Ferdinand F. Wintzingerode — the first Russian guerrilla war in 1812

No historian which would not recognize the guerrilla movement one of the main reasons for the victory in the Russian war of 1812. Great contribution to the future victory brought it as a spontaneous popular struggle and military flying squads that operated behind enemy lines. One of the first was similar cavalry units squad Ferdinand Fedorovich Wintzingerode.

Born Ferdinand F. February 15, 1770 in the town of Allendorf, which placed in landgrafstve Hesse-Kassel. In 1785, he graduated from military school and enlisted in the Hessian army. Then he ran into the Prussian and later the Austrian. First combat experience was in the campaign against the French in 1792-1793 and 1795-1796, respectively.

July 8, 1797 defected to the Russian military service with the rank of Major General and was admitted to the Order's Cuirassier Regiment. In 1798 he was transferred to the Izmailovo Regiment with the rank of colonel, and a bit later appointed adjutant of the majestic Duke Konstantin Pavlovich, along which participated in the Italian campaign of 1799, and with the help of which has had a distinguished career.

In the spring of 1802 Wintzingerode promoted to major general. Soon began the war coalition with the role of Russian Empire, in which Ferdinand F. took an active role.

Ferdinand F. Wintzingerode - the first guerrilla war of 1812

In autumn 1805 Wintzingerode distinguished himself in the battle of Krems, for which he was awarded the Order of St. ZHoru third degree. In the same 1805 Wintzingerode ultimately successful negotiations with Murat manages to win for the Russian army two transitions during a severe retreat.

In 1809 Wintzingerode career takes another turn. He vorachivaetsya in the Austrian army. In the battle of Aspen is badly wounded in the leg — buckshot Ferdinand shattered tibia. Later, for the difference in combat actions in the Austrian army, received the title of field marshal lieutenant.

May 11, 1812 before the invasion of Napoleon Wintzingerode vorachivaetsya the Russian service. During this period, France, and our homeland intensively preparing for war, because Ferdinand F. qualified as an officer was sent to Smolensk, form and teach troops to the future of the company. In town, he stayed until the moment of the 1st Army Barclay de Tolly and Bagration 2nd. Ferdinand F. enrolled under the command of Barclay, the latter highlighting Wintzingerode 1,300 cavalry, left in the districts of Smolensk for action against enemy communications.

Then began, perhaps, one of the brightest pages of biography Wintzingerode. August 19 to the style of old one squad Ferdinand Fedorovich operated near the snow-white town, where for 10 days, was seized about 300 French. The small city under the title Porechye Perikova Cossack officer, who was under the command of Wintzingerode, together with the locals managed to defeat the rearguard corps of General Pino. Of the papers seized from the Adjutant General of the Pinot, it became clear that the French were convinced that the size of the order Wintzingerode not less than 5000 thousand people in 2000 of which — it is languid cavalry: dragoons and cuirassiers. The losses in the unit of the first guerrilla army were quite disparate: about 30 killed and wounded. Such an assessment by the French more than tongued claims about the success of the guerrillas.

After joining the Army majestically to Moscow squad Wintzingerode covered the St. Petersburg highway, constantly engaging in skirmishes with the enemy halts and forage parties, or simply a marauding gangs, the number of which has increased dramatically.

Namely, in a report dated 25 September, the number that eventually fights were taken more than 60 prisoners, and the French, having suffered heavy losses, were driven out of several towns pt. In addition, from September's reports can be concluded that even Bonaparte start moving towards Petersburg, Kutuzov this once vyznat would. Wintzingerode took the main town on the paths and closely tracked down the movement of parts of the army stateliness that characterizes Ferdinand Yanukovych as an excellent strategist.

Speaking from Moscow, Napoleon ordered the rearguard led by Marshal Mortier, to undermine the Kremlin. Learning of this outpost in the Tver Wintzingerode without hesitation went to Moscow in order to prevent an act of military vandalism. The French did not appreciate the gesture, and Ferdinand was captured. Napoleon even threatened to shoot the Westphalian Baron for treason — was in the region of Hesse citizenship Bonaparte. But, for some reason the execution took place, according to one version thanks to the personal intervention of the Emperor Alexander. Version quixotic enough, so Russian government deliberately contacts with Napoleon did not support. It seems that there may be, Wintzingerode escorted to France, but was released the flying squad Chernyshev. For his actions during this period Ferdinand F. promoted to lieutenant general.

At the end of 1812 Wintzingerode has at its disposal the body, the forces which organized the persecution of the French in the Duchy of Warsaw. In the foreign expedition of the Russian army also took an active part, commanding the corps. February 13, 1813 at Kalisch defeated Marshal Rainier, captured more than 1.5 million French. For this success was presented the Order of St. ZHoru 2nd degree. 28 March of the same year took the body Wintzingerode Dresden, Leipzig and on April 3. In the unfortunate for coalition forces at the Battle of Lutzen Wintzingerode command of the entire Union cavalry.

Later participated in battles at Dennewitz and Grosse Beerenom. Here housing Wintzingerode fought against the troops of Marshal Ney and Oudinot, who had to take over Berlin. These victories have caused an unusual upsurge of patriotism in Prussia. Already in November 1813 took the German principalities Berg, Oldenburg and Fridslandiyu.

While in Leipzig, issued a proclamation to the Germans, namely the civilian authorities and bureaucrats, with the requirement not to obstruct the movement of the Russian army. For any illegal acts against the Russian soldiers promised swift and harsh retribution.

In the campaign of 1814, General distinguished himself in battles at Soissons, Laon, Saint-Dizei and fighting for the defeat of Napoleon, Ferdinand Parizh.Posle Wintzingerode takes command of the 2nd reserve cavalry corps, led by time to take part in the campaign of 1815. In 1817 he was appointed commander of the Separate Lithuania Corps. In this rank an old warrior did not stay long, in 1818, serving in Bavaria relatives. June 16, 1818 in the town of Wiesbaden Ferdinand F. died.

All life Wintzingerode took place in combat. He had the unique experience of the officers and the undisputed military talent. Through the action of the French flying columns do more damage there is information that Napoleon would send letters to Alexander, complaining about the fact that the war is not against the rules.

According to some reports, the majestic Army the actions of the guerrillas times a day lost 1.5 million people. The success of the detachment Wintzingerode nearly all contributed to the emergence of specialized military units. Unfortunately, the name of Ferdinand Wintzingerode not as clear as, say, Denis Davydov, perhaps this is due to its state affiliation. In Russian historiography was taken suppress the merits of professional military leaders on a national basis. Yet, at the court of Emperor
Alexander and aristocratic circles as Wintzingerode was widely understood and took advantage of popularity.

Devotion to the craft and those who took the oath Baron Wintzingerode justified his act at Moscow, when he went to Mortier. AH Benckendorf, the future head of the third branch office under Nicholas I described the scene of captivity Wintzingerode: "Wishing to save the Kremlin, the General went personally to our outposts that have leaked inside the town and the French were in sight of the guard, delivered near the house of the governor. General approached him, waving a handkerchief and do not want anyone to follow him. The officer took him as a truce, and was going to send a notice of Marshal Berthier, who was in the Kremlin when intoxicated hussar general rushed and took him prisoner. Our Cossacks were very far away, so give him help, and the young Naryshkin, Rushing to share the fate of one's own boss, announced his name and rank, and was also led away into captivity. "

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