Finnish Storm» Myrsky

Finland by the end of the 1930s possessed a well-developed aviation industry. Its base was state-owned enterprise "Valtion Lentokonetedas" that has mastered the creation of a license by the Dutch intelligence "Fokker" C-X fighter and "Fokker" D-XXI, and on the British license — twin-engine bombers Bristol "Blenheim". In the spring of 1939 skoplenny experience has permitted to raise the issue of creation of own aircraft. Major General Lundqvist F.Y., the commander of the Finnish Air Force, believed that first you need to do a fighter because monoplane "Fokker" D-XXI, although it was a fairly modern vehicle in connection with fixed landing gear, soon might be unable to fight zabugornom with modern aircraft.

The company "Valtion Lentokonetedas" June 8, 1939 was commissioned to design a single-engine single-seat fighter. But the project postponed due to the outbreak in November, the Soviet-Finnish war, because the company was absolutely loaded with current activities. Finland at the same time received from abroad more than 150 fighter aircraft (airplanes put England, Italy, USA, France, Sweden), which is largely removed the urgency prepyadstviya. Only in the spring of 1940, after the Nazi occupation of Norway and Denmark, Finland, to cut off from the Allies, a project of its own fighter revived. The development of the aircraft, which received the title of "Myrsky" ("Myrski" — "The Tempest"), headed by A. Ylinen, in collaboration with M. Vainio and T. Verkkola.

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky
Layout Myrsky (MY-1)

Created fighter was a single-seater single nizkoplanom kitted retractable landing gear. The fuselage had a mixed design. It was an iron farm, which in the tail section was reinforced wood stringers and frames. In the bow of the casing was made of duralumin, and the tail — from the web. Apart from the engine, installed in front of the cockpit compartment synchronous machine guns and fuel tank. The cockpit was locked with a lantern motionless visor and the middle part of the glass, sliding back. To improve visibility part fairing behind the cockpit was glassed. Dvuhlonzheronnoe trapezoidal wing had plywood paneling and wood collection, and its mechanization was introduced flaps and ailerons. The tail unit — solid wood. All deflectable aerodynamic surfaces were covered with cloth.

On the "Myrski" set a South American engine — a 14-cylinder air-cooled two-row circular capacity of 1115 hp R-1830-SC3-G "Twin Wasp" production company "Pratt & Whitney." It was equipped with a three-blade variable-pitch propeller "Hamilton Standard". Armament was also South American and consisted of a 2-12.7-mm machine guns M2 synchronous Company "Colt-Browning" set in the fuselage and four wing-7.7-mm machine guns of the same company.

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky
First serial "Myrski" in the brickyard. May 1944 g

Fighter project was completed in March 1941. To build the layout of MY-1 took about nine months, and the car December 23, 1941 for the first time rose into the air. Lieutenant E. Ityavuori, piloted aircraft, the first flight is praised as "partly successful." By the very glider claims were not, but the propellers were not up to par — the car led to the left. Because Finland had already came to the camp of the Axis, rely on, "Pratt & Whitney" her she could.

Engineers' Valtion Lentokonetedas "attempted to cope with the problem on their own, using the rudder trim. Testing lasted until May 1942, after machine returned to flight tests. Tests have shown a lack of effectiveness of the decision, and in December of the same year returned to the plant layout for future improvements. During the modification on the MY-1 set a new keel extra space. In addition, a number of measures aimed at reducing weight — plane "Lost" from 3242 to 2925 pounds, resulting in reduced load on the wing (from 194 to 175 kg/m2). Installed a new wood VISH VLS 8002, changed the exhaust system of motor nozzles, electronic retraction mechanism was replaced by hydraulic.

In April 1943, were flying the latest aircraft configuration. During testing MY-1 was achieved at the maximum speed 519 km / h (3250 feet altitude), height 5 sq m was recruited for 6.5 min. In the end, it was possible to overcome the problem of "Gone" to the left. The glider has a higher strength of the machine, and aerobatic pilots properties were evaluated as good. With all of this it was recognized that a modern Russian fighter aircraft will be hard to compete because "Myrski" was classified as a fighter-interceptor defense designed to counter priemuschestvenno bombers. September 14, 1943, during another test flight captain Coco even attempted to intercept Russian aircraft over Pori, who was heading to the west coast of Finland, but she was not crowned with success. To conduct all-encompassing test criteria in combat aircraft offered a transfer to combat units, but this declined due to lack of spare parts for the engine. November 26, 1943 MY-1, took the last flight of the 162nd. By the time the car managed to fly a 142 h 20 min.

