CIA project «MK-Ultra» — experiments on consciousness

CIA project

Psychiatry has long become a sensitive and effective basic supplies special services in the confrontation of many states. More hidden workings engaged leading countries. But if political action or sonorous murder the authorities can somehow explain what those facts which were held under «top secret» simply appalling, and even more so no explanations are not applicable …

In the late 40-ies of the last century in the Office tehsluzhb Central Intelligence Agency was formed department, which is developing bacteriological and chemical products created to influence the human psyche. In 1951 the department was headed by Sidney Gottlieb, Dr. chemical sciences. Despite the relatively young age of its own, Gottlieb was very assertive in achieving its goals. Times a day he ascended vulnerable in the morning milking goats and drank milk, grew on its own plot of trees for sale. It seemed that such people simply can not be a humanist. But the truth was more bitter.
Gottlieb conducted research related to the implementation for military purposes drug LSD. For those who do not know, LSD — it is very strong and terrible hallucinogen that is extracted from ergot. The first time it was synthesized in 1938, and since that time it has been used intensively in different kinds of experiments aimed at the study of mental disorders. It should be noted that the discovery of synthetic LSD was made quite a case of Swiss scientist named Albert Hoffman in 1943.

Another product that was used department CIA was mescaline — a drug that has a similar hallucinogenic and psychoactive effects. This material is contained in a cactus that grows in the southwestern part of North America and Mexico.

In 1953 he started «The program of research and bio Enigma introduction of chemical substances», which in April of the same year received the title of «Project MK-Ultra» and was classified, is also not subject to inspections and audits even cash Central Intelligence Agency structures.

The main part of the project «MK-Ultra», which, as already mentioned, began in 1953 and continued until the late 1960s, was the development and testing of biological, chemical and radiological agents that could be used in the course of undercover operations for control over the implementation of human consciousness. In development using radiation, different mental processes, electric shock, methods of anthropology, psychiatry, graphology, sociology, also napolovinuvoennoe equipment and irritants.

The main objective of the project was to achieve complete control over in a human consciousness, using drugs and electricity. Information which has been studied in the course of research work on first memory disorders discredit a person by his behavior, ways vypytyvaniya disk imaging, configuration sexy habits, suggestibility, and the creation of a person depending.

Achieve the goals expected by using artificial amnesia, erasing personal qualities of old and creation of new coding under hypnosis. Initially, these developments need to control the CIA justify searches of so-called «truth serum» to use it in interrogations of Russian spies. Over the years the project has created hundreds of affiliate programs Bole project «MK-Ultra.»

In the process of research studied different toxic substances, namely, snakes, molluscs, insects and fungi, bacteria and viruses that cause smallpox, anthrax, cholera, and chemical synthetic drugs.

The focus of the research process was paid to specifically test different versions of LSD, which was a thousand times more effective and stronger as mescaline and other drugs.

As «guinea pigs» used fighter prisoners serving various community organizations and structures. For all this they were not even aware that the tests are objects.

Source step in the development of the project was marked by the study of radiation effects on the human brain. But over time the value changed, and subsequent studies have focused on the study of the effects of LSD on the human brain. But such development programs from all sought more experimental because they began to take in the midst of the military and employees of the CIA. Later objects for research became psychiatric patients, representatives of marginalized sectors of the population, namely, confused. With all of this Project Manager — Gottlieb — to delight in adding some elements of torture experiments. For example, high doses were administered to experimental drug, while it lasted for several months. Ultimately, most of them were observed persistent mental disorders, and managed to survive for a few.

The more developed the project, how much more ruthless methods used the «scientists». And even despite the fact that no positive results could not be reached, continued to conduct experiments …

And not to lure excessive public attention to the project management of the CIA to find and has selected a certain number of professors working in different institutions. So Makar, separate studies were conducted in institutions, hospitals and correctional facilities. For example, it is clear that some of the tests «MK-Ultra» held at Columbia, Rochester, Oklahoma institutions, the Boston hospital, at Illinois Institute at the Faculty of honey … In total, during the existence of the project agreements were signed with more than 80 organizations and agencies , including 12 infirmaries, 22 institutes and institutions, 3 correctional institutions. Test objects become more than 5 thousand military and civilian officials. Moreover, the number of lunatics and prisoners, victims of the project, so far remains unknown. Paradoxically, but none of the «scientists» of the Central Intelligence Agency, who conducted experiments suffered no punishment …

Finally a few words to say about some experiments that were conducted «under the wing» of the «MK-Ultra.»

