy bomber and became a military transport. In order to increase the flight range of a diesel engine was designed AH-1 AD Charomsky 750 liters. s. The estimated range was 4280 km. This version of the TB-HT (diesel) was tested in 1935, but not of success, because the rest went flying characteristics lower than the M-34RN.

TB-3 in different versions built in as standard throughout 1932-1937. with a break from illumine 1934 until the spring of 1935. Was discontinued due to the start of preparation for the introduction of the aircraft sat, but then again produced, in part to use of available reserve.

Aircraft TB-3 all types were used as bombers in 1939, Halkin-Gol, a little — in the war against the White Finns and in a very small extent — in the initial period of stateliness Russian war, for example in the Smolensk defensive operations on the northern front, near Murmansk in the winter of 1941-1942 years. and elsewhere.

But a lot of the TB-3 and was used successfully as a military transport plane for landing operations, and for any kind of transportation of people and goods. With all of this aircraft armed with machine guns ShKAS in various compositions, including for shooting through windows in the sides (not including turret) through access holes in the floor. To load landings were on average 30-35 paratroopers. Under the TB-3 were suspended and dropped by parachute, small tanks, guns, cars, weapons and ammunition.

In the Russian war planes TB-3 and used for communication with different staffs to deliver ammunition and food locked garrisons and the partisans behind enemy lines for the transport of flight and technical personnel in the re-location, to evacuate the wounded and for other purposes. In addition, TB-3 was used as a carrier for other aircraft in the song "Link".

In all cases, its use of various aircraft itself one hundred percent justified.

Civilian use

ANT-6-4M-34R — Arctic version of the TB-3 for flights in the Arctic and in 1937, the planned expedition to the North Pole 1. In these planes, called "Aviaarktika" was remade nose fuselage, cockpit pilots were put huge wheels instead of the truck and the tail wheel, improved fairing and made some changes in a power plant, namely — iron supplied lobed screw.

The conquest of the North Pole May 21, 1937, numerous in the past couple years, flying over the Arctic is best they say that the ANT-6-4M-34R successfully justified its purpose. Load in these aircraft reached 12 m, ie, almost 50% of flight mass (24.5 m). Strength of the aircraft subject to minor flight restrictions warranted it. Speed at sea level reached 240 km / h

On one of the production aircraft with the engine M-34P from 1 January to 11 February 1935 were conducted notable experiments to elucidate the effects of the corrugated sheathing on the flight characteristics of aircraft. Initial plane was edged blade for ribbing at first only a sock wing, later toe and the upper side of the wing to the rear spar, then both sides of the wing to the rear spar, and, eventually, across the bottom surface of the wing and fuselage, and finally over all surfaces of the aircraft . It was found that the gain in speed did not exceed 5.5%, and in the ceiling headed for 27.5%.

At the four-bladed wood screws on the same aircraft has increased significantly climb.

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