May 30, 1942, before the completion of the test layout, ordered the first batch of "Myrski" — pre-production batch, which consisted of 3 planes (MY-2, MY-3, MY-4). Wingspan on these machines in comparison with the layout has been increased to 11 meters. For all this his area increased to 18 m2, and the load was reduced to 156 kg/m2. On machines installed 1,065-horsepower engines R-1830-SC3-G, which were produced under license in Sweden.

Weight pre-production aircraft was 2820-2850 pounds, because the planes were not completely similar. On airplanes MY-2 and MY-3 was found to 3 synchronous machine gun 12.7 mm, and MY-4 — 4 of the same gun. MY-2 equipped with a screw "Hamilton Standard", while other cars were equipped VLS 8002. The plane MY-3 engine hood lengthened, and the plane MY-4 had a narrow wing skin, and hydraulic brake wheel main landing gear (other aircraft, including the layout, have air brakes).

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky
"Myrski" (MY-20) from the TLeLv 12. September 1944 g

Tests MY-2 commenced on April 30, 1943. But on May 6 during the approach to landing on the aircraft engine and braked it, short of the runway, crashed. Captain Sovelius PE piloted MY-2, was languishing injured.

June 5 began tests MY-4, MY-3 first flight made on July 11. But on August 5 MY-3 mechanism of action out of the landing gear, and had to be put on the "belly." Repairs to t
he machine was completed in October. Because during the emergency landing casing broke off the rear fuselage, it has been replaced. But at hand was not the web, and sheathed tail board, resulting in weight MY-3 increased by 110 kg. Repair used to introduce another improvement: because during the test engines "Myrski" from time to time overheated on the rise, the back of the spinner blades were installed tin — a fan, which accelerated the flow of air under the hood. This decision proved to be effective, and then it was used on production aircraft.

First, in November 1943 MY-3 returned to the tests, but the aircraft was attracted bad luck. During the test on November 19, overclocked machine in a dive up to 850 km per hour. At the height of two thousand meters have come off the tail and wing. A. Siltavuori, piloting it, could not leave the plane and in the end the tragedy of death. Because the speed limit dive for these aircraft have limited 600 km / h, which was the lowest rate. Of course, the tragedy does not contribute to popularity in the middle of the new fighter pilots.

In contrast to the "brothers" MY-4 tests passed without problems. Perhaps this was due to the fact that it was used, usually for testing weapons and limiting behaviors he did not leave. It was decided to send the aircraft for military trials to combat units, but the bad reputation of "The Tempest" played a role — the new aircraft did not want to take no air group. Only on February 26 aircraft MY-4 were able to find a group HLelv 26, which was flying on the "FIAT" G.50. But marching career MY-4 was short-lived — March 19, 1944 divided the fate of the machine MY-3, destroyed during the dive, buried under the debris of Lieutenant Marttila I.

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky
The fighter pilot "Myrski" warms up the engine. "The Lapland War", 24 October 1944

During the test, pre-production machines found that "Myrsk" has a mediocre flight characteristics. At sea level, the highest rate was — 467 km / h But, despite this, it was decided to order the production batch. The respective agreement was signed on 08.18.1942, which divined the delivery of 50 vehicles, including pre-production cars. Production aircraft were assigned to rooms with MY-5 and MY-51. While serving as head designer Alexander Ilin at this time E. Wegelius changed.

Creating a production aircraft lagged behind schedule by 3-5 months — it was necessary to strengthen the airframe, since the tests were revealed some prepyadstviya. Since the first two production aircraft were collected prior to the disaster MY-MY-3 and 4, they retained An old wing. The first of them — MY-5 — rose in the air 21/12/1943, and subsequent — MY-6 — 02.02.1944. Both aircraft are willing to send in combat units, but the pilots simply shied away from them. In the end, the aircraft remained at the factory and participated in the trials. June 23, 1943 Lt. E. Hulme, piloted MY-6, broke up the car in a dive up to 640 km / h The car lost a left elevator, but Hulme control of the fighter and managed to keep the car planted creased. Thanks to this set of data the cause of disasters — the weakness of the tail, and its tendency to flutter. Necessary changes were immediately made to the design not only has 2-flying aircraft, and those who were on the assembly of the strip. The highest speed dive to limited production vehicles 650 kilometers per hour, and the speed — 3600 rpm / min.

