Tu-95 (product "B", NATO reporting name: Bear — «The Bear") — Russian turboprop strategic bomber bomber, the most high-spirited helical plane, which became one of the signs of a cool war. The world's only accepted for service and produced by turboprop bomber. Designed to engage cruise missiles principal objects in the rear of the enemy at any time of the day and in all weather criteria. In operation since 1956.
July 30, 2010 set a world record non-stop flight for aircraft such class, with all this over this period of time the bombers proparhali about 30 thousand kilometers above the 3-ocean, four times to refuel in the air.
The story of a
July 11, 1951 issued a decree of the Soviet government, instructing the Tupolev Design Bureau and Myashishev make strategic bombers capable of carrying a nuclear weapon. Tupolev Design Bureau, having spent a large amount of research, has come to the conclusion that for the long-range aircraft is more suitable turboprop slider. Already in September 1951, was prepared two versions of the aircraft conceptual design "95": 4 engines with 2-TV-2F (dual TV-2F at 6250 hp) and 4-TV-12 (12,000 hp) and on October 31 the state commission approved the full-scale model.
First experienced "95-1" engines with 2-TV-2F was built at number 156 in 1952. November 12, 1952 the crew, led by test pilot A.D.Pereletom for the first time raised it to the sky. In 1954 he was ready to second layout "92-2" (already with engines TV-12). February 16, 1955 "95-2" made the first flight.
In 1955, the series begins the creation of the Tu-95 (previously thought to call the Tu-20, but all the drawings have been issued with an "95", because it decided to keep) an aircraft factory number 18 in Kuibyshev. Factory tests lasted until January 1956, and on May 31 the aircraft was brought to the Municipal tests. In August 1956, a new bomber was first demonstrated at the air parade in honor of the old days of aviation. In 1957, a plane was fitted over the massive engines NK-12M and under the designation Tu-95M aircraft are brought into service of the Russian Army.
The airframe is made, in the main, from duralumin alloys, magnesium alloys are also used, and steel. Swept wing with an angle of 35 °. The crew is placed in the pressurized cabin in the fore and aft fuselage. Emergency escape the aircraft by means of a movable floor hatches in both cockpits.
Tricycle landing gear, with twin cylinders. The main stand — two-axle, retractable in-flight wing nacelle (which is a generic feature of most Tupolev cars), nasal rack — uniaxial, clean on the "flow" into the fuselage.
Lower center fuselage housed a huge bomb bay leaf.
Depending on the modification, on Tu-95 turboprop engines used NC-12 capacity of 12,000 hp, NK-12M, NK-12MV or NK-12MP (each rated at 15,000 hp). Screws — with four-iron adjustable pitch, coaxially mounted.
The smallness of the engines
NK-12 engine to this day remains the most massive turboprop engine in the world. NC-12 has a 14-stage compressor and a five-speed high-efficiency turbine. To adjust the compressor on this engine for the first time installed air bypass valve. The efficiency of the turbine motor acts NC-12 is 94%, which is a record.
On the engine NK-12 was the first time used a single system controlling the supply of fuel, constructed as a single unit (the so-called. Command-fuel unit).
The highest power of the motor and screw design determines its unparalleled noise, Tu-95 is one of the most booming aircraft in the world, and even pinpoint the sonar systems of submarines, but this is not critical when applied to nuclear missile strikes.
The aircraft has an automatic start engines. Fuel is located at 11 fuselage and wing caisson Myagenko fuel tanks.
The use of a Tu-95 turboprop economy and helical units with 82% efficiency is quite possible to achieve a large range of flight characteristics, despite the relatively low air quality of the aircraft.
Bomb load Tu-95 up to 12 000 kg. In the fuselage bomb bay can be accommodated svobodnopadayuschih (including nuclear) bombs caliber up to 9,000 kg.
Tu-95KD-95 and Tu-20 armed with cruise missiles X-20 nuclear warhead, created to defeat the purposes of radio-at distances of 300-600 km.
Tu-95B (there was a one-off) was converted for use as a delivery technology of the H-bomb. The weight of the bomb was 26.5 tons, and the power of TNT — 50 megatons. After the tests, the king of bombs October 30, 1961 the aircraft more was not used for the intended purpose.
Tu-95MS, constituting the backbone of the Strategic Air Command of the Russian Federation, is a carrier of cruise missiles X-55. In a modification of the Tu-96MS6 in the bomb bay on the rocker launcher drum 6 is such missiles. In a modification of the Tu-95MS16 in addition to vnutrifyuzelyazhnyh launcher suspension provides a further 10 X-55 missiles on four underwing holders.
Development and operation of the Tu-95's had their difficulties. The cabin was poorly adapted for long flights, the crews very exhausting. There was the usual toilet, awkward seating. Air from the SCR system was dry and oil-free powder. Bortpaek also not amused — so far the flight crews prefer to take your home-cooked meals.
Rating cockpit ergonomics expressed simply and crudely — "like a tank" and only with the emergence of modifying "MS" in the workplace has become more pleasant.
The problem was a big winter operation. In the oil system NK-12 engines filled maslosmes of mineral oil, which is a little cold thickens so that the screws are impossible to crank. Before departure all engines had to warm up the ground engine heaters (heat guns), and in the absence thereof, for example, on an operational airfield, was to conceal motors insulating sheaths and run every few hours. In the upcoming industry began to produce special engine oil, allowing start-NK-12 engines from frost to -25 degrees (but in Russia the creation of this oil is minimized).
Tu-95MS in forkil installed auxiliary power unit, which allows you to select the air on a preflight heating engines.
The substitution of NK-12 engine is very labor intensive and has a ton of features, asks some staff and special abilities, compared with other types of aircraft.
By plane until this time there is no system bailout of the crew, which makes it virtually impracticable to leave the plane incident.
These aircraft with almost 60 years of experience forced hitherto worry other countries.
In the period from April 22 to May 3, 2007 two Russian Tu-95MS bombers were involved in the incident, which occurred in the process of teaching English army "N
eptune Warrior", conducted in the Gulf of Clyde North Sea near the Hebrides. Russian planes were in the area of exercise (carried out in international waters), then Lyuashar from an air base in the Scottish region of Fife were raised two British fighters. Fighters accompanied the Russian planes until they left the training area. According to the representative of the British Air Force, it was the first such incident since the end of the war cool.
In August 2007, the Tu-95MS during exercises flying nearby U.S. naval base on the peninsula of Guam in the Pacific Ocean in July — in particular close to the air borders of England over the North Sea, and on September 6 British fighters had to meet a descent eight Russian bombers
In the night from 9 to 10 February 2008 four Tu-95 took off from an air base, "Ukrainian woman." Two of them flew very tightly to the air borders of the country of the rising sun, and some of them, according to the Japanese side, a note of protest later nominated for three minutes trespassed. The second pair of planes headed toward the aircraft carrier "Nimitz". When the Russian aircraft to the ship was about 800 kilometers to the interception had been raised four F/A-18. At a distance of 80 km from the aircraft carrier of the South American planes intercepted Tu-95, but in spite of this, one of the "Bears" twice passed over "Nimitz" at an altitude of about 600 meters.