Between space and the internet — how the NC-line monitoring of the Earth

   

A couple of weeks ago, I wrote aboutsolar eclipsesatellite "Electro-L". Material unexpectedly gained a lot of positive feedback, and I understand a simple thing: for all the skeptical, to which the Internet is adopted Russian space program, people will be proud of the achievements of domestic, if they really are. For many, the discovery of steel photos of "Electro-L" and the Research Centre for receiving satellite images, a revelation was the interest with which people rushed to the site and began to download photos posted.

Just a week later I had the opportunity to visit the Research Center for Earth Operative Monitoring (NTs OMZ) and in the process learn how to photos from Russian satellites fall into the Internet.

True visit was without a camera: Shoot to negotiate separately in the "Russian Space Agency", and the case for long, with an uncertain outcome. So we had to be content with that shot from the street and pictures provided inThe center.

NTs OMZ is located in Moscow between the metro stations "Otradnoe" and "Botanical Garden". From a distance, has attracted the attention of radio dishes located on the roof of the ten-storey building, the space evoke the mood of gray concrete of the sleeping area of the capital.
Actually with the "saucers" and began my acquaintance with the Centre. The roof I showed multiple antennas which differ in diameter and capable of tracking the satellites flying over. The biggest plate — 7 m, the other less — 2.5-5 meters.

"Electro-L" is located in a geostationary orbit, so the reception of its signals is sufficient to fix the antenna pointing toward the machine.

Information is received by the antenna 2.5 meters proprietary NTs OMZ, which provides reception at a frequency of 7.5 GHz at a rate of 30.72 Mbit / s except for any atmospheric interference (himself antenna system can receive data at up to 300 Mbit / s and not only from geostationary satellites). For all users of satellite broadcasts information in a range of 1.7 GHz in the format of HRIT / LRIT, and it can take three-meter dishes. Do itAnyone can, who have a suitable antenna, only equipment needed decoding format. That is, the results of the satellite are not encrypted and are available for almost the entire hemisphere, he just takes off

Other satellites fly by quickly and require maintenance to catch drain all the information.

In addition to "Elektra" NTs OMZ receives data from the ISS and satellite "Resource-DK1", "Canopus-B" BCA, "Meteor-M", MCA-FCI, «Terra», «Aqua», NOAA. The last three — foreign meteorological satellites, information from which is available to all. BCA is also a formally foreign — "Belarusian spacecraft" — although, in fact, it is a clone of our "Canopus-B", which flies with him in the same orbit with a difference of 180 degrees and works in the same complex.

For Internet users who like pretty pictures with high detail, from the Russian art of greatest interest are the "Resource — DK1" and "Canopus-V" (BKA). They take pictures with a resolution of up to 2.1 meters per pixel. Of civilian space technology — this is our home limit. The military, maybe there is something finer the detail, but access to it, of course not. Although the 2.1 m / pixel is already behind the same Google Map and yes, sometimes, "Yandex maps", but the value of such a survey in repeatability. That is, it is possible to monitor not only the current state of the objects on the surface, but also by comparing with previous snapshots to assess the degree of change. Such observations are important in the event of natural disasters such as fires or floods. In addition, you can track the state of water bodies, forests, glaciers, watch out for ice conditions in the seas and rivers. The truth is there is no public access training, so we can only be happy for state agencies that use them.

For Internet users who like pretty pictures with high detail, from the Russian art of greatest interest are the "Resource — DK1" and "Canopus-V" (BKA). They take pictures with a resolution of up to 2.1 meters per pixel. Of civilian space technology — this is our home limit. The military, maybe there is something finer the detail, but access to it, of course not. Although the 2.1 m / pixel is already behind the same Google Map and yes, sometimes, "Yandex maps", but the value of such a survey in repeatability. That is, it is possible to monitor not only the current state of the objects on the surface, but also by comparing with previous snapshots to assess the degree of change. Such observations are important in the event of natural disasters such as fires or floods. In addition, you can track the state of water bodies, forests, glaciers, watch out for ice conditions in the seas and rivers. The truth is there is no public access training, so we can only be happy for state agencies that use them.

