March 6, 2012 10:54
April 21, 1729 in the remote town at the time Stettin (Prussia) in the family unremarkable 44-year-old Prince Christian Augustus, who became famous for a dedicated service to the King of Prussia, and the 18-year-old Holstein-Gottorp, Princess Johanna Elizabeth was born a girl, named Sophia Frederica Augusta, Princess of Anhalt-Zerbst. That this girl was destined to become the future of the great Russian empress — Catherine the Great.
Sofiy fate as many German princesses, determined not her personal dignity, and dynastic situation in Russia. Childless Empress Elizabeth immediately began to look after the accession of the heir worthy of the Russian throne. The choice fell on the only kind of direct successor of Peter the Great, his grandson — Karl Peter Ulrich. Prince against his will drawn to Orthodoxy, named Peter Fedorovich, and found a 14-year old bride.
What was decisive in choosing Russian court Princess Sofia? Rather, Elizabeth felt that Sofia, although being "from a noble, but so small genus", will be just an obedient wife, with no claim to participate in politics. However, this was probably one of the few occasions when the Empress made a mistake in his calculations.
After the death of Elizabeth, in 1762, the Russian throne was occupied by its direct successor, Peter III, the weak-willed person and limited. Soon, he was not without the help of his wife, deposed and killed. Catherine II became empress and rules so well that rightfully earned the title of Catherine the Great. It, a German woman and a stranger, the Russian people called "native mother." Historians almost unanimously re sewed that if I wanted to instill Peter Russia are German, the German Catherine wanted to revive the Russian traditions. And in many ways this is done successfully.
Times its board called the "golden age" of Russia, the age of the Enlightenment. At this time, the internal structure has been transformed empire. Potemkin, Suvorov, Orlov, Kutuzov, Ushakov and Rumyantsev praised the Russian army and navy. Russia won over the Black Sea, Crimea, eastern Georgia, part of Poland with Belarus and Western Ukraine. Power across open new schools, libraries, academies and typography. She wrote dozens of plays, books and articles on Russian history, economics, philosophy and pedagogy.
Catherine early and realized in time that happiness in his personal life with the unloved husband is not, and has made a major winning bid — to be the only one for Russia and the Russian people. To this end, it was a way of self-improvement: moved from Lutheranism to Orthodoxy, with extraordinary tenacity taught Russian words, grammar, dance, and rehearsed a smooth gait.
All historians, so differently appreciate the contribution of Catherine the Great in Russian history, to recognize what it stands out among the Russian kings and queens erudition, intelligence, health, and spiritual needs. And what is most striking — the harmony of his personality she brought to herself, starting quite late, after the marriage. She learned to control passions, cope with their feelings and ardent temperament was pedantic and accurate in all endeavors. Catherine with its first steps caught what is called the "golden mean." She German avarice and rational weighing his every decision, commensurate efforts and the expected result. She did not get hysterical about certain inconsistencies and violations, carefully consider the "rules", a system of interfering causes, occasions to theft, carelessness motives. In the face of Catherine Spit Russian recklessness has bumped up the German government principles.
White Stone abolished hetman, Ukrainian nobles equal rights with Russian, Cossacks, gradually turned into serfs, with the dissenters treated gracious persuasion, encouraging trade, study abroad plan and pay a meaningful way, the ships were built in proportion to the military and commercial objectives. Officials found the old age pension and sickness. Rotation of staff was furious, corruption abated, pay officers found human. New lands were distributed for free, education is also done free of charge (for the poor), and even girls were taught — "to soften manners by educated women."
They say that a year before the death of the Empress was a strange event. The officer, who was standing guard at the royal bedchamber, and saw the door open, and Mother Empress silence was held in the throne room. Sentry, the courage, looked into the bedchamber, and saw that Catherine is on the bed. But then, who sits on the throne, his hands resting weary head? Attendant raised the alarm and woke the Empress, and she went boldly to the throne room. Back pale and said, "This is my death has come." Soon after, on November 6, 1796, died of "apoplexy".
The Age of Catherine and written about her a lot, but perhaps the most accurate description she gave herself, expressing her epitaph, which is going to put on his tombstone: "Having come to the Russian throne, and would have tried to deliver a good and happiness of his subjects , liberty and property, it is easy to forgive and not fed to anyone hate. Poschadlivaya, amiable by nature veselonravnaya, with the soul of the Republican and a good heart, she had no friends. The work was easy for her, she loved art and be in public. "