Production aircraft, from time to time designated "Myrski" II, differed significantly from its predecessors. The cladding of the rear fuselage with a linen changed on plywood. Solid wood aileron ailerons changed to mixed design with the dominance of aluminum. Glazing fairing reduced to 2-parts. Naturally, sought to strengthen the wing and tail. The engine remains the same — Rl 838-SC3-G with VISH VLS 8002. Fuel tank capacity is 300 liters .. In armament consisted of four synchronous machine guns LKK/42 12.7 mm (licensed version of the product of "Colt-Browning"). Ammunition — 220 rounds per gun inner pair, and 260 rounds of ammunition — the outer pair. Small arms was completed a couple of under-wing bomb racks that allow suspended up to 100 kilogram bombs or additional fuel tanks. Radio equipment was presented to the radio station "Telefunken" FuG 7A in Germany, which provides communication at a distance of 80 km in the "plane-plane" and the "plane-to-ground" at a distance of 150 km.

When the problem of unable to dive away, it became clear that "Myrski" quite maneuverable plane, great to listen to the rudders. However, a nasty tendency to stall on the left during landing remains, and it served as a prerequisite for several accidents. Height of 3400 m plane gained for 4 minute and was able to develop her speed of 535 km / h Prior to the start of deliveries of production aircraft ordered an additional batch of 10 vehicles.

In March 1944 began shipping "Myrsky" II. By the time the armistice was signed between the USSR and Finland, September 4, 1944 was 30 aircraft. The contract for an additional batch was "frozen" on September 30 (just canceled 05.30.1945), but prior booking supplies last. Last five with the plant released 30 December 1944, and no flight tests went to the warehouse.

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky

By the time of the supply serial "Myrski" Finnish fighter aircraft already had a Bf 109G-6, and aviation groups to rearm machines that are significantly inferior to the "Messerschmitt" on the flight and tactical features would be simply unreasonable. In this regard, "Myrski" push off a reconnaissance aircraft. By mid-1944 intelligence TLelv Air Group 12 threatened disbanding due to the wear of the real part. It is in this group were "Myrski." Re-training of flight personnel was held at the airport in Tampere. TLelv 12 to 23.7.1944 received the first "Myrski" and after two weeks she has 22 machines.

Group TLelv 12, under the command of Major O. Tuomisalo acted north of Lake Ladoga in Mensuvaara. Her 1st Squadron 1 August 1944 came to the front, with five new aircraft "Myrski." August 9 held a baptism of fire fighters: Lieutenant Tuulensumu rose to intercept enemy aircraft. In fact, as a "game" it was he — the air was met by Lieutenant pair of Russian Yak-7. Slap dogfight ended without result, without taking damage their opponents back to the airfields. In the order of the first squadron on the same day came another 4 "Myrski" and 10 days later came back to the front 2nd Squadron TLelv 12 has four aircraft of the same type.

Activity Aviation of the USSR in the war zone TLelv 12 was insignificant because the second meeting with the Russian fighters took place only on 22 August. 6 "Myrski 'first squadron flew on that day route Mensuvaara — Ristisaari — Vitel — Mantsi — Mensuvaara to investigate. Over Mantsi they met with 3 Yak-9 of 195 th Fighter Regiment. Lieutenant B. Linden during the fight knocked out one of Jacob, damaging his left landing gear. However, the fighter held up to the Il-Uuksu, where he sat down at the airport on the "belly." Not having time to look around, the Finns faced with 2 La-5 FN belonging to the same 195th
Fighter Wing. Captain Virkkunen released towards the 1st of enemies longish queue that was clear. La-5 FN with a warped engine sat on coercion.

September 3rd Air Group TLelv 12 completed the first bombing raid — 6 "Myrski, "Led by Captain Tilly, thrown off by Russian Infantry Division headquarters in Orusyarvi 100-pound bombs. Lieutenant Tuulensuu the same day executed against the Russian troops last flight on" Myrsky ". Attempt to intercept enemy aircraft in Sortavala — Landepohya was unsuccessful.

Finnish "Storm» Myrsky

Airplanes "Myrski" during combat operations against the Russian Union performed a total difficulties 66 sorties. Loss — three aircraft, all in non-combat causes. Combat pilots considered "Myrsky" easy to operate and very maneuverable aircraft, marking a good overview of his cab. What's all the same for bugs, the pilots, not including the already mentioned restrictions on the biggest dive speed and tendency to stall, complained about the rather weak armament.

Jets' Myrski "before the signing of the armistice, began to arm the 2nd scouts — TLelv 16, led by Major X. Pursialnenom and deployed in Wärtsilä. First 2 "Myrski" went on the air group of 18/08/1944, and before September 4, she came 4 more cars. TLelv 16 before he could fulfill even the 1st combat flight, the plane had time to lose — MY-29 crashed due to engine stop. Lieutenant A. Kurki, piloted the car died.

