Sergei Kara-Murza of "inefficient universities" of the Russian Federation
Passed the first wave of the campaign the Ministry of Education to identify the "inefficient institutions", while municipalities. Next Tipo will decide — what to close, which to rebuild or build out, in what the authorities to change. The owner — a gentleman. Universities municipal want power — generally all universities will close. Our universities, he says, are not competitive, train at Harvard. What is the utter population is not yet clear. Perhaps nothing is utter.
So what about the idea of weeding universities will not be read. Yes it can, and she's choking — zacheshetsya elsewhere and forget. Say not about the idea, and on the way. During the process, perhaps more fundamental thoughts peeps than thoughts. Better thinking is revealed ministers, their staff, and of the general public. Ideas are fleeting, and the thinking and the way — something harsh stone.
Thus, the Russian Ministry of Education took over the function of the rating agency in the field of higher education, as if it were a kind of "Moody" in the educational market. Excellent understand the role played by these agencies in the monetary sphere, spinning crisis in 2008. And we have an innovation — universities are bankrupt or at least blackmail threat of liquidation. Also, for certain, a promising business.
The Western press has written extensively about the "perverse and personal decisions on ratings," sought from agencies' responsibility for errors as a result of negligence and intent. " But the difference in the assessment of the bank and the university is very great: and the entrances of the bank ("raw"), and outputs ("Product") are measured in a quantitative measure — means. In high school and an input and output, and the transformation of "raw material" in the "product" have a complex structure that describes the huge number of non-formalizable concepts, but few measurable characteristics are not converted to LEDs, allowing to quantify motivated product.
The thesis of this heavy-handed, but still break it by following the main pt of the way in which the Ministry of Education applies to universities. Here is an explanation Minister Dmitry Livanov in an interview with the newspaper "Kommersant», № 222 (5007), 23.11.2012.
1. Here is the initial installation Ministry of Education: "We are all interested in, so there was no ineffective schools."
Rectors, teachers, students and the general public simply accepted this setting as something obvious. In my opinion, this is exactly — the worst thing in today's episode. Everyone agrees (or even "interested"), that in Russia "did not become part of the university" — those kind of commission Ministry of Education was called "ineffective." Similarly, agreed to eliminate the collective and state farms agriculture — "inefficient." Later, science, etc.
But what does the term effective (or, symmetrically, an inefficient)? Minister says no, but the public does not ask. Everyone understands the term in its ordinary sense: an inefficient — means inferior, something he nedodaet us what we just need. But you can not use ordinary words in the documents and findings that could result in severe consequences for people or organizations. The minister had to find exactly what is meant by the word inefficient — not in general, and in the annex to the higher education institutions. Does not provide a definition, but argues that a significant portion of existing municipal schools in Russia should be eliminated — "we are all interested in it."
Why did not provide a definition — hard, perhaps, a dozen phrases to say? Do not give as neither the minister nor the public and can not do anything just to find (and understand). Eliminate the "interested", and whom, and for what — to represent themselves vague. The word "effective (or" ineffective ") — is vague pseudo-scientific term (the so-called" word-amoeba "), it does not contain a hard sense. A huge number of meanings that would give him, on my own, different people (with different interests and objectives) are not only impossible to measure, but they can not be on even agree. Effective word is so vague that you can just completely dismissed from the service call efficient bureaucrat — and there is no method that is logically challenged. We have just heard, "Serdyukov was effective minister of defense, this is manifested in the transformation process, which he spent in the armed forces," — said Medvedev reporters, commenting on the resignation of the Minister of Defence.
Wake up, gentlemen and comrades! Do not be so irresponsible. The phrase Minister Dmitry Livanov sounds like harmless, but on its own it is quite similar to the logic of the proposal such as: "We are all interested in is to eliminate bad people." For phrases such type lies the most savage tyranny. 20 years, the country pulled apart and dismantled under cover of mist, beyond the clear interpretation of the expression — and a multi-million Russian intelligentsia is simply swallows. What an unsightly spectacle!