"Meteor-M" has a low resolution limit — 50 m per pixel. Its results are more relevant it is for meteorologists or emergency situations. When we entered theThe complex is receiving information, just an image with a passing "Meteora" reported directly to the screens.

As I explained, "it's not a bug — it's a feature" technology is fulfilled forces NTs OMZ. The satellite was provided for the survey, stockpiling and transfer of information, and learned to use it as a webcam orbit until there is a direct relationship with the Centre. On the other monitors tracked the position of the satellite, broadcast telemetry, a separate screen shows the position of the antenna on the roof, which monitors the device.The complex receptionLocated on the 10th floor — the closest thing to space. From there, go to the picturesProcessing complexes, home of the full technological cycle of training data for future use.

Upon completion of this phase materials are archived on magnetic films and sent to an automated tape library, which stores without prescription.

After the backup images are inThe complex thematic processing, which enables the monitoring of land use, forests and fires, environmental and geological monitoring, seysmoprognoz. AThe complex interaction with consumersprovides information specific to customers.

As I explained, "it's not a bug — it's a feature" technology is fulfilled forces NTs OMZ. The satellite was provided for the survey, stockpiling and transfer of information, and learned to use it as a webcam orbit until there is a direct relationship with the Centre. On the other monitors tracked the position of the satellite, broadcast telemetry, a separate screen shows the position of the antenna on the roof, which monitors the device.The complex receptionLocated on the 10th floor — the closest thing to space. From there, go to the picturesProcessing complexes, home of the full technological cycle of training data for future use.

Upon completion of this phase materials are archived on magnetic films and sent to an automated tape library, which stores without prescription.

After the backup images are inThe complex thematic processing, which enables the monitoring of land use, forests and fires, environmental and geological monitoring, seysmoprognoz. AThe complex interaction with consumersprovides information specific to customers.

Seysmoprognoz — a special theme. It seems that the satellite can only see the effects of the earthquake: damage, cracks, landslides, etc. But it turned out not only that. It is even possible to predict with a probability of 90%, up 0.2 points and three / two / one week. How this is done, I'll tell it apart too difficult and at the same time just trying to explain in a few words.

For "Electro-L" provides its own operator. The meaning of the satellite — to provide operational information, soThe complex receptionengaged once photos are processed and sent to the user — "Roshydromet" and directly to the network, that is for us — to openFTP-server.

For "Electro-L" provides its own operator. The meaning of the satellite — to provide operational information, soThe complex receptionengaged once photos are processed and sent to the user — "Roshydromet" and directly to the network, that is for us — to openFTP-server.

On the server, full-format photographs are archived in two formats: JPEG and L15. In each archive — 11 files. 1,2,3 — is RGB channels 4-10 — different bands of infrared, and 11 — combined color image. With "dzhipegom" is clear, and L15 is the "secret" format is available only to meteorologists. In the network there is no software that allows you to open it and see. It is true I was assured that in terms of image, there is the same as in the JPEG, and additional information is text only — all there, altitude, temperature, speed …

View pictures from the "Electro-L" can be seen that the entire field of view outside the disk of the Earth artificially blocked. At first I thought it was done mechanically — the camera is the lens hood, which cuts off the excess sided blowout.

But I explained that this is not the case. Dark pattern program imposed on automatic processing phase. Personnel from the satellite comes in the format of L10 (the logic is L1.0 and L1.5, but in the format name without dots). There is still a lot of digital noise and artifacts seen any inconsistencies between the two halves of the frame. The fact that the device that takes pictures: MSU-GS (multispectral scanner meteorological support) — it's not the camera, and she does not have a template.

This scanner has two scanning CCD array that are past their field of vision, making the two halves of the future picture. Coarse alignment of the halves is still on the satellite, and the reduction of processing and finish inComplex information receptionfrom step L10 to L15.

