The killer of aircraft carriers: The tragic story of hundreds of T-4

Throughout the post-war history of the USSR without annoying trying to find affordable "antidote" to deal with the kings of the oceans — South American nuclear aircraft carriers. Russian 'asymmetric' solutions to anticipate what the submarines with super high-speed rocket torpedoes or cruise missiles, the nuclear-powered missile cruisers with hypersonic anti-ship missiles, the supersonic bombers with mental missiles.

By the end of 1950 it became clear that the Soviet Union can not properly challenge the U.S. for no strategic aircraft, neither in the Navy. In part, this could make the deployment of intercontinental ballistic missiles than, in fact, engaged in Russian Alliance. But about this time adopted the U.S. began to enter the first nuclear submarine missile capable of hitting targets at ranges of up to 2,200 km. Excellent fight them USSR was unable — places submarines on patrol covered the South American aircraft carriers. Break through the defense Russian Navy's carrier-based compounds could neither air, nor water, nor out of the water. The only way to kill a South American aircraft carrier was to apply for it with a special ultra-fast missile warhead, in other words, a nuclear warhead. Only here to get to the aircraft carrier ballistic missile could not have — the goal did not stand still. Available as aircraft, ships and submarines were not able not that close to the distance of a shot, but even to find the target.

A more realistic method of dealing with aircraft carriers Russian commanders saw the creation of the complex impact of aviation. It was to consist of ultra-fast aircraft that could be found in the region aircraft carrier compound and the hypersonic missile, capable of speeds of 4-5 times greater than the speed of sound, to break through the strong defense system of the aircraft carrier and its strike nuclear charge.

The largest range of defeat maritime air defense systems since was 160 km, height — 30 km, and destroys targets velocity — 775 m / s. This meant that the planes were available to strike at an altitude of 25 km and a speed of up to 2650 km / h

None of being developed in the late 1950s in the Soviet Union's strategic supersonic attack aircraft under these characteristics do not fit. Project Tupolev 135 plane and the M-52 CB Myasishcheva were performed in the top of the duralumin alloy and designed for the highest speeds of 2000-2500 km / h However, in KB Myasishcheva developed and other strategic bomber titanium alloys and alloy steels — M-56. The aircraft was able to withstand the kinetic heat to the skin 3000C and speeds higher than 3000 km / h But first, it was designed as a strategic bomber, designed for combat load at 9 m, and had excessive take-off weight of about 230 tons


Hunter aircraft carriers had to have a takeoff weight of about 100 tons, cruising speed of 3000 km / h and a ceiling of 24 km. When approaching the target aircraft at such speed and altitude radar Yankees did not have time to put on his anti-aircraft missile. Hit a promising attack aircraft in the rear hemisphere could neither fighter-interceptors or anti-aircraft missiles.

The new aircraft had to have a flight range 6000-8000 km and carry a 2-ship cruise missiles with a range of 400-600 km act — it would allow him not to come into range air defense systems. The rocket itself for itself was to be a unique product — a speed of seven times greater than the speed of sound, to go off-line to the target and assault her.

The State Committee for Aviation Technology offered to bid on such aircraft Tupolev design bureau, Sukhoi and Yakovlev — Mikoyan decided not to touch because his office was overwhelmed with work on the future of the MiG-25. It was assumed that the contest will win the "bombing" Tupolev, and "destruction" were involved KB visibility competition. All the more so that the Tupolev was developing "Project 135" — had only to increment its speed to the required 3000 km / h Contrary to expectation, "destruction" KB enthusiastically took up the theme of non-core. In the Sukhoi project was headed by Oleg Samoylovich. Was selected assembly on a "duck" with front canards and isolated pods, vozduhopoglotiteli which were beyond the leading edge of the wing. According to initial calculations take-off weight equal to 102 tons, hence the unofficial title of the "article 100" or simply "weaving".

The collapse of the patriarch

In July of 1961 was a scientific and technical advice on which summed up the contest. The first report to the Tupolev. "Project 135" suffered complete defeat: the plane was very weary (take-off weight of 190 tons), and did not pass on the high-speed performance — cruising speed of 2,500 km / h instead of the required 3000 km / h The protection system was built Tupolev from the standpoint of economy of municipal assets: profitable to build one type of universal, much less have developed the aircraft — "the product 135." He could solve both strategic tasks, including nuclear strikes on U.S. terrain and puzzles distant naval aviation.

The second of his "project Yak-35" reported Alexander Yakovlev. The plane looked like outside the South American B-58 Hustler and myasischevsky M-52, had a takeoff weight of 84 tons, a cruising speed of 3300 km / h At the end of Yakovlev lunged toward the patriarch bombers: "Andrei has to stay on the aluminum. This means a regression in aeronautical engineering. We do not do anything new, and we need to move forward and develop new materials — titanium and steel. Tupolev simply slows down the progress of aviation! "Tupolev jumped up and shouted:" Boy, what do you know about steel? I iron planes doing when you walked under the table! You want to destroy the country? "Yakovlev said nothing.