Of all the things that speak into this majestically campaign Ministry of Education, it is clear that it did not try and find a basic concept of their own applets — effectiveness. Accordingly, it was no talk about how to set the aspect of inefficiency (as lack of efficacy). How can the Government allow his ministers to show the public is tyranny! After all, the Government is smart and honest as it could be, people (I even know such a person) — as it is not shameful? What a simple regression of the political and culture!
If you come just a little strict, efficient — a daunting figure. It is a division of private 2-values "benefit / cost". And both of these variables, in turn, often difficult to measure. The "effect" — a totality of all the right (for anyone — yet to be found, for whom) the consequences of the actions taken. In our case, the effect — it's total utility activities or simply the existence of the university. Ministry of Education did not even try to list the most important of these desired effects for the Russian Federation and, it seems, did not even have thought, that the operation of mandatory. Perhaps he did not know. The Ministry of the students do not work, and the ministers.
Yes, and "costs" — the essence is not easy, the money it can not be measured. It happens that the effect is lacking to address the goal, but effective whether or not the acts were, immediately say. One thing — when to solving the problem had not been given the necessary means ("cartridges are not brought up"). Another thing — if the funds were stolen or are managed by some reason (most likely out of the goodness) was appointed to fool or ignoramus. Conclusions about the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of research requests (or investigation). From time to time, instead of this point to a few stereotypical traits and 'punish those responsible. " So often the case, if instead of measuring the effect of the authorities and resources are beginning to talk about efficiency, masking the real conditions.
In general, to eliminate university on charges of his "failure" — is about the same as that shoot man accused of the crime, which is not foreseen in the law and which can not accurately describe.
2. Second strong statement the minister is this: &q
uot;From the list of universities that own signs of inefficiency, one can not leave — it is formed on the basis of impartial research on the state of education."
Let's start with the first part of the statement. It says that if the suspect university verdict ("it is not effective!"), This verdict is final and not subject to appeal. But Mr. Livanov immediately begins to contradict himself for himself, out of habit without noticing it. Correspondent asks why "the governor of the Kirov region … failed to substantiate the importance of the Ministry of 2-vyat universities that have been found to be ineffective. According to him, the universities have been excluded from the list. "
Means can all the same some people to "come out of the list," despite the metal "objectivity" of the sentence! It turns out the whole "group of universities" in its own nature can not be impartial evaluation beforehand effective. Apparently, for the Ministry of Education is more important than personal assessment of some high-ranking persons than the "objective examination". It happens.
But under this very paradox in our everyday Livanov brings a whole theory: "The first group consists of high schools that can not be attributed to ineffective due to the specificity of educational programs. Typically this creative educational institutions, universities, the cultural orientation that simply can not be judged by the general rules. "
And an explanation! Even astounding to hear that. How does the specificity of educational programs and advance automatically makes the university effective? What a magnificent postulate! If, say, the Moscow Institute of Architecture "simply can not be judged by the general rules", the Ministry of Education must clear before the panel of professionals to lay out aspects, under which most of the universities in Russia do not own "specific educational programs," completely devoid of creative elements and the lack of "cultural orientation" .
But there are no such schools in nature — for all the shortcomings and weaknesses of our dilapidated higher education! Lord ministers and bureaucrats! Which bog you dive with his absurd concepts. How can you deal with the public system, which is entrusted with the management of your!
3. Make out the second part of the above considerations the Minister: "From the list of [ineffective] universities can not leave anyone — it is formed on the basis of impartial research on the state of education."
Say, here's why "from the list of [ineffective] universities nobody can not leave." So Undetectable charges added to the indefinable quality confirmation of guilt — "objectivity." What is it all the same for a magical quality? As understood in the Ministry of Education of the word "objective". What are the fundamental concepts they're head and share. What a weird thoughts revolve in the minds of officials!
Mr. D. Livanov not led to what the "inefficiency", but some obvious properties of disconnected calls the University of diagnostic signs of this "amoeba."