L10 In the pictures you can see the space. It is true except for the Moon and the Sun did not see it, because the pictures are taken at a high shutter speed, they are even a night light is not visible cities, not to mention the stars. Such dark pictures are made consciously, it eliminates flare in white clouds and reveal their layered structure. At my request, we found the pictures in the L10, which hit the Moon, was transferred to a tiff and posted on the FTP-server — the file "Luna.rar. " It is hoped that the comet ISONand PANSTARRS, are expected this year, will be bright enough to get to the shots of the "Electro-L". Last — in three weeksarrive. If employees NTs OMZ will be as accommodating as was the case with the moon, then we will see a comet in an unusual, in fact, a unique perspective.

Making the desktop on "Earth and Moon from the Electro-L"

As discussed previous article about our companions in the comments drew attention to the large number of gray heads in the group photo at the "Radioastron."

Like, that space is aging, and there is no replacement.

Walking through the NTs OMZ, I noted that, perhaps, not less than 60% of all employees met — younger than 40, and many 30 years. Monitoring Centre for "radio astronomer" does not have a relationship, but my observation: as an illustration of the provisions in the current space industry. General impressions of the Centre were very optimistic: the technique — the modern, the staff — a young and enthusiastic. At first glance — no different from the usual office center: the same girl designers, the same server, the same motivational posters on the walls of the company's products, the same jokes in the smoking room on the stairs, but every morning to all employees, going to work, plates Roof reminded that this office — just a space. At some point surfaced association with the working atmosphere "Monday begins on Saturday" by Strugatsky. With such a resource could be used to compete with NASA, at least in the media field, and there to the solar system, I hope it comes.

However, it was worth only his nose outside the competence of the Monitoring Centre, as had to return to the current "roskosmosovskim" realities. The legacy of military tradition and heavy bureaucracy affected when it came to the idea to remove the asteroid flyby2012 DA14.



The asteroid was flying on February 15 inside the ring of geostationary satellites at a distance of about 27 million km from the Earth, and 9 thousand kilometers from the satellites.And it took place in the trajectory of the satellite "Electro-L".


The distance and the size of the asteroid, in theory, excluded the possibility of observations: body diameter of 50 m and a resolution of the satellite at a distance of about 250 m / pixel. But the modest hope was, if successfully developed the shooting and lighting. In any case, it would "no harm in trying." In Technical Specificationssatellite indicates that recording frequency can be increased from the normal 30 min / 15 min to block / block. But the fact that this is done, you need to go through a whole chain of endorsements, from the developer chamber — JSC "Russian Space Systems", to the end user — "RosHydromet" only after the approval of both contact the MCC, there to adjusted operating mode. In our system is done in three days was impossible.

And most importantly how to explain why all this? No scientific value, and the argument "This is cool!" For any responsible person does not work. Designers are going through, as if something was revealed in the course of extreme, though under construction, operation modes. "RosHydromet" all on "Electro-L"offended for quality,
so it makes no sense to make some effort to popularize his work. No one even disassemble or calculations possible to remove the asteroid. The principle of "If it works, then do not touch anything" reigns over all. As a result, the darkness:

A similar story was repeated after 3 days, when the car crashed to Chelyabinsk. Who understood the pictures on the open FTP noticed that for each day of training with 6:30 and 8:00, no. This happens not because the hide, and because of the fact that taking pictures is not NTs OMZ in Moscow and Novosibirsk Branch "Hydromet". Accepts and hosts. The car went in Chelyabinsk at 7:20, that is, the pictures at 7:30 should be clearly visible track of him in the sky. Europeans warning in advance, checked their shots, and just a few hours after the fall, the media all over the world have flown pictures satellites Meteosat-9, and Meteosat-10.


"Electro-L" is also removed! And where the frames? A staff at the Novosibirsk HYDROMET lie on the shelf. "Send a written request, send at the official reception, we will consider your request. No online service not only accept paper. " In short,vykusi,
Internet or an asteroid or meteorite. About Russian satellites in the news will tell you, when again will drop any!

The pictures are only for 8:30-9:30 dispel the shadow managed to see the meteor trail. Although the angle was more successful than the Europeans.

Like this post? Please share to your friends: