Hallucinations. It is believed that it is a mental disorder and a person who sees something that is not actually definitely need treatment. But what about the phenomenon of Mass hallucination? Are a few or even dozens of people may lose their mind at the same time? Maybe it's some kind of an illusion created by a skilled craftsman? Let's look at history and try at least a little to lift the veil of secrecy.
In the book of E. Parrish, "Hallucinations and Illusions" (1897) is considered well-known case of vision: a few days after the death ship cook crew of one ship is at sea, and saw the unmistakable silhouette of the Coca learned that, limping (one leg had been shorter than the other), was walking to them on the water.
When the vision approached, it suddenly turned into a bunch of flotsam left after the shipwreck.
E. Parrish suggested that the first one someone thought, thinking about the loss of a friend that he saw it, and by sharing this with others and inspired them this assumption. Considered as E. Parrish, this could be an explanation of how there are ghosts.
But not everything can be explained so easily.
VMBekhterev told how during a religious festival in Sarov pilgrims suddenly began to see at the bottom of an abandoned well saint — Father Seraphim. And some have even noticed movement of the hand.
It lasted as long as it was approached by a pilgrim, not knowing about the "miracle." And she said that at the bottom is nothing but garbage and stones, no.
And then a "vision" (mass hallucination) immediately terminated, and all began to see only stones and rubbish …
In his book "Ghost images" (1930), Professor ER Jaensch tried to explain the case of animated statues and paintings. He claimed that he was talking about stable visual images that are superimposed on the normal vision.
Trying to explain the mass hallucinations, for which there are no specific assumptions, some authors have advanced the theory of telepathic contact. By the original version presented in the book Crow "mysterious side of nature" (1854), the viewer perceives a vision can make contact with other group members, and to make others see the vision.
For instance, the famous Indian rope trick …
The book Andri Puharich "Beyond the telepathy" (1962) published observations of two researchers psychologists who have seen this focus along with hundreds of other spectators.
The trick is that the rope climbs up the boy after him with a knife in his hand magician breaks and they both disappeared somewhere upstairs. Heard screams, and then fall to the ground hail cut into pieces of the body.
Magician coming down with a bloody knife, fold the pieces in a box, and then jumps out of his smiling boy. In some performances the audience sees a dog that tries to steal the leg or arm, but she is forced to return the loot.
Psychologists have also seen how, gathering of the boy in the basket, the magician raised her on a rope and came down with a live boy.
After reviewing the submission, captured on film, they were amazed: and fakir on the screen all the time no matter boy standing by a rope coiled on the ground.
The whole show was imagined!
I tried to find footage of the speech, but did not. But I found a great video Indian magician with a rope, a boy with a sword, but without dissection . The illusion is really amazing. Take a look:
Fakir Muthukad and the famous rope trick
A. Puharich concludes that "hallucination occurred to the fakir … she was excited and telepathically transmitted to several hundred spectators."
In 1934, this focus was twice repeated in London, the second session organizers removed the hidden cameras. On the development of the film could be seen lying on the ground rope and skulking in the bushes boy. Attending the spectators witnessed the event, which in reality was not.
In 1980, William Seabrook described in the journal "Leydis Home Journal" version of the Focus, which he had seen in West Africa, "Next to me were two living children, which I could not touch it. At the same distance from me were two men armed with steel … three-edged with sharp blades.
Then there was the fact that I "saw" with my own eyes, but below you will understand why I say this with reluctance, and why I do not understand what the word "see."
Both magician held tightly in his left hand blades tip up and throwing children shows a high in the air, caught them on the edge of it … There was no blood … The audience screamed and fell to his knees.
Some of them have closed eyes with his hands, while others remained on the ground motionless.
Magicians have passed through the crowd (one of them was carrying over the child's head impaled on the blade), and disappeared into the house sorcerer. "Later W. Seabrook seen and fingered children that this test did not cause any harm. Focus was an illusion shown by the audience, who could not believe his eyes.
Fayvishevsky V., commenting on these cases, said that "visual hallucinations as well reproduced under hypnosis that the possibility of their occurrence is not in doubt. But success requires the commitment of suggestion to him or, in modern terms, psychological setting. ".
Uznadze, the head of Georgia's school of psychology, said: "With the needs and situation of its satisfaction in the subject there is a specific condition that can be described as an addiction, as the focus, as the willingness to commit an act that is likely to meet this need."
I must say that any kind of setup time and again direct our behavior. And sometimes they make us see something quite different from what it actually is! For example, one school was carried out the following experiment. Teacher before the lesson has agreed with all the students, except one, that they will say: the lines that are actually different lengths are equal. At first, this one student wondered, trying to convince others that the segments are different.
But gradually, under the influence of the general opinion, he agreed and really started to "see" that the segments are equal in length!
This behavior, when the person subject to the opinion of others unconsciously, called suggestibility. It manifests itself in the views, emotions, feelings, actions. Extreme — it's lack of initiative, passive, uncritical.
To a greater or lesser degree, we are all suggestible. Since the 1950s, this area of human relations were carefully study by psychologists and sociologists. It was found that the exposure of human moods of others depends on many factors. First of all the properties of the individual: the degree of suggestibility, sustainability self-assessment, the level of self-esteem, intelligence, need for approval of others …
Children suggestability much higher than in adults in women than in men. In addition, the ratio has a value of rights to others — as he takes his place among them, their significance for him as far as he "allowed" different from all the others, etc.
An example of a very high suggestibility is a collective panic, covering a huge mass of people. It is well described by Victor Hugo's novel "Les Miserables":
"The army suddenly wavered from all sides at the same time … For the cries of" Treason! "Followed by" Save yourself! ". Receding army is like a thaw. All sinks, breaks, ranges, breaks, rolls, falls, faces rushing, rushing …
People are pressured jostle each other, stepping on the living and the dead. Countless crowds flooding the road. There is no longer any friends, no officers or generals — one reigns unimaginable horror. "
This is possible when people are imbued with the general mood and feelings. And then enough to appear spark to burst all the sweeping fire. This is typical for periods of religious boom in the history of mankind.
When people are in the crowd, each usually disappears sense of independence, awakens reflex follow. There is a kind of cross-contamination as a result of the overall emotional state is created, it is passed on facial expressions, movements, look in his eyes, breathing rhythm, etc. and is often perceived by the so-called subsensornom level (the experience has not reached the level of consciousness).