For example, he gives an interview, as a trivial symptom of inefficiency university itself: "There is at Moscow University, where the average teacher salary at the moment is in the range of 20 to 30 thousand rubles. Of course, that such universities perform poorly. Their approach to the formation of teachers' salaries can not be well prepared professionals. "
To get a grasp, because this is no phenomenon, no hidden unique idea, it's obvious stupidity. Neither the County in the village school 100 years ago or in the Russian State University or now somewhere in Khabarovsk teacher does not correlate with the quality of their own wages. So far he has not stirred up a head of starvation, he tries as best you can pass on their knowledge of the student. A teacher on the type of culture — not self-seeker, he knew where he was going, his profession — is not speculation its own labor force in the market. This is what we are talking about weight, socio-cultural community of teachers and educators.
Even in American sociology of work a number of professions, including teachers, is allocated to the extraordinary group where the wage is not an end and not a motivator, and "social hygiene factor." Yes, low wages limits the ability of the teacher, if she does not allow him to eat normally and support his family, so he has to waste time on the additional income. But if you increase the salary of 10, much better to teach from is not — it is already laid out.
But what's the effect? Wages and salaries — one of the resources, and its fall in the Russian Federation is precisely was the main method to increment the efficiency of labor based on the beliefs of the employer (this is referred to as the "optimize"). And most importantly, what is the logic! In the municipal employer-state high school teacher gives very low wages. Those suppressed indignation, still makes its own prof debt — for the sake of the students and the future of the country. And here in the audience breaks into a bureaucrat of the state of the employer, and blames the teacher in that it does not work, because agree to lower wages. Yes, it's still a happening in our country? The bureaucrats act as agents provocateurs, and do not even notice.
4. Mr. D. Livanov attributes the property of truth and objectivity commissions Ministry of Education. What a wild confusion! Committees are established to identify the dominant personal view — is often (though not always) it is better than the personal opinion of 1 person, especially if it is very stupid. Oh, so Mr. D. Livanov proves the validity and objectivity of ratings: "The list is the result of social and public evaluation of higher education institutions and their affiliates. I especially emphasize the word "public", as this process is extensively involved not only the bodies of state power, and the employers and the representatives of the rector's community. "
This explanation — profanation, violation of common sense. Who is the employer in the municipal school? The government, represented by the bureaucrats of the education system, particularly subordinate organs of state power. Why then imposing shadow on the fence! Their assessment is not "public". Who are the "representatives of the rector's community"? This is particularly the people who are the objects of the "assessment" which committed the above universities and their leaders, bureaucrats. These people represent "independent public", which will be judged objectively colleagues, who were the first victims of the experience, just awkward. After all, those who are now included in the commission as "representatives of the rector's community", are directly dependent on the goodwill of officials of the Ministry of Education, for soon the same committee will evaluate themselves. This — not a democratic process, and a farce.
5. How could appear at Mr. Livanov "signs of inefficiency" of universities? After all, what is taken as a sign of something (an indicator, the indicator of something) — it is a difficult instrument, while it exists as a system of interconnected entities. Here, for example, as an indicator of "inefficiency" of universities has been taken average score of CSE-year students — it should not be lower than 60 points. Can serve as an indicator of what the value is?
Recall the textbook. For use in a judgment of quantitative measures are necessary characteristics (indicators) that characterize some important aspect of the phenomena of interest to us. What is an indicator? It is a measurable quantity (parameter) we are interested in the phenomenon. But at least what is inherent in the phenomenon of a huge num
ber of features, its different sides can be defined and so and so. For example, the ship is floating on the sea. In this state, a huge number of measurable values, characteristics — the size of the ship, the type of engine, the course, the wind force and wave height, etc. What parameter may serve as an indicator of? The one that is firmly associated with specific quantities of interest, which is hard to measure exactly (it is called latent value).
Here, in the wheelhouse of the ship is sounder device. It defines the time between audible pulse and return it to the ship echo reflected from the seabed. It is time itself does not interest anyone, the navigator must know the depth — the distance from the keel to the bottom. Depth — this latent value that is hard to measure. A speed of sound in water is known perfectly by the depth of the echo return time can be calculated by the usual formula with sufficient accuracy. This is the time and taken as an indicator (LED) of depth, ie, the distance from the ship to the bottom of the sea. If we did not know where what speed of sound in water is held and the reflected echo, we measure the depth of such a method could not.
