Turkmen favorites: the game of padishahs

We continue the series of articles devoted to the former Russian republics. This time we will talk about one of the most extravagant countries found after the collapse of the Union of Russian — about Turkmenistan.

Extravagance post-Soviet Turkmenistan standard manifested and often continues to manifest itself in different ways. One of these areas can be considered political structure of the country. Joke to say: Turkmenistan — the only republic emerged from the USSR, which almost turned into a monarchy, with the monarchy absolute. With all of this in Turkmenistan — also the only government in the former Soviet Union, which, in principle, did not hide his own real political system. Is that — quite a small veil …

At a time when most of the former Soviet republics, and reveled in his own independence at all corners shouting that here, they say, now our land has come true democracy (some to this day continue to think so), Ashgabat decided to go their own method. Of course! In fact, after the collapse of the Soviet Union the then political elite and was told to remember the people that in the history of their territorial gluttony has been his government — government Seljuks, the center of which was located on the banks of the Murghab River and wore the title of Merv. With all of this government is to the principles of democracy was, to put it mildly, flegmantichno. The point was that in the XI century.

New Turkmen authorities were not particularly embarrassed by the fact that government Seljuk own ancestral consider besides the Turks and the Iranians, and more, at least three countries in Central Asia …

Monarchical idea Seljuk suddenly revived after almost a thousand years for a man like Saparmurat Niyazov.

Specifically with Niyazov and has been linked to the main extravagance of the post-Soviet space. Party leader, chairman of the Council of Ministers of Turkmenistan from 1985 to 1990 year — At a time when the Soviet Union around rustled loudly about debunking any cults of personalities, Saparmurat Niyazov in 1990, gets their hands on virtually unlimited power. However, as stated official Ashgabat, he got this power by democratic. This democratic way looked around then this: before the adoption of the Constitution of Niyazov, 98.3% of the electorate voted, and after the adoption of the Constitution — is 99.5%. The fact that the Turkmen people did not torture the election initiative and offered them a choice poordinarnee: one candidate — Saparmurat Niyazov. As the saying goes, you want — vote, but do not want too … his voice. In general, the traditional version of sovereign democracy … in Turkmen.

The parade in Ashgabat near the Arch of Neutrality with the sculpture of President Niyazov. © Valery Warsaw / ITAR-TASS

After that Laura eastern monarchies of the past seem to have played a role, and the Parliament (and in a parliament of Turkmenistan) — Majlis adopted a one-party, usually, in a unanimous decision to declare 1993 Niyazov Head of all Turkmen. At first it sounded as Turkmenbashi, and later someone has apparently decided to take reasonable regain the initiative and declare that Saparmurat not just "bashi" and also "the Great".

Further — more. Even the epithet "the Great" for the Turkmen people on behalf of whom were members of Parliament, many seemed not fully reflect the essence of the greatness of the control of the country. And so some light head (whether this was a light head himself Turkmenbashi — the question) spawned the idea to hold a referendum over whether people willing to admit his own beloved president is not just the president, but to the whole Shah (also stateliness, of course). With all of this he would not be called Turkmenistan became a presidential republic, and stateliness shahstvom …

In general, it seems, have experimented in Ashgabat as they could … The government is only 3-4 years could transform the republic, which is building a bright future of communism in shahstvo whose future was seen even lighter and more transparent.

Interestingly, in the world of all these entertaining Turkmen style game of "who will offer more sonorous title for control of the country", looked to put it mildly, through the fingers. In fact, in this very world to vnutriturkmenskih perturbations special case and was not, as virtually just headed for the West's own main goal: to destroy the Soviet Union. And if the Soviet Union from the political map of the world was gone, its fragments formed in the periphery, could allow himself to delight in the real political permissiveness. In general, Turkmenistan first 90 seemed such a geopolitical child which is taken to her parents' closet and touches on everything that will find there: from the bonnet to the paternal grandfather's fishing a suit and boots …

But shahstvom Turkmenistan in 1993-1994 to become the fate was not. According to the official version, Niyazov himself decided to abandon the referendum on the so thorny issue, and on informal — a few speak out so disloyal clans in Turkmenistan and a few close ups of the Presidents Niyazov stated that "the Shah" — this is too much …

In the first version to believe, to be honest, hard as Saparmurat around this time is negligible sumnyashesya renamed the western city Balkanabad (last Krasnovodsk) in honor of the beloved herself, calling him Turkmenbashi …

In this game of unlimited power in the Central Asian state taken separately is not over. Initially, in 1997, were "missed" the next presidential election, and so majestically Turkmenbashi announced indefinite president. The elections were "missed" by the initiative, of course, the Turkmen people, which found that the general stupidly fluctuate confident in their victory, Saparmurat Niyazov, and so he just took, well, extended the machine. You can imagine for yourself, then what experienced Turkmen opposition, which by itself for a special "love" from the President of Turkmenistan, was obliged to turn over to zabugornyh countries (including the territory of Russia and on) … and their feelings, even though they were negative, only in Turkmenistan on the emotions of those did not learn anything. "Echo of Ashgabat" same at their was not …

In general, the opposition no "Marsh" and "Tahrir" were not able to arrange, but then it was also, so to speak, not stylish. We decided just to prepare for new elections, which were to be held in 2002. Prepared, of course, also not in Ashgabat, because in this town to allow yourself something to prepare for the "feast of democracy" could then only one person — Saparmurat Niyazov. The opposition figures have chosen other places. So, for example, a favorite of the party "Watan" Khudayberdy Orazov metal arrows of criticism in the address of Turkmenbashi, Sweden, and the Republican Nurmukhamet Khanamov — from Austria. It is easy to guess that at this time, and shoot arrows to anything positive for the opposition failed, because the Turkmen media apparently in no hurry to publish materials that the opposition tried to convey to the people of the republic.

