Warriors — werewolves

January 8, 2012 9:21


Since ancient times, many peoples image of the wolf has been associated with the cult of the war god. The ancient Greeks worshiped in Arcadia Lykaios Apollo Lykaios Zeus in the form of a wolf. The ancient Roman god of war Mars were warriors clerics. They were called sakranamami or amertintsami and their totem was a wolf.

Relationship with the wolf god of war reflected in the myths of the two wolves that accompanied the war god Odin drevnegermanskogo as his "dogs" (a similar idea was also mentioned in the Georgian mythology). Slavic god of war and fiery serpent ancestor named Wolf.

Accordingly themselves warriors of the ancient Indo-Europeans were represented in the form of a wolf or wolves were called (in Hittite, Iranian, Greek, germanskhoy and other Indo-European traditions), and often dressed in wolf's clothing. In this case, the wolf's head was put on a helmet, and the remaining skin is covered shoulders and back the wolf (for the time it was the perfect camouflage suit in the rich flora and fauna).

A wolf's clothing worn and some units of the Roman legions: scouts, flag bearers and the Praetorian Guard. And the standard-bearers, and the Praetorian Guard, as a smart host, smaller than the other units, changed the image of the uniform over time (such conservatism and today can be seen in the grand divisions of troops from different countries, such as the Papal Guard, Guard of the British Queen, etc . etc.).

The sagas say that Scandinavian warriors wolves (berserk) was so fierce, strong and good at martial art that went into battle without weapons (or rather, used a sword and a shield just to get a little deeper into the ranks of the enemy), fighting virtually hands and feet. (As we know from history, the ancient Balts were worthy opponents the Vikings).

According to the text of the Hittite king Hattusilis treatment I (XVII c. BC) to the army, his men should be like "a pack of wolves." A similar representation of the wolf pack, as a symbol of a military team, known in the Caucasus in Svan. In turn, those who have their connection with the totem wolf warriors used their art, committing crimes, regarded as evidence Hittite laws drevnegermanskogo legal standards, as well as Plato's worst criminals wolves, which must be destroyed as soon as they are caught .

Photo: kleozag.blogspot.com

The idea of turning man into wolf combines many of the myths about the wolf. B. Zadorozhnyj writes: "Herodotus handed story about a North-European tribe (neuri), whose members each year for a few days turned into wolves. Such a "megalomaniac" suffered many tribes in different parts of Europe. For example at the Balts were soldiers — servants of the wolf god, who went into battle, just after having gorged itself henbane (taking drugs was part of the ritual.) During the battle, the soldiers are in their hallucinations considered themselves wolves. Some of them are permanently stuck in the form of a wolf — and then killed the Wolf Man, that he did not do the damage … "

In folklore preserved remnants of European peoples and beliefs about the relationship of wolves with the wedding. Here we find and groom, who turns into a wolf, and the sorcerer who could turn into a pack of wolves all the wedding guests. Archaism of these beliefs suggests that, in the European tradition, the groom's ability to transform into a wolf is associated with the ancient custom of marriage — bride kidnapping. It shows us: the groom — a warrior-wolf.

Holiday rituals, when people dressed in wolf skins, went with a mask or a stuffed wolf, many of the peoples of Europe '(including Baltic and in the southern and western Slavs) and released at the autumn-winter season (when, as we know, the crop has been removed , swamps froze, people are much less loaded with household work). It was at this time of the year and played a wedding and went to war. In the tradition of many European nations in December called "wolf month."

Talivaldis Zemzaris in the first half of the XX century, wrote: "Analyzing the technical literature XVI and XVII centuries, I have come to the conclusion that the question of the werewolves to be particularly relevant in Latvia, because some major authors (theologian Olav Magnus Gasapar Peyker doctor, lawyer Woden , Johan Fishart etc.) prove the reality of werewolves, based on the reliability of information from Livonia and Prussia. " Joins them and prof. K. Straubergis: "In many literary works of witchcraft XVI especially a lot of information available about the werewolves of Livonia, which in those days was famous in Europe as a country of wizards and witches. German Cosmography Seb. Minster in his popular "Cosmographia" (1550), referring to its Livonian correspondent Hans Hazentetera, writes that in this land so many witches and wizards, who during interrogation by the Inquisition is often reported on their ability to transform into a wolf … "

George Sabin, commenting VII book "Metamorphoses" by Ovid, in which he talks about lycanthropy, said: "commoners believe that some people once a year turns into a wolf and back. Such writes Herodotus, speaking of Neurim, the people of Scythia, and here are the Prussians too … "In turn, the Burgundian Hubert Lange goes further and argues that Vidzeme (Livonia) is the land where, according to Herodotus, lived Neurim that supposedly could turn into wolves.