So Makarov, is itself to an outer, simply measured value (Parameter) in most cases is not enough that says to us in the paper. This option appears only indicator in this case, if we have a theory or firmly established rule that binds a parameter of interest latent variable. If the link is unknown, no indicator parameter is not.
In practical guidance even underlines that if the researcher provides the parameter for the indicator, apparently without telling what latent values it seeks to characterize, and expounding a theory or at least rule that bind option with latent value, it violates the rules of logic. In this case, it is recommended not to trust the conclusions of the researchers, although they may occasion and are correct. Take such parameter as an index can not.
Ministry of Education estimates the inefficiency University (latent value) by measuring the parameter of this University — GPA USE its students. What is at the Ministry of Education grounds to consider this option indicator of inefficiency? No! This is not only not talking about a theory of communication between school grades on the exam, and even some domestic speculation is hard to imagine for themselves. After all students entering universities, can be likened to "feed" that will be sent to the factory. Suppose a factory sewing costumes of Cheviot, and the other — sundresses calico, and it is 10 times cheaper Cheviot. How this is possible to calculate the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of the factory, sewing sundresses? Can not be calculated, there is no relationship between the price of raw materials and the efficiency of its transformation into a product. Stupidity is incredible!
When in the late '60s in the West carried away with the use of formal methods of evaluation of complex activities of various means of measuring performance, the question of the validity of these methodological approaches for some time been the focus of attention of scientists and philosophers.
Nobel Prize ON Hinshelwood said: "In the true, there is a danger that you may receive a severe disorder in how the companies being under the influence of the scientific method, but has not a lot of intuitive sense of the real practice of the scientist will be able to set the number of dimensions and measures for high-quality things, to they do not apply. If Quantitative measurements really applicable — very good. But there is still a temptation where it can not be made arbitrarily excellent substitute, but obviously various aspects only worse as the latter may be present in these numerical measurements and regarded mechanically.
Eagerness to act similarly increased even more due to the mode of input information into computers … In fact, if you type in a reasonable car, then get a reasonable result. But unfortunately, if you enter unreasonable, you get a meaningless decision that will have the least reasonable, because it is not immediately recognized as nonsense what it is in reality …
Protection of incorrect quantitative approach would not also the fact that we often do not know the best choice. If it is not clear which method to reach a correct judgment, then it is better to accept this as a fact and not make the situation worse than it is, the method of simulation. I believe that the substitution of high quality heavy judgments inadequate mechanical data is not a rationalization or efficiency or the same impartiality and objectivity, and are simply a very sad lack of responsibility. "
Very sad lack of responsibility — is, in my opinion, the Myagenko reproach which can be the Ministry of Education.
But it is not the case in the Ministry of Education. In Russia as a whole over the last 20 years have seen the introduction of cultural degradation languid quantitative measure for the public properties of phenomena, processes and projects. Any connection between the measurement and latent value is lost very often, but for her and did not remember. The general rule was to replace the indicator parameter without presenting the theory of the relation between them, and even without a definition of the hidden values that wish expressed by the parameter. This definition is most often replaced with hints and insinuations to say: do realize …
Abnormalities in the logic of using measures so outrageous that it is hard to imagine that these violations primary — due to political enthusiasm dishonesty or mental irresponsibility. Basically, what this and that leads to the degradation of rationality.
6. Set aside the methodological details and pay attention to the unacceptable by his own sense of social and legal judgment of Mr. Livanov. Hearken to the essence of the "sign of failure", which was just mentioned. Institution of higher education is under threat as the average score on the exam taken at the university students is 60 or less. Is the law on education graduate school, received on average exam score of 60, has no right to enter the municipal university?
