Brain within seconds

November 23, 2012 22:09

The nerve cells of the brain
Photo: sciencemag.org

In the cerebral cortex found cells that due to short periods of time.

In the cerebral cortex found cells that due to short periods of time. Along with the circadian rhythms of this mechanism causes the perception of time by our body.

Circadian rhythms are well known in humans and animals, but little was known about how the body perceives a short period of time. That question could be answered from Minnesota scientists, who published their work in the journal PLoS Biology.

In the parietal cortex showed specific groups of nerve cells responsible for the expense of small periods of time.

These sites allow you to bark action through well-defined time intervals, measured in seconds, and is likely responsible for the internal perception of such short periods. However, this is not the only structure of the brain that helps a person to carry out an internal timing.

The authors studied the neural mechanisms that allow the apes in the performance of certain tasks to move your eye through a well-defined time intervals. The study was designed so that the monkeys did not have any external reference points of time. As a result, one of the parts of the brain have found a site in which the impulses of neurons decreased in response to increasing periods of time Mezhuyev movements of the eyeballs. This mechanism explains how the second account for various actions.

Other mechanisms of internal body time accounts have been studied for a long time.

The most famous example is the circadian rhythm (from the Latin «circa» — and about «di» — day), equivalent to about one day, and your body adjusts depending on the time of day.

Day and night on the ground during the day affects almost all living organisms. Depending on the time of day, different animals perform various activities. To be effective and to adapt to the environment, most living things must have an internal clock that allows them to anticipate the daily time and change the parameters of the body. Circadian rhythms are found in many organisms, even in single-celled.

Mechanisms of circadian rhythm in humans studied well enough. The rhythm is formed cluster of nerve cells in the nucleus of the hypothalamus. It is known that the circadian rhythm regulates daily changes in body temperature (higher and lower in the evening to the morning), the daily production of hormones, daily fluctuations in pressure and heart rate. Circadian rhythm is stable and affects many processes in the body. If you are in the morning without waking any external influence, then you wake up thanks to circadian rhythm. This rhythm can adjust to changing conditions: daylight hours, time zone. This is due to the fact that the retina of our eye is associated with the nucleus of the hypothalamus. So our eyes like tunes circadian rhythm. Son of man is strongly influenced by the circadian rhythm. In daylight, thanks to circadian rhythm, our bodies in a state of high activity and in most cases, if you choose to sleep at this point, would be a bad dream. There is even a group of sleep disorders related to circadian rhythm. Studies have shown that

people who have to work at night, are at risk of developing cancer and heart disease.

These findings were made by a systematic review conducted by researchers from Oxford University, which analyzed about a hundred scientific papers on the subject. In addition, it was proved separately and increase the risk of breast cancer in this form of work.
The human body is set up to ensure that operate mostly in the daytime. Circadian rhythms help to synchronize our daily activity to the metabolism of the whole body and helps us to work as efficiently as possible. However, in modern society under the influence of many social factors a person has to eat and often work at night, which does not correspond to the work of the internal clock and leads to the development of many diseases.

Oleg Vinogradov

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