IL's biggest maker academician Henry Novozhylov about the present and future of the Russian aviation industry
- Photo: Mikhail Klimentyev / RIA Novosti www.ria.ru
Aircraft with a transparent fuselage: fantasy or reality? Businessmen will fly to the speed of sound? Why has not appeared in the Russian airliner of 600 passengers? This and many other on the eve of the 90th anniversary of the domestic civil aviation correspondent "RG" spoke with a prominent aircraft, Academician, twice Hero of Socialist Labor Henry Novozhilov.
Henry V., modern digital technology, perhaps, give a huge expanse of flight design idea?
Henry Novozhylov: Reach engineering thought there was not. In principle, all new born of human imagination. Of course, today, in the design of aircraft has changed a lot. In the computer program has been laid experience in creating designs. It is possible to carry out aerodynamic studies and calculations of strength to such an extent as before, and did not dream. This simplifies the job. Provides higher performance and design, and production.
Personal intuition aircraft is still important?
Henry Novozhylov:Certainly. But it helps that you can analyze a lot of the technical solutions. But do not forget: the computer — it's just a tool that enhances the design, prochnista, aerodynamics. The final decision, as always, is up to the head of design and chief designer.
There is much talk about "Frigate Ekodzhet." Argue that the elliptical shape of the fuselage promises a revolution in aircraft?
Henry Novozhylov:Background old. Back in the late 70's TsAGI worked through the plane "flying wing", reminiscent to some degree option elliptical. A prominent scientist and aerodynamics Leonid Shkadov all agitated me to make such a plane. Moreover, not believe, but on the "flying wing" mentioned even in 1948! The students had heard and ask Ilyushin, saying that what his opinion. A Ilyushin and said: "I think that you and even your grandchildren have enough aircraft usual pattern."
But of course, this needs to be addressed. For example, in designing an aircraft weight problem is always important. Today, for example, I do not see, due to what you can save.
And what role can play in the aircraft industry composites, nanotechnology? How can they change the look of the aircraft and its characteristics?
Henry Novozhylov:When we designed the Il-114, which had come to replace the An-24, then, of course, also sought to make it easier. And because the entire fuselage constructed from composite materials. But further work has not been claimed. In Hotkovo still Soichi same composite compartment. And the Americans, before making a Boeing 787 "Dreamliner", around this bay paved path: studying experience.
And to us, our customers say: just do not use composite materials! Why? Like, if you hit someone conventional aircraft — brought a piece of duralumin, put riveted, tweaked. And as composites repair? .. In composites do have disadvantages: increased fragility, sensitivity to climatic conditions …
Henry Novozhylov:That is why the Americans before applying such materials, first learned how to repair them. In the "Dreamliner" their share exceeds 50 percent. Now the Russian plane created the MS-21 will also be nearly forty percent consist of composites. But it must be borne in mind that the composites today — this is not what they were yesterday. Science and technology is not standing still.
Held curious information: developing a hybrid aircraft, helicopters, airships and hovercraft. Perhaps this?
Henry Novozhylov:What possible hybrid aircraft and helicopters, as the Americans have already proved. As the aircraft, it has wings. But at the ends of the wings are two turbo-propeller engine large. Simply put, the two rotating screws, like a helicopter. According to my data, the widespread use of these aircraft have not yet received. And that's what you're asking, I do not know. But, in any case, the design idea can not be stopped.
At the last air show in Farnborough have been shown interesting preliminary designs of aircraft of the future: a transparent ceiling fuselage passengers to admire the sky, all sorts of other innovations. How do you feel about this?
Henry Novozhylov:Who knows, maybe it will. If plastics came into play, you can probably come up with one that will provide the strength bearing capacity of the skin. If this plastic is also transparent, then do so even though the entire fuselage. In general, the interior of the passenger plays a big role. Take the IL-86, I confidently say to you that no wide-body aircraft in the world has such an interior. We removed the central shelf in the cabin, and there is plenty of room at once formed. It is easy to breathe, space. By the way, when we launched the Il-62, I was one of the secretaries of the regional committee suddenly said, "Look, the IL-62 to fly well, but on the Tu-114 was much better." "Why?" — I ask. "So on the Tu-114 were sleeping compartments." So that the interior of the passenger — is not only a design element. This is one of the conditions of comfort.
Experiment with supersonic passenger Tu-144 and the "Concord" essentially failed. Is there any prospect of such machines?
Henry Novozhylov:So why has failed? "Concord" quite successfully exploited. Tu-144 is also a time drove passengers from Moscow to Alma-Ata. Unfortunately, he is "not held" in range. If flying, as planned, in Khabarovsk, you can, and it would fly so far. After all, the firm "Boeing" has worked on supersonic aircraft. I saw his layout. But then they realized that this case will not be any good. And abandoned, became engaged in a Boeing 747, the largest and most successful aircraft that took off in 1969 and modifications which are still in mass production.