Then your own project aircraft T-4 ("product 100") presented Pavel Sukhoi. The car, like the Yak-35 is consistent with the requirements of the Air Force. The final conclusions have decided to do after yet another meeting of the Board in September 1961. Andrei Tupolev in a critical manner gave the order to prepare for the contest plane "125", developed for the substitution of the Tu-22. Yes, and "125-ka" first created under other specifications and speeds of up to 2500 km / h Time to process it under 3000 km / h at the Tupolev was not. Because the second scientific and technical council of the "project 125" did not pass exactly the same reasons that have rejected the 135th. The winner was declared a project of Sukhoi. After some time, the Sukhoi Design Bureau came to the chairman of the State Commission for Aviation Technology Dementev Peter and Paul Osipovich directly asked to abandon the project in favor of the Tupolev and give him all the materials: "This topic belongs Tupolev". "Excuse me, — said dry — but I won the contest, and not Andrei. Because I will not give up on the subject. " After a while Sukhoi Tupolev himself called "Pasha, you know how to make great fighters, bombers but — no. This is my theme, give up. " "That's how I know how to make great fighters, I'll do a good bomber" — cut off
Dry. Such stubbornness did not add designer friends in the industry.

The only flying prototype of the T-4 aircraft "101&
quot; in 1975 was focused on the endless parking in Air Force Museum in Monino. The pieces of the aircraft "102" were displayed in the hangar Capital Aviation Institute (MAI), but then were cut into scrap metal. The same fate has understood and partly assembled aircraft "103"


So unique plane sought more unique engines that could operate in the criteria previously unheard of high temperatures, thin air and non-standard fuel. Initially, the T-4 involves the installation of 3 different types of engines, but ultimately braked on one — RD36-41, the development of which led Rybinsk OKB-36 (now NPO "Saturn"). The engine was a distant relative of the powerful Russian nonafterburning engine 1950 HP-7, which, namely, the bombers were equipped with myasischevskie 3M. Engine aircraft was a single-shaft 11-stage compressor, the afterburner and two-stage turbine blade with air cooling of the first stage, which allowed increment at the turbine inlet gas temperature to 950K. On the creation of RD36-41 took a total of about 10 years of difficulties, and based on it have been made other, more unique engine: RD36-51A stood on the passenger Tu-144, RD36-51B — by sverhvysotnom Scout M-17 "Stratosphere", RD36 -35 were used in the tests of the orbital plane "Spiral".


More fundamental than the plane itself was its main armament — hypersonic missile X-33, the development of which also began in the Sukhoi, but was later transferred to Dubna branch of OKB-155 (now "Raduga"). The rocket was supposed to go off-line to the goal line on Aeroballistic traffic at an altitude of 30 km at a speed at 6.5-7 times greater than the speed of sound. After reaching the target area she found a carrier-based order, figured it aircraft carrier and stormed it. It was unprecedented at the time task — to run it on board the X-33 to set their own radar and inertial navigation system, composed for the first time included the digital computers. According to the difficulties of missile control system is not inferior to the airplane.

Up down

Many new cabin was in T-4. For the first time in the country for it was designed LED navigational and tactical situation, where on a television screen on-board radar data superimposed on the electrical image microfilmed cards spanned almost the entire surface of the globe.

In the design of the aircraft designers constantly faced with a variety of never before met a neuvvyazkami. For example, in aircraft assembly, which won the competition, the chassis is not designed to fit into its slot. To resolve the situation offered enough exotic solutions — vozduhopoglotiteli imposed on "back", and after a course at the plane had to roll down the cabin, and so to make the flight. When planting bomber had to roll back to the initial state.

More mind bending was another decision, which found expression in the plane. When the fuselage diameter of 2 m at a speed of 3000 km / h projecting lantern cockpit created tremendous resistance, and the designers decided to use a deflectable nose. When flying at an altitude of 22-24 km visibility as it does not, around the dark sky, because the bow lifted and the flight is only devices. During the landing, she deflected down and the pilot receives a stunning view through the opened front window. This idea was met with hostility by the military, and only the interest and authority of the head test pilot of the Sukhoi Vladimir Ilyushin, son of the famous aircraft designer, have allowed assure the Air Force. Ilyushin also insisted on the installation of a periscope to review in advance — in case of a crash mechanism differences bow. A similar solution then look for the application and civilian Tu-144 and Concorde.