Solomon Henning in his chronicle (1589) writes about the beliefs kurlyandtsev: "… it is necessary to wean farmers from their errors, witches cases of idolatry and turn to the true understanding of the nature and will of God. They are very much inclined to paganism and worship the sun, the stars, the moon, fire, water, streams, and almost all living creatures, but it used to be done openly, but today it is a mystery … describe all the abominations that the people do in their numerous gardens, and burying their dead, it would be too long. Often, and many times they turn into wolves and run (around) as werewolves, as they are called. " In turn, the Holy Office of the materials we read, "here we all are able to cast Liv, and if everyone does it, burned at the stake, there will be no one who would work in the field."

In 1555, about werewolves are widely wrote escaped to Rome Catholic Bishop of Uppsala Olav Manson (a Latinized version of Magnus), assuming that this phenomenon is very common for people of Prussia, Livonia and Lithuania, "the class of wolves, which are in fact the people turned into a wolf — a class which Pliny writes with conviction that it invented fabulous creatures, in my opinion, still to this day in large numbers found in the Nordic countries … on Christmas night in a conditional place is going to a lot of wolves, in which people become from different counties, and that same night with a terrible ferocity as they attack the people and the cattle … They break into the beer cellar, drink several barrels of beer and empty stacked on one another in the middle of the room: in this they differ from the real wolves ".

Kurland Superintendent Paul Einhorn wrote in his book that can not be denied if the werewolves are people who on behalf of the devil take the shape of a wolf and running around, can harm livestock and people. Some attribute this to the "reincarnation" that is, that the soul goes to the wolf and direct its activities. The human body needs to stay in the same position, lying down, otherwise the soul will find its way back and will always be a wolf. Others think that there is a "transmutation" — a person into a wolf body and soul. Einhorn himself rejects this explanation, joining the opinion that it tricks the devil, who thinks he's a wolf, although he is not a wolf, and the other thinks he sees a wolf, but in fact he does not see it.

In turn, the priest himself. Early, opposing Breslavskiy doctor Johan Kanoldu, in 1725, wrote: "the fact that they act like wolves (harm to livestock, etc.), does not believe any educated person in Kurland. But in his fantasies and delusions, they consider themselves to be wolves, and others because of the same stupid mistakes and also consider their wolves, and why they are running through the woods, like wolves (of course, not true). " A record of the interrogation shows the Inquisition: "He just feels that he wolf, but when he throws the wolf skin, it immediately comes to life."

Such a point of view on this issue is typical of the ruling circles of the time when werewolves or denied, as superstition, or identified with the forces of evil. But this issue has another side, the point of view of the common people, Latvian peasants, which until now has been little studied.

Photo: mythology.webhost.ru

In this, we can help keep records of the interrogations at the trials against witches and werewolves sixteenth and eighteenth centuries. Unfortunately, as pointed out by T. Zemzaris, not all periods of history and all the regions of Latvia are represented in these important materials for the history of equally extensive, because the old court records of Courland and Livonia or destroyed in the wars, or abroad and are not yet available for the study. But one of those pieces that have translated and published Straubergs K. and T. Zemzaris, we can draw some conclusions.

Werewolves are not quite reckoned to sorcerers, and, as we shall see, even the opposite of themselves, although general presentation reduce them to one, as can be found in the descriptions of werewolves (Olav Magnus processes witches, etc.). Therefore the dominant belief among judges {Takeover commentators) that werewolves is a creature — a servant of Satan. Such an answer, using well-known methods of interrogation, they tried to get from the accused.

But despite the terrible torture, the accused is denied, for example, in a lawsuit in 1683 against Thomas Igunda: "Who caused the harm? No one. Werewolves do good to people — helping those who have wronged witch, trying to fix things for the better. So … they cured stallion Kalna Peteris, who almost died … child Latsis Joachim was already quite blue, but Thomas and his part for his ability to heal. "

It may seem impossible, but the Latvian peasants did not think werewolves representatives of the forces of evil. Rather, quite the contrary!

In 1691 Tees (Mathis) from Mal-Pils in court said: "For the Germans have their own hell. After the death of werewolves are buried, like all other people, their souls go to heaven, and the souls of witches go to hell. Werewolves do not serve the devil, and fight against it — select what sorcerers stolen, the devil hates werewolves and if possible hits like dogs because they are the dogs of God and bring people good … Teaching the Bible they do not believe in the church do not go. (Teece, who was over 80, as evidenced by the court records, was famous in the whole district, as a medicine man, and he peasants "was worshiped as an idol").

With the devil he does not have anything to do, because he dog God and the devil takes away the fact that witches and the devil to put together his enemy. Treated … many … he collects different grass … Let's drink. " P. Schmidt, in the book "Latvian folk beliefs" gives similar note: "In the old days was called God's wolf dogs, because God loved them. During that wolves every morning at the appointed place prayed and howled songs. And Straubergis indicates that "very specific designation werewolves — Dogs of God."

In "The Latvian folk beliefs" says: "Who wants to be werewolves, shall, before sunrise on the day of Janis (summer solstice) to go into the forest to find a fallen oak, drive two knives, strip naked and make three tumbling between the blades." It seems to me that this belief can clearly consider the parallels to the rituals of initiation of young men …

"To become werewolves, a person must go to a quiet, secret place where it can not wander into a stranger … transformation into werewolves are a variety of ways, of which the main thing — crawling under the tree, the top of which is bent to the ground and taken root" (Could this be perfect hiding place for clothes and arms warrior As we know from history, for example, in medieval Japan, it places formidable used scouts and saboteurs — "wolves among the people" — a ninja.) "werewolves can be a woman and a man." "Werewolves need special clothing. They put on their skin … goat or other animal. "

Del-Rio, who also wrote a lot about werewolves, said: "Sometimes he (the devil) gives him a wolf's skin, which he should be kept in a hollow tree. Sometimes he gives the image of a wolf werewolves, and they use the ointment and verbal formulas. So the fact that the wounds they received as wolves remain on their body, and after turning back into a human, does not cause surprise. After all, the image of haze wolves that unleash the devil slowly dissipates, and the wound is on the body of a man … When ripe, the devil gives him volkodlaksky Time. " The ancient Germans believed that werewolves (werewolf) is a special belt (schmachtrilmen) … (Interesting coincidence: the East Asian systems of martial arts instructor confirms the skill level of a fighter, giving to this level now appropriate color).

Warriors - werewolves

Protocols: "… Otherwise, werewolves — a man who turns into a wolf. Werewolves … The human eye. If you beat him … then he will suffer in the human form. If his wound, the wound will remain for life. If werewolves get hurt so that is bleeding, he immediately becomes a man. " Werewolves "runs like a wolf on all four, while he feels much stronger than usual." So, ending citation protocols Straubergis brings up the following: "werewolves are not magicians, and even though they consider themselves to be wolves and mimic the actions of wolves, in fact there are people."

From the "Latvian folk beliefs": "When the wolves howl end up, they choose the ruler of the elders, who each wolf lets you know where to go to look for food, which on this day or night to do everything else," "To the beginner devoted to werewolves, he had to make an incision in his little finger with a dagger and sign in blood. "

In turn, the court records we learn: "The werewolves, like wolves, were their leaders, who knew everything. They took care of his men, gave them instructions on how and where to become human again. " "Werewolves usually move in groups of 20-30 individuals in each," "They are organized in different counties," "We have werewolves and their meetings. On a small island in the river Brasla a large stone. Under a rock hangout werewolves. One … usually stands guard with a sharp pole instead of a sword. " Usually werewolves came together in the summer and winter solstice, which, no doubt, can be associated with pagan rituals.

Thus, it is clearly shown and organized like a military structure of the werewolves.

Resort to the help of Olaf Magnus: "Between Lithuania, Samogitia and Courland is a wall in the ruins of the old castle, where every year thousands gather werewolves and test their agility, jumping over the wall. Those who can not jump over the wall, as is the case with the obese, commanders beaten with whips. Among them … there are a lot of nobility. " (I recall that at that time the majority of the nobility of the nobility of Lithuania and Livonia birth place of the best indigenous inhabitants.)

From court records we learn that: "werewolves understand the language of animals, but they say it could not. They, like the wolves, led by the leader ("father of the forest"). Without his knowledge, no one dared to touch a mouse. At various times, they ate differently and not always meat, "" Sometimes, the wolves could not eat meat. One month they ate strange sweet bread that falls from the sky … for another month they swallow the wind "(do not post it with breathing exercises?)" Where the wolves howl, where God feeds them. One farmer in the footsteps found this place and there a strange white bean. This was the bread that God fed the wolves. After he ate, he was unusually healthy and vigorous for nine days. And werewolves can live nine days without eating and not feel hungry. "

In Europe, together with the destruction of paganism and the occurrence of regular military units in all-metal armor gradually disappeared and formidable warrior-wolves of the ancient pagans, leaving itself only humane echoes of the sagas, myths and chronicles. However, interest in the subject is not lost and is now one of the most famous trials werewolves in 1637 in Riga was against Janis Kuschisa of Lielupe. In an interesting coincidence, the first one four years ago suggested the proximity of concepts "werewolves" and "pagan warrior," was another Janis Kuschis — a veteran of the war in Afghanistan, Lieutenant Colonel and commander of the special forces battalion of the armed forces of Latvia.

"Interesting newspaper. Mysteries of History "

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