In recent years, production of the Russian military-industrial complex (MIC) is rapidly losing its appeal not only to our regular partners in military-technical cooperation (MTC), but even for his own Ministry of Defense.
It is believed that in the 2000s, we managed to get destroyed after the collapse of the Soviet Union the production chain. Yet it was found that the system was restored without time requirements. Something that worked well in the criteria of the planned economy, now fails for failure.
According to the views of the creator, in the middle of the main causes of non-compliance the reconstituted system of pressing challenges — misalignment of the parts, the lack of a holistic view of the difficulties, the commitment has long been known to the scientific and technical solutions (invariance of the development trends).
Because there is a void in truly breakthrough developments. De facto standards are upgrading more Russian weapons and military equipment (AME) Our homeland does not produce promising products adapted to the current and foreseeable requirements and changing conditions of implementation. The consequence is to reduce the export potential of Russian weapons and military equipment are also increasingly frequent facts of licensed production of obsolete models of Western manufacturers.
The dictates of subcontractors
It seems that verbally presenting the highest requirements for the final producer, the government misses the real state and the ability of contractors. No matter how complicated technology system, and military technology is no exception, is born not only on the assembly line factory. To a large extent this is a joint effort by subcontractors — developers units and accessories and software. Meanwhile, the producers behind the final product developers the basic devices and peripherals are often not visible. This, according to the views of many professionals, is one of the Russian defense system errors. In addition, these criteria often people do not have much incentive to sell their involvement in a large project.
Another bad nuance is considered a spice — it's narrow-profile nature of specialization Russian defense industry and today a significant imbalance in the level of co-executors. In the first case deals with the still persisting practice, when the output of the unit under the machine were born whole creation.
A remarkable example — Kurgan Engineering Works, made under the BMP-1. Certainly, this giant effortlessly ran on the BMP-2, and later on the BMP-3. But nothing is really a breakthrough in the Kurganmashzavod was not released. On the other hand, the actual monopolization by the business the whole direction of IWT (due to the fact that the government itself has concentrated all the resources in the hands of one) is not permitted to look for other subcontractors.
A similar situation exists with the engine for the BMP. Barnaul transport engineering — a monopolist. There is a frequent uncontrolled, in fact dictatorial violation of criterion contracts. Not once in the contracts recorded numerous configuration at the stage of implementation, draw up a protocol differences. The problem is compounded by the fact that Barnaultransmash now outside of state ownership. Not so long ago, private holders, seeking to profit increment, decided to convert spec diesel plant in the aggregate. In the end, there was a danger that our homeland might lose line of engines FTD (Universal Tank diesel) producing exclusively in Barnaul.
A similar case (but with a positive ending for the country), there was a monopoly in the production of guns — Nizhny Novgorod Engineering Plant. Tired of prepiraniya with Nizhmashem, the military entered into an agreement with OAO "MZ" to make alternative 100-mm cannon. Artillery system was significantly cheaper and in no way inferior in quality. In the end the monopoly of Nizhny Novgorod has fallen, and now has control of the plant itself looks for a reason to meet with representatives of the Ministry of Defense, said its full readiness to conclude agreements on the criteria of the country. But earlier in the Nizhny Novgorod noted that it is not in a position to create more than 10 guns a month. With all of this during the execution of the contract price of the contract has increased by 30 percent. In fact Nizhmash dictate its terms to the government. After all candidates of its products in Russia at that time was not. As a result, at one point, and the thing just came to delirium — the Ministry of Defense, not agreeing with the Nizhny Novgorod engineering plant, so as not to go beyond the planned amount of funds for the modernization of the army, was forced to buy guns abroad — in China.
There is no internal competition
Russian President Vladimir Putin, who oversees "the defense industry," Deputy Prime Minister Dmitry Rogozin increasingly aggressive claims of the respective artists to the competitive environment in the domestic arms market.
This, experts say, will likely only if a "defense" will be allowed are independent producers. The implication is that they have become rivals municipal monopolies or structures, where the government is affiliated — GC "Russian Technologies", Uralvagonzavod (DC), "Almaz-Antey". The need to achieve this is not just outright said the president. Now the reality is the so-called conspiracy of suppliers, which in the latter's own manifestation leads to an obvious criterion for imposing monopoly own state.
Often in the Addendum to the Agreement providers prescribed non-core functions, significantly increases the final cost. These are, namely, are laid down in the contract amount of funds for the maintenance and repair of the undertaking of social infrastructure. This event is not just criticized Defense Minister Anatoly Serdyukov (namely during his visit to JSC "PO" Sevmash "), who pointed out that under the current criteria of social responsibility performance of the enterprise to its employees comes to functionality of the Health Ministry or the Ministry of Regional Development, but does not the Defense Ministry.