In the end, before the coming election year, Niyazov, as noted above, the President of Turkmenistan announced an indefinite, but he decided to show political will and said that the indefinite presidency — not for him. Year, so in 2010, as claimed Niyazov, he can leave his post. But left a little earlier, but obviously not by choice, but by the will of God. However, earlier time to do something more extravagant for their own country. Of course, not him
self, but purely in the name of all Turkmen …

Namely, in Turkmenistan, one of the most important books to read by people of different ages and social status was "Ruhnama" — book about the spirituality of the Turkmen people, was founded by Turkmenbashi. The book is a collection of some philosophical reflections on the role of the Turkmen people in history, about what should be family values, personal standards. In general, the book clearly looks very unusual imitation of the treatises of Confucius or Lao-tzu only, of course, in the Turkmen version.

"Ruhnama", namely, Niyazov has thought about the fact that many important things in this world have invented Turkmen (wheel, for example, or even respect for the elderly). Not a lot of Niyazov exactly caused the man who was the first Turkmen in the world. This man — Oguz Khan, whose existence is questioned by many historians. But in Turkmenistan, first historian of the 2000s was one, and he once said that the Oguz Khan — so that means Oguz Khan. And who believes that there Oguz Khan — in Sweden or Austria … not enough of a Turkmen creator of "Ruhnama" has ranked even biblical Noah.

Book, which argued that the Turkmen civilization — one of the most majestic of nations in the history of mankind, becoming monuments, renamed in her honor months (September), it is even launched into space (2005) … With all this zabugornye investors who tried to open a particular type of business in Turkmenistan, knew that perfect curry favorable attitude on the part of the Turkmen authorities — is to make a gift of Turkmenbashi as he wrote "Ruhnama", but translated into the language of the country in which the entrepreneur is . So using translated "Ruhnama" in Turkmenistan came autos, pharmaceuticals and operation of the company …

After the assassination attempt on President Niyazov and Marshal (or the 1st day or, by the way, do not serve in the army), five-time hero of the country — the carrier of the Order of the Altyn Ay (with his own manly profile) in Turkmenistan started another wave of persecution of people of other nationalities. Its also got it …

Apparently, Niyazov has forgotten that Moscow in the late 90's provided a typical opposition political asylum, and therefore decided that the attempt on his life, which, according to the Turkmen justice, organized several existing Turkmen officials Our homeland some way too involved …

During the presidency of Niyazov, Turkmenistan was deprived of many cultural centers and even ordinary calendar. New year Now coming to Turkmenistan Turkmenbashi 1st, call for the first month of the year in January it was somehow out of place, if any, political lumps as stately President All Turkmen. And the first of April in Turkmenistan could not be a joke, because of the April is gone. Instead he came to the holy month of Gurbansoltan Eje — on behalf of my mother Niyazov.

Demolition of buildings theaters, whose repertoire is not responsible canons "Ruhnama" revised school program that in which the study of the same "Ruhnama" was of mandatory, while even with the delivery of the final examination on the knowledge of the content of the work.

But here's the 21st Bitaraplyk (December) 2006 (from Christmas) and 66 years (from birth majestically Turkmenbashi) catastrophe realized Turkmenistan. Lofty marshal and nestostoyavshiysya Shah died suddenly. Some even believe that the head of the country destroyed those against whom he began his relentless campaign after an assassination attempt in 2002.

It seems that there may be, but in 2006, the country fell into an unprecedented sorrow. But out almost as quickly as the fell … New time — new heroes. Since 2007, became President Gurbanguly Berdymukhamedov, whose name at first could not pronounce far all the major news programs …

About the new president pretended that honors its predecessor, but later realized that he must take the bull by the horns. Niyazov's legacy gradually began to leave on the back burner: first returned the Gregorian calendar, then "Ruhnama" became a substitute for the creation of point already very Berdimuhamedov. In Turkmenistan came website — not en masse, but still. Berdimuhamedov returned the school-"ten", which is somewhat curtailed its predecessor, finding that 10 years — that's a lot to learn real-Turkman.

Berdymukhamedov reopened closed Turkmenbashi music schools, took the initiative to open a few Russian schools in various provinces of the country.

But over time, he got a taste and decided that if his predecessor was called Lofty, what he — Gurbanguly Malikgulyyevich worse. Naming their own relatives Berdimuhamedov referred to several schools and even military unit. The President has established a monument to himself and his own grandfather. And even in the capital's registry office betrothed means should be photographed against a portrait of Turkmenbashi-2. Maybe it will take about 2-3 years and Ashgabat Publishing will release calendar that the new year will be coming to Turkmenistan has, say, the 1st Gurbanguly …

In general, extravagant and neutral Turkmenistan continues to go his own method. But Turkmenistan — is just downright tasty morsel for those who have long declared themselves the main democratizers in the world. Alone hydrocarbon supplies — are enormous. Why does the Turkmen authorities the same Washington condemns in the development of the cult of personality and the infringement of the rights and freedoms of the people? Apparently, the availability of natural resources in this country so far chosen to use for other purposes — to a certain pressure on Russia. Discussions on the Trans-Caspian gas pipeline bypassing Russia — can become indirect evidence of such release. But if such a Turkmen card will not be played out, it can feel like a neutral Ashgabat to discover all the beauty of the great demokratizatorskoy machine. After endlessly playing padishahs Turkmen favorites obviously will not give …

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