Incidentally, the fairing delivered developers many problems, and its creation was one of the most difficult tasks. He had to be radio waves (radar antenna located inside) and immediately withstand high strength and temperature (up to 4000C) load. In the end, the material has been developed on the basis of hundreds of glass fillers impregnated with a heat resistant binding. Fairing itself represented a five-layer structure in which the main load carrying middle layer with a width of 1.5 mm. Outside the dome was covered with heat-and weather-resistant silicone coating.


In the spring of 1972, the first flying prototype of the T-4 ("product 101") was prepared for flight tests, but because of the summer fires of forests and peat bogs around Moscow and thick smoke drifted over the runway visibility LII
them. Gromov was almost zero. Because the first flight took place only 22 August 1972. Hero of the Russian plane piloted Union Vladimir Ilyushin and navigator Nicholas Alferov. The first step was performed a total of nine operations, wherein the first carried out with 5 uncleaned chassis. The aircraft was driven perfectly, did not seek special attention from the pilot, the sound barrier passed quietly, and the time to overcome it marked only devices. Military, closely followed the trials aircraft came from him in ecstasy and booked in the coming five-year period (1975-1980 years), the first batch of 250 cars! For machines such class is a record circulation.

An end to "weave"

Tushino Machine Building Plant (TMP), built the Sukhoi Design Bureau for an experimental batch of seven aircraft, could not create them commercially, especially in the ordered quantity. The only plant that could master such an order — Kazan Aviation. In Kazan turned training equipment for the establishment of a new bomber. This meant that the Tupolev lost its main production base. It could not afford any Tupolev himself nor his patron, Minister of Aviation Industry Peter Dementev. Under the pretext release a modified version of the Tu-22 (and in fact, a brand new Tu-22M) Dry "squeezed out" from the Kazan plant.

In the meantime, started the second step test. January 22, 1974 hosted the tenth flight, "weave", where T-4 headed for a height of 12 km and a speed of M = 1.36. In this step, intended to bring the rate up to 3000 km / h (M = 2.8), and to develop a test machine "102" with a standard set of radio equipment.

To build the first 50 aircraft Sukhoi offered at the Tushino engineering plant, assuming one hundred percent of its redesign, which was unlikely due to lack of funds. But Dementev deprived Sukhoi and that little chance. At a regular meeting with the Minister of Defence, he assured him close the program from the T-4, expanding on TMZ create wings for the new Russian MiG-23. Grechko gave consent, and in March 1974, all of the testing of T-4 without explanation over.

Until his own death September 15, 1975 Pavel Sukhoi has not received an answer about the causes of exhaustible frozen T-4 project. Only
January 28, 1976 an order was issued by the Ministry of Aviation Industry number 38, which locks work program there, "article 100". The same order Dementev Peter meant and why: "In order to concentrate efforts and resources on the creation of the Tu-160."

Aircraft "101" was sent to the endless parking in Monino museum, where he remains to the present day. In 1976, after the order, the Sukhoi Design Bureau has submitted an estimate of the costs of the aircraft T-4, which is at the prices then made a fantastic amount of 1.3 billion rubles. The government was uproar, and this latest outburst of feelings on the "hundredths" in what may lead.


No aircraft in the USSR, either before or after the T-4 had no such number of unique developments. Virtually all of the major components, systems
and components of aircraft were designed as inventions — they had recorded about 600. It was really a huge leap forward in the field of aircraft. Only here at the close of the theme plane could not have solved their main task — to break the air defense aircraft carrier orders and settlement of an aircraft carrier. How, in general, were unable to solve a Russian submarine with ultra high-speed torpedoes "Squall" and cruise missiles or nuclear-powered missile cruisers.

On the other hand, has come to replace him supersonic strategic bomber Tu-160 in today's wars, too, was not needed. Gobble up with all this, not the least amount of money.

The precursors and analogs of the strategic bomber T-4

Bomber Tu-160

Last Russian strategic bomber. The take-off mass of 267 tons, a cruising speed of 850 km / h, maximum — 2000 km / h, range — up to 14 000 km. Armament — up to 40 tons of guided missiles and bombs. Standard — two revolving launchers with six strategic and tactical cruise missiles X-55 and X-55M.Samy expensive Russian plane — multimode strategic bomber Tu-160. Made first to break the U.S. air defense system, with its own task, he has not mastered is produced to this day malehankih series.


The revolutionary experimental supersonic strategic bomber, made by Vladimir Myasishcheva in DB-23. At take-off weight of 175 tons plane had to develop a cruising speed of 1500 km / h (maximum 1950 km / h) and carry 20 tons of bombs svobodnopadayuschih high power fuselage compartment to a distance of 7400 km at an altitude of 16.5 km.

XB-70 Valkyrie

Experimental titanium South American supersonic strategic bomber made by North American. At take-off weight of 240 tons of aircraft with a maximum speed of 3220 km / h at an altitude of 21 km was due to deliver bombs and missiles with thermonuclear warheads to a distance of 12,000 km. In this series of aircraft has not been launched.

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