About 3,500 years ago, died in unusual circumstances ancient Indian city, went down in history as the Mohenjo-daro (Sindhi language "Hill of the Dead"). In the manuscript "Mahabharata" tells of a powerful explosion that followed the appearance of the sky, "glare" and "fires without smoke." From the heat, "water began to boil", "fish looked like charred." As a result of the disaster killed all the inhabitants of the city, an explosion destroyed the building and other buildings.
In 1922. on an island in the river Indus, archaeologists have discovered the ruins of the ancient city. There were traces of fire and severe damage but did not find either one grave, so the city called Mohenjo-daro (Mohenjo Daro), which translated from Sindhi language means "Hill of the Dead." We still do not know how the name of this city in fact, as they called themselves his people. It is known for only one thing — it's one of the great cities of antiquity. And one of the most mysterious, he died about 3700 years ago in a very unusual and still not solved circumstances. Cities rarely come to a sudden decline, and this city all pointed to the fact that the disaster was instantaneous.
Mohenjo-Daro is considered one of the greatest archaeological sites in the world. In 1980, he was included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.
In 1984, New York was the collection "Harappan civilization" edited by Gregory L. Possela. The book has been collected about 40 articles by renowned archaeologists India, Pakistan, Europe and the Americas. The book contains a lot of new material, for example, it describes the find to the Thar desert, more than 370 hitherto unknown Harappan settlements.
Scientists have many hypotheses about the causes of "immediate death" Mohenjo-Daro: this is an unexpected and dramatic climate change in the Indus Valley, a terrifying effect of floods, epidemic of an unknown disease, dramatically reduce the population, etc. There was also such a hypothesis: several successive invasions of Indo-Aryans through the mountain passes to the north and west (even reported that during the excavation traces of the battle). However, more recent studies have not confirmed any of these hypotheses.
For the past 89 years, scientists scratching their heads over the deciphering of the great mysteries of this city, which is more than 5000 years. Scientists still have not come to a consensus and the origin of this culture. To date opened and cleared only about 10 percent of its territory. Upon opening the excavation area of Mohenjo-Daro is 260 gektarovili more than 2.5 square kilometers Its suburbs today buried under silt Indus. Excavations were carried out here until the 1960s. As archaeologists descended lower and lower, towards the salty water began to rise. Salty plaque is seen everywhere on the bricks. Salt has become erode what is left of the city. And then the decision of UNESCO excavations were conserved. Raising the level of underground water inhibits study of ancient sloevv Mohenjo-Daro.Sovershenno obviously chtov ancient city was much larger.
But the uncovered during archaeological investigations ancient masonry bricks Mohenjo-Daro, the perfection of which affects the archaeologists, keeps the secrets of the city. The researchers did not find any cemeteries in the area of Mohenjo-Daro because the city has existed for at least one and a half millennia. In the ruins of buildings and structures were found numerous dead bodies of people and animals.
In one of the houses were found skeletons of thirteen men, women and one child. Their remains were signs of sudden death. But they were not killed or robbed — some were bracelets, rings, necklaces. Across the city, archaeologists stumbled on such a group of skeletons, who testified that before his death people freely walked the streets and were caught off guard by death.
All of this is somewhat like the picture of sudden death in Pompeii. Only on units from thousands of skeletons found in Mohenjo-daro, really showed signs of injuries.
During the excavation was found no weapons, no residues of any military ammunition, weapons or even debris or signs of devastation. The total number of skeletons made up of several thousand, which is very small for a big city. Experts estimate that in the heyday of Mohenjo — Daro population of about 50,000 people.
Why do people leave Mohenjo — daro, which left tens of thousands of people who lived here? — These questions still remain unanswered.
Originally Mohenjo — Daro located on two islands on the river Indus. And as shown by excavations and computer reconstruction of the city, to live there was very comfortable. Perhaps even more comfortable than some modern cities. Wide paved streets, Multi 2-D and 3-storey house, drainage, water supply and other amenities.
The civilization of Harappa and Mohenjo — daro
Area Proto civilization was more extensive than the areas civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt combined. It stretched for 1,600 kilometers from north to south and 800 kilometers from east to west. Since the early 20-ies of XX century to the present day was opened around 2500 monuments of this ancient culture, including its capital city, sea ports, border fortress, etc. We can not say whether it is a single civilization, or a few city-states.
In an era of prosperity Mohenjo-Daro around him stretched the fertile land, and deep rivers were the transport channels. The population engaged in farming and grow wheat, barley, sesame seeds, dates and cotton. Rich harvests and convenient means of communication allow city residents to exchange their products for raw materