January 18, 2012 17:51
The war in Libya drew attention to the problems of the tribes of North Africa, as it turned out that experts from Western countries did not accurately imagine the role of the tribal structure not only in politics, but also just in the behavior of the Saharans.
Special attention is attracted Tuaregs, who took a completely independent position. Meanwhile, a lot of people wrote this before, but only as a kind of "exotic", often based on data from anthropologists who have studied these people a hundred or more years ago. But what about the reality? Contradictions start from the beginning with the title. Arabic for "Tuareg" — a rejection. But they call themselves "imoshag", which means "free men." Usually say that the Tuareg comparatively few, but they are more than 5 million people living in the five African countries — in the west of Niger, Mali to the east, south-east of Algeria, in the south-west of Libya and northern Burkina Faso. And this is actually the union of tribes, tribal alliances reminiscent of North American Indians to their marginalization on the reservation "Paleface." They make up 5 to 10% of the population in the countries of residence, and in Niger, and even more. So, of course, an ethnic minority, but it is not a "rare breed", although exotic. These are real nomads living in tents covered with skins. Then begins the very very interesting — the Tuareg a language called "tamashek" and its ancient writing "Tifinagh". But her own, mostly women, literate they are enforced, and they also prefer their native language, which is one of the Berber languages. The men often write and speak Arabic. And the literacy rate among them all. Meanwhile, the Tuareg, at least notable, seemingly quite different from the Berbers — they are light skinned and tall. Some researchers attribute them to the ancient peoples of the Caucasian type, such destruction Guanches from the Canary Islands. Almost to the descendants of the Cro-Magnon, or Atlantis. Berber language, these people have mastered by mixing with one of the tribes from the south of Arabia. Themselves noble Tuareg merchants believe their ancestors from the sunken island in the Atlantic, is in North Africa at the time of the disaster. And the ancestor is a woman named Ching-Heenan, who arrived from the area of modern Morocco with his servant Takamat on white camel. Accordingly, the descendants Ting Hin — know, and descendants Takamat — vassals (imgady). Castes in Tuareg are unique — so many people revere blacksmiths, and they have given the craft does not respecting blacks strangers on their own living in the camp. They are called inedenami. Themselves noble Tuareg men should not engage in trade, women only made the skin and excrete drugs. No work is done especially honored by the descendants of former slaves — Ikla. Tuareg are distinguished tradition honoring the maternal clan, inheritance through the maternal line, and even elements of the matriarchy. Sometimes women collectively establish paternity as they choose men themselves, it sometimes have problems — you have to figure out to whom is more like a child. Now the point of view that has been widely matriarchy first, then patriarchy is deprecated. Apparently, it was all different. However, unlike their neighbors, the Tuareg are very different, even clothing — in fact they do not cover the face of women and men. However, this makes them no less, and more militant. It used to be that naked person Tuareg better not to see, because he could not take it as an insult and kill. Otherwise he Tuareg had to commit suicide. So study the customs of the people was very difficult. His place in the division of labor among Saharan Tuareg survived to this day — they sell salt. Notorious Chumaks Ukraine took her from the Crimea to the north. In the Sahara, on the contrary, they got in April and May of ephemeral salt lakes of Algeria and Libya in July, driven first to the area of good pasture for camels, and only then, in the fall — to the south, to the wholesale market in Burkina Faso, where she bought Negro peoples of West Africa. Three months Tuareg traded salt, dates, camels, donkeys. In January, the caravans move north, only to return in March. Thus, many of the Tuareg roam the entire year. Still prefer the camel, though, let's say, in Libya they were handing jeeps. From oasis to oasis caravan can be a few days. No western special forces so no water can not stand. In the past century, the Tuareg also defended friendly caravans "to order" by attacking others. During the French colonization of the region in the XIX century, the "free people" longest resisted the colonizers. And in general they do not actually conquered — believe that pockets of resistance in Niger "disappeared" only to 1923. And in a few decades, the former colonies became independent countries. By the 1990s, many of the Tuareg have begun to advocate for the establishment of their own state called Azavad. Interfere, apparently, no "their" city. Officially, the Tuareg are Muslim. However, married male Tuareg only once in a lifetime. There are many peculiar customs. For example, on holidays painted eyebrows and eyelids antimony both sexes. Women prefer silver jewelry, while the Arab ladies love gold. Men wear the symbol of the cross, applied to the saddle before — the hilt swords. Years considered from winter to winter, the Sun (the Arabs lunar calendar). Notable Tuareg own herds commoner imgady bred goats. Notable women wearing white shirts and blue scarves, high-born men wear capes in dark blue, which is why even the Tuareg people are sometimes called indigo. Head cover (and cover the face) is also often a blue scarf, but sometimes — white. Arabs a scarf called "tagelmust" give his boy a day of age, at 18. Tuareg themselves prefer the word "fox". Shawl descend to the chin in public only during the meal. Each of the tribes of their leader, the power of which represents a particular drum. Guardians of the faith, keep aloof ineslemeny. And a group of tribes even more important leader-amenokal. These groups, at least nine. Of course, the most revered and mother each amenokaley. However, military leaders decide issues, men, women, too, although a good command weapons. In combat Tuareg clever and brave, well camouflaged, operational tactics reminiscent of Cossack Plast. Can secretly approach the enemy, using a light early morning mist. Strike and "disappear." Proud, independent, never subject to strangers, for that matter, and almost all people to be saved on the time of the famous stories of wars tribal structure. What about Atlantis? There is an alternative hypothesis. The fact that the Sahara was not always a desert, so it made the people themselves — slash-and-burn agriculture, the use of savanna fires during driven hunt. Here once tamed giraffes, camels and not been many fish lakes. Now, there's only underground sea, from which pump water into a grandiose system, proudly named in Libya pre-war period, "Great Man-Made River." The scientists reconstructed map of North Africa as she was six thousand years ago. It appears, then in the center of the current land Tuareg Tuat was a big zero. On its shores, perhaps once was an ancient kingdom, zahirevshee as desertification areas. Back in 1970, the British explorer Charles Daniels made in London on "Ancient people Libyan Sahara" where treated ancient inscriptions found near the village of Garam, similar to the current women's writing Tuareg "Tifinagh" as traces of ancient culture. Now it is sometimes called Garamantidoy and even "African Atlantis." Until recent events finds kept in a museum in Sebha in southern Libya. Dishes with inscriptions about two thousand years. So the writing — the ancient nobility imoshagov mixing with the Berbers. However, the younger age of the existence of the lake Tuat. Judging by the abundance of crosses, it is in fact the inscription ancestors Tuareg. On the other hand, in modern writing "Tifinagh" there are characters like, for example, the Greek letter "sigma". I recently found to make the Russian traveler in September 2011 in Libya rare autographed photo immediately and to "Tifinagh", and (below) in Arabic. I think the truth is in between, and this goes back to the ancient alphabet, but still not the most ancient times. But studied writing Tuareg women badly, and the recent events in the region make the task of researchers just too complicated. But too bad passes. I think both were free Tuareg nomads, so they will remain.