Is there a requirement that rejects the whole group of students from higher education? Tell me frankly, Mr. Minister: Does the student after the end of 11th grade, received a certificate of secondary education ("Senior Secondary Certificate of General Education") the right to go to college — or not? If the certificate makes him such a right, then how could the minister turn around language call ineffective university which undertook to prepare a special regime of the young man with higher education? It is not only surprising and wildly, and indecent!
Yuri Gagarin graduated from a vocational school, and no Ministry of the USSR tried to block his way to the high education — he became not only a pilot and astronaut, and graduated with distinction from the Air Force Engineering Academy. NE Zhukovsky.
Yes, in Russia, almost all being rethought, bureaucrats and even presidents in finding a suitable ideology. But let's all follow the same logic. Here, in 2011, applicants had an average of 9 universities exam score is less than 50! At this VV Putin said: "This means that an old Russian system is weak only three points." Yes, only three points — but so what? This assessment allows a person to become a student, and in whom he grows to the protection of the diploma, no one could not know. A very large proportion of our best engineers, designers and inventors were first troechniku.
That would mean the elimination of inefficient thirds of universities? Unlawful segregation of mass school graduates who had on hand Certificate without a single unsatisfactory evaluation. After all, Moscow State University and Moscow State Institute are already staffed and troechniku had nowhere to go to — Our universities for their homeland in the fa
ce of the Ministry of Education has closed. What kind of professionals has missed a RF? Specifically, those who trained in order to work in Russia for the heavy work without any glamor — not in the offices and in the field, in the mine at school.
Here is a selection of universities, public in 2011 freshmen had taken less than 50 points:
Maritime Municipal Academy of Agriculture 44.7;
Far Municipal Land Institute, 45.5;
Municipal Academy of Angarsk techno 47.1;
Far Eastern State. Technical Fisheries Institute, 47.7;
Irkutsk Municipal Academy of Agriculture 48.7;
Ulyanovsk Municipal Academy of Agriculture 48.7
Listening to at the moment of our high-ranking officials, and there is a feeling that in the most recent years, we in the degradation of our culture have run across a certain limit. Slowly retreating, retreating ¬ and broke. That and look again hold a law "On the cook's children." Where will it all end …
Complete this concise analysis of the maxim of Mr. Livanov, which is completely plunged into depression. He spoke about the main aspects of their programs from: "If the university is required, it will grow, even if at the moment the quality of his work is not satisfactory. If a school does not make any important function, but simply there, giving out diplomas — it will be re-organized. "
What is the narrowness of how misunderstanding. From the interview, it is clear that the Ministry of Education is just this-that aspect of the brain and has not developed, and the phrase "if university need "remains a dead letter. In my opinion, in this ministry simply did not think why there is a university. What does "school does not make any important function, but simply exist"? What a terrible, dull idea of school! Yes its majestic feature consists in the fact that it exists. That his audiences are understanding and experienced teachers with boys and girls who come into independent life. What do they explain the laws of nature and society, and between the case and the rules of our hard life. What is in this building a library, in which students are taught to read in an adult, not seminars ¬ — ask and read by an adult. What exactly is a student, young people learn to adore, are languid practice of generosity and meanness — and can get support. Neuzh all it has now become clear?
In 60 years in the U.S. after Sputnik went huge debate about higher education. Played smart, even experienced industrialists, scientists — in the main of what is valuable at least some university in America. It is clear that there have been difficulties in young people, many do not have the funds to finish the full course. And these experienced industrialists and scientists explained to great that the young man prouchitsya even just a year in high school, live the life of the student in contact with the seniors, teachers, visit the library and the laboratory, in the classroom and at the party chair — gives him such a charge and the ability to thinking and spiritual practices, initiatives and confidence, social skills and breadth of sight, it becomes an important factor throughout his life. Young men, even just one last course of the Institute, are beautiful work, increasing innovators. And this special contingent workforce is very highly regarded in the United States.
We all beheld, and at home, our comrades from troechnikov on the first and second course is the creator of sparkling diplomas, and soon afterward — USSR Academy of Sciences. And South American arguments on the subject we were clear and seemed natural.
And at this point — where are we? Where are we going? Do we extricate ourselves from the quagmire of all this obscenity (not counting the rest)?