After September 4 came a little respite during which to "Myrski" (as well as on other aircraft of the Air Force Finland) blue swastikas were changed with new distinctive signs — blue and white circles. September 28, 1944 renewed fighting — now the enemy is part of the Wehrmacht, who were in the north of Finland and refused to leave the country voluntarily. "Myrsky" in this campaign using only a month later. 7 aircraft of TLelv 12 24/10/1944 flew in Kemi. There's a unit that led the captain Tilly, was transferred to the operational control of the fighter group HLelv 26, the equipped aircraft "Brewster" V239 "Buffalo." Combat missions in Paloyoensuu-Enontekle began on October 26. "Myrski" engaged in the exploration, without encountering the enemy. In November, it was made only 13 flights, and another 7 canceled due to adverse weather criteria. It turned out that the plane "Myrsky" poorly adapted for use in arctic criteria: iron design elements rapidly corroded, the battery immediately discharged, ailerons froze. Combat losses were not, but the plane MY-25 crashed at startup. Last sortie "The Tempest" in the "Lapland War" was conducted November 23, 1944.

After the end of hostilities Finnish Air Force have been reduced and reorganized. Part of personnel demobilized. TLelv Group 12 was reorganized in HLelv 11, TLelv 16 — to 13 HLelv. These groups were included in the Aviation Regiment LeR 1 and at the end of January 1945 were relocated to the west of Finland in Pori. When the stretch was lost once the plane — because of the broken chassis MY-27 crashed.

Airplanes "Myrski" after the flight to Pori joined the fighters Bf 109G-2 and "Hawk" 75A is already there. All flights at the direction of the Allied Control Commission were suspended. They resumed in August 1945. But with "Myrsky" almost immediately embarked on a series of disasters and accidents. In search of solving problems of reliability constructors' Valtion Lentokonetedas "it was decided to implement the slotted wing slats. The decision was "podsmotreno" trophy at the LaGG-3. For working solutions were taken aircraft MY-50 — one of the last "Myrski" which immediately got the factory to the warehouse. Modified Fighter 19 November 1946 went for tests that have shown promising results. According to the standard expected to finalize the "Myrski" remained in the ranks. But 9 May 1947 lost another car — MY-28 aircraft from the HLelv 13, speeding up to 850 km / h in a dive crashed. By shrapnel died Captain K. Ikonen. After that, flying on "Myrski" were banned.

February 10, 1948 was the last flight "Myrski." Then given special permission to fly MY-50 in Tampere of Kauhava. Fighter and in this flight confirmed his reputation unlucky aircraft: during landing pilot forgot flaps, which eventually gave way to the right landing gear and propeller was damaged. This episode was the last of the 51 aircraft accident "Myrski." Over the years of operation lost 21 aircraft, killing four pilot. The survivors' Myrski "sent for storage, and in 1953, they passed on the scrap heap.

Certainly, the fate of the Finnish fighter has affected the protracted process of creation. Properties of the aircraft, which for 1941 were entirely satisfactory, have been missing for 1944, when it was possible to make a batch creation. Another fateful event, said at the "Tempest," the isolation of Finland, on technical assistance from the developers of devices, first — the motor. On the experience of the aircraft clearly visible tasks that accompany the samples to the highest plane flying and technical characteristics in a country that does not have the experience and traditions of independent aircraft.

Flight and technical properties of the layout:
Wingspan — 10.0 m;
Overall length — 8.25 m;
Overall height — 3.00 m;
Wing area — 16.70 m2;
Take-off weight — 2925 kg;
Time to 5,000 m — 6.5 min;

Aircraft performance properties of pre-production aircraft:
Wingspan — 11.0 m;
Overall length — 8.35 m;
Overall height — 3.00 m;
Wing area — 18,00 m2;
Take-off weight — 2818-2848 kg;
The highest speed at sea level — 467 km / h;
The highest speed at an altitude of 3400 m — 519 km / h;

Flight and technical properties of the production aircraft:
Wingspan — 11.0 m;
Overall length — 8.35 m;
Overall height — 3.00 m;
Wing area — 18,00 m2;
Empty weight — 2337 kg;
Take-off weight — 2953 kg;
The biggest take-off weight — 3213 kg;
The highest speed at sea level — 470 km / h;
The highest speed at an altitude of 2000 m — 508 km / h;
The highest speed at an altitude of 3400 m — 535 km / h;
The highest speed at an altitude of 5000 m — 524 km / h;
Cruising speed at an altitude of 3000 m — 438 km / h;
Time to 1000m — 1.1 min;
Time to 3,000 m — 3.5 min;
Time to 5,000 m — 6.4 min;
Ceiling — 9000 m;
Normal range — 500 km;
Most range — 1,200 km;

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