However, I am absolutely confident that at supersonic point is too early. At the very least, a supersonic business aircraft is sure to appear. The closest to it was the creation of the famous aircraft designer Mikhail Simonov. More than once I've talk with American businessmen. They clearly stated, "If such an aircraft appeared, Mr. Novozhylov, how expensive it would not cost, it would take you instantly bought." Speed, altitude and distance — three factors that are relevant at all times.
On the aircraft Ilyushin KB always flew members of the government …
Henry Novozhylov:And we're proud of it. IL-18 has been the favorite plane of Khrushchev, IL-62 — Brezhnev. Each supervisor had their preferences in the interior of the passenger compartment. So, Khrushchev on the IL-18 liked Karelian birch and green trim, and Brezhnev in the IL-62 preferred the polished walnut trim and khaki. Now, in the presidential aviapodrazdelenii him replaced by IL-96-300. A total of about thirty done. To be frank, is not enough.
And why not? After all, the machine marked "IL" occupies an important place in the park of the Russian civil aviation.
Henry Novozhylov:The plane is alive and growing, when in mass production. "No," Boeing "or" Airbus "is not abandoned their B-747, B-737 and A-300 family — they have perfected them. If we analyze the experience of our KB, we see that every 5-8 years to make a new plane or its modification. And we just stuck to the Il-96-300: Its creation coincided with one of the most difficult periods in the history of our aviation industry. Unfortunately, was built for the unclaimed "Aeroflot" Russian-American aircraft with Western engines and avionics. He took off in 1993, and for the first time in history has received type certification by the Federal Aviation Administration of the United States (FAA) in 1999.
Long-haul aircraft built only we, America and Europe. Russia lost this niche? What you need to keep these positions and whether to save them?
Henry Novozhylov:I have always believed that Russia can and should do all types of aircraft. Lovely aircraft, the creator of Israel Aerospace Industries E Schwimmer always said, "Henry, if you are at home will not operate aircraft, believe me, no one will buy you. Therefore, taking care of the domestic market, I believe, is the primary objective. Though I might say, Mr. Novozhylov, this requires large resources. However, this requires not only a lot of money, but also serious considerations: whether or not to.
I know that in my time in KB Ilyushin was a big development program "shirokofyuzelyazhnikov." Unfortunately, it has remained on paper. And if not, what other large aircraft might appear in our fleet?
Henry Novozhylov:For example, a double-decked Il-96-550. I must say that the seating capacity of each next-generation IL's almost doubled. Thus, IL-14 took on board 40 passengers, the Il-18 — 75, Il-62 — 180, Il-86 — 350 … But the next plane could have been carrying 550-600 passengers. Under the new machine designer Nikolai Kuznetsov designed engine NK-93, which, without exaggeration, twenty years ahead of the level of development of the global engine. In 2007, a flying laboratory began testing it. But due to lack of understanding of the importance of this funding curtailed. Test discontinued. The engine has been removed. Although, I note that it is well suited to the aircraft and Il-96-300.
That is, the project was real?
Henry Novozhylov:Certainly. We could be IL-90-200 for 200 passengers, the Il-96MK — by 400 others. Sorry, lost the most precious — time. A technique, including the NK-93 engines are aging, and the Russian niche widebody aircraft main increasingly occupy the same "Boeing" and "Airbus". By the way, there is little consolation in the sphere of regional aircraft. In particular, remained unrealized Il-114, there is a problem with the AN-140, AN-148, Tu-334 and other "regionals".
Recently, the president of the country have shown IL-476. After all, this is a modification of the IL-76 — the first, which was constructed under your direct supervision?
Henry Novozhylov: Yes. IL-76 I took the exam for the title of principal designer. There were built 950 of these machines. Today it is hard to imagine, but once in the Tashkent aircraft plant made 5-6 aircraft per month. Or 50-70 a year! Now the factory is in deep crisis. And the Il-476 with new engines, virtually no change in aerodynamics, but with a number of design improvements and systems will be mass-produce at Ulyanovsk "Aviastar".
On the modification replaced the flight and navigation system. For example, all the information provided for the crew color displays — cabin has become a "glass." Changed the design of the wing frame, multiple chipboard panels changed to a lengthy trim, removed the butt joint … Still flying!
Tell me, what is the most difficult part of the general office of any aircraft?
Henry Novozhylov:Waiting. The plane is created for 7-8 years old, starts to fly in 3-4 years from the initial design. And only the flight tests give an answer as correct solutions were at the stage of preliminary and detailed design.
Henry V. Novozhylov works in the bureau SV Ilyushin since 1949. Passed all stages of professional development — from design engineer to the First Deputy General Designer (since 1964). In 1970 he was appointed Chief Designer. Under the direction of S. Ilyushin was involved in the creation of the IL-14, IL-18 and IL-62. Since 1984 — Member of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Under the leadership of Novozhilova created IL-76, IL-86, IL-96-300, as well as IL-114 and IL-103. At present — Chief Advisor to the General Director of JSC "Ilyushin Aviation Complex Ilyushin."