So Makar, the methods and procedures that are correct in Russian while in the criteria of the planned economy, are totally ineffective in the criteria of the market: the management system and the tax system were completely different and did not anticipate the direct support of non-core assets defense companies of the inverse funds. Much less that the old practice was not in the least affect on the growth of corruption. Of land and property companies wasted inappropriately, and executives involved in the area of the former subordinate pioneer camps and building health centers and tourist business.
Avoid collusion and fraud with non-core assets may be only a small connection-independent developers.
Another caveat — the approach to the management of the business in the criteria of the market. Effective management of their business in any way is not the same utility for the country.
So, so great to compete in the markets of third countries with Western weapons-giants to build a well-established mechanisms of competition inside the country.
Why did the Soviet Union such problems were not so sharp? In 1-x, read that in those years there was no competition, it is inappropriate. Entire schools of working on the optimization of this or other solutions and ways t
o implement were sometimes diametrically inverse. In-2, was an effective filter system in the form of interagency working groups and established system of examinations. About her performance tongued evidenced by the fact that up to the present time, many developing Russian-time are unparalleled. With the help of existing devices government had the opportunity to adjust the development WME models taking into account the configuration of the criterion of the external environment. Qualifications and acts of expert and regulatory bodies allowed to bring the required quality and performance characteristics of the final product to the good.
The stagnation in R & D
The vast majority of our projects (of course, among them there are a lot of really unique products developed by excellent designers) has no other lines of development. On a promising example of a military technology the same picture — the lack of variation in approach. This dilemma can be solved only by means of a network of groups of subcontractors on the same topic. No other R & D now — not tomorrow breakthrough developments.
Take, for example, analog Kondyukov for armored vehicles. Available now in the army unit proved to be reliable and efficient. But there is a vortex Kondyukov that are not only not inferior to them in many ways, but also have a much great energy efficiency.
One of the reasons such provisions — existing monopoly in the domestic market of arms impede saturated promotion of other components and assemblies produced are independent businesses. So Makar, the government should review the regulatory framework in the respective field or at least the last constructively to tighten supervision over the implementation of the existing legislation.
Existing mechanisms are built in such makarom that actually preclude the introduction of advanced technologies and, in contrast, focus on deep modernization WME models standing in service. This, according to the professionals, has already led to delays Russian defense industry in the international arena for a variety of characteristics. The result is that we have lost the seemingly unshakable position in the previously conquered markets.
Customer (both internal and external) must have detailed production (operating card scheme) card and the technologies used. They will allow him to independently choose those options or other assembly. This once again underlines the urgency of the problem of other developments. Again, there are puzzles in this only one solution — verbovanie for competitions, tenders and R & D-independent producers. The likely return of "defense" for the planned system is indescribable well and unacceptable.
The doctrinal gaps
A promising set of the Armed Forces of the main policy document in the military-political sphere — the military doctrine. Nedavneshny make out the armed conflict in Libya (only in the context of the ongoing confrontation between the government army and the militant groups). Of course, that Gaddafi is not beheld the internal enemy. Military doctrine Tripoli (principal, she wore the official or unofficial nature) has been designed to protect the integrity of the country in the event of external aggression. Specifically, for this reason, in the last decade was bought military equipment, set up to conduct large-scale fighting, but not adapted to counterinsurgency warfare.
Where you can buy weapons and military equipment to TTX caused by the reflection of external orientation towards anger? Of course, where the TOR laid following an identical military doctrine, in Russia for example. The same explains the popularity of Russian military mission in India. Our tanks, for example, designed with the highest likelihood of their implementation in large-scale war with the introduction of nuclear weapons (NW). New Delhi is facing similar neuvvyazkami (over a possible conflict — with Pakistan, both states possess significant arsenals of nuclear weapons). Of course, that for civilian war or a local low intensity conflict, our technique is not adaptable enough.
In the interests of a foreign customer
The current situation from the standpoint of conservation of outdoor markets is a dead end. How can I change it? One solution — to allow DIC to work on tactical and technical requirements of a foreign client. This will allow not only offer the customer a choice of possible modifications to the existing standard or other materiel made to meet the needs of the Russian Army, and create a product that takes into account the very specific needs of the consumer and the operating conditions. This approach will be beneficial and Rosoboronexport, which will manage funds for zabugornyh customers to implement their own research and development, expanding the technology platform Russian "defense".
Need not fear roles in international tenders for the development of weapons systems. In addition, the last reclaims verbovaniya-independent developers, and means to increment the number of ongoing research and development and other such makarom definitely have a positive impact on the internal competitiveness of Russian companies.