In the midst of war, the CIA Cool decided to conduct research on a new synthetic drug LSD. Research was conducted in August 1951 by the inhabitants of one of the French villages entitled Pont-Saint-Esprit. Local residents literally went to the brain: beheld monsters, believed in their ability to fly, kept «torches.» Ultimately, the experience of about 2 hundred people were able frenetic absurdity, more than 10 were in a mental hospital, seven people were killed. Clear background of the incident could not be called then. The only thing that was common in all cases — is that all these people were taking bread from the local baker and his bread was found ergotamine, a fungus that is the basis of LSD. This event is outlined in his book «A Terrible Mistake» Hank Albarelli. He also holds certain parallels between the inhabitants of the village of madness and death of a famous biologist named Frank Olsen, who participated in drug research activities of the CIA. And in addition, proves that the experiments were carried out in the village together and himkontsernom from Switzerland, where he worked at the time the inventor of synthetic LSD Hoffman.

Also, in the middle of the 1950s in the town of New-york, a joint special operations with the Department of the United States Army operation entitled «Big City». In special cars were mounted devices containing gas and a special powder. They sprayed at a distance of 120 km. The main aim of the experience was to identify the behavior of people who have been in the area of ​​poisoning, check the degree of poisoning deaths, resilience, also measure the concentration of gas and is influenced by whether it weather conditions (rain or fog).

In addition, in San Francisco, the surgery was performed under the title «Midnight Climax.» To accomplish this, the CIA recruited ladies of easy virtue, who lulled own customers first, and then introduced them to the drug LSD. Later agents studied forthcoming human behavior victim.

About a similar method to addicts conducted tests means causing hallucinations in Drug Rehabilitation Center in the town of Lexington. So, as a «gratitude» for agreeing to take part in the experiment, unhealthy gave their preferred drugs. There also conducted experiments on the development of new and improvement of old poisons. At the head of the project was an industrialist who headed a number of U.S. companies, but to the real name of his times in secret CIA documents.

In addition, the development of chemical agents that affect the psyche, engaged Dr. James Hamilton, which is used for these purposes prisoners. All work was carried out in a California medical center. The experiments conducted on prisoners and Carl Pfeiffer, who was engaged in design, development and testing of drugs act on the human brain. Dr. Baldwin Metlend being neurosurgeon National Institutes of Health, studied terminal tests, whose purpose was to identify mental and physical endurance.

But in the midst of other, more tragic consequences had experiments conducted I.Kemeronom physician. He is the creator of the theory of «mental management», the essence of which is to introduce or delete certain disk imaging of human consciousness. In own experiments scientist no longer limited only to the introduction of LSD. He used and nerve gases, electroshock therapy, prolonged pharmacological coma, repeated repeating alarms, sleep deprivation. Those who managed to survive the test, forever remain incurable mentally ill …

In 1974 in the newspaper «New York Times» were placed materials in which contained information about the history of the project «MK-Ultra.» At this time, the Congress was created by a special commission, which was to identify the tasks of all the moments of illegal activities special services. Once this has been created and a presidential commission headed by Nelson Rockefeller.

But much of the evidence of atrocities intelligence services, namely, information on the project «MK-Ultra», were destroyed. But all the same, and what was left, was completely is enough to assess the extent of lawlessness.

In 1975, before Congress by Frank Church, a senator who headed the commission of the Congress. He openly accused the secret services in conducting illegal research and large quantities of deaths. One of the first victims was officially already mentioned biologist named Frank Olson, who according to the official committed suicide by jumping from the window. The Commission claimed exhumation, resulting in it was found that before the fall of the scientist was hit on the head, and he was unconscious. Another victim of the tests became recognizable tennis player Harold Bauer, who died from an overdose of mescaline …

Were later disclosed new episodes of criminal conduct special services. In 1977, on behalf of the country, President Ford apologized to the victims of the tests. Litigation continues to the present time. But where is the guarantee that at the moment some hidden organization does not conduct tests on human beings?

And even more fundamental and vital question: neuzh then science is worth it to her for so many people perished? And whether the right to life of those who put themselves above others, who despite all the tests confirm the futility of continued just sneer and expose violent torture innocent as innocent people? .. Rhetorical question …

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