What is tuberculosis?

What is tuberculosis?  Photo from www.sciencephoto.com

The existence of tuberculosis people knew long before the birth of Christ. In the II millennium BC in Babylon during the reign of the great Hammurabi was officially permitted divorce from consumptive women.

The doctor of all time Hippocrates described the classic symptoms of pulmonary tuberculosis. However, the origins of the disease, he assumed incorrectly, assuming that tuberculosis— Inheritance disease, which occurs because of incorrect redistribution mucus in the body. His colleague Eastern sage Avicenna guessed that TB is spread from person to person, and noted that the development of the disease can affect the external environment.

Formerly known as tuberculosis tuberculosis, hence the name "phthisiatry" (Greek "Consumptive"— Consumption). Tuberculosis— Infection disease, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mycobacterium tuberculosis, another name — bacillus Koch) and characterized by forming one or a plurality of foci of inflammation in various organs, but most often in the lung tissue.

The infectious nature of TB was proven German Robert Koch in 1882. It was he who opened the mycobacterium that causes disease.

Unlike other bacteria, mycobacterium tuberculosis is extremely tenacious: feels great in the earth, and in the snow, and resistant to the effects of alcohol and acids. It can be lost under prolonged exposure to direct sunlight, high temperatures and chlorine compounds.

Not all of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are the same in their ability to cause disease. Almost all of us in childhood or adolescence "get" mycobacteria, but to the development of tuberculosis it does not. In contrast, "weak" bacillus, unable to call disease, constantly encourage our TB immunity. In order to immunize the body specially administered attenuated Mycobacterium known as BCG or bacilliCalmette-Guerin (BCG, bacillo deCalmette-Guerin, opened on behalf of its scientists).

Infection with "aggressive" bacteria usually comes from a patient with active tuberculosis man who, speaking, sneezing or coughing, spreading around a large number of sticks Koch. Less commonly, infection occurs by eating dairy products from animals with TB. Development of the disease while contributing to the following Factors:

  • adverse social and environmental conditions of life;
  • malnutrition;
  • alcoholism, smoking and other drug use (leads to decreased immunity);
  • stress;
  • comorbidities (diabetes, gastric ulcer or 12 duodenal colon, lung diseases).

What's going on?

Tubercle bacillus enters the human body and leads to changes in the immune system. In the lungs and lymph nodes formed small foci of inflammation. This so — called primary tuberculosis. Over time, these lesions heal, or calcified scar. However, bacteria are not always die, they often turn into "dormant" state.

In favorable conditions, mycobacteria "wake up" to cause repeated inflammation, melted protective capsule around the long-standing focus and come out of it. If active tuberculosis tubercle bacillus multiplies rapidly in the lungs of the patient and fed on human tissue, destroying the lungs and poisoning organism products of their human life. Together with the blood and lymph, it can spread throughout the body. So there is a secondary tuberculosis. In some cases, the same occurs with repeated infection from outside.

Tuberculosis can affect various organs and tissues: the eyes, bones, skin, genitourinary tract, intestine, meninges, etc. Then called extra-pulmonary tuberculosis, but more often (83-88 %) Occurs pulmonary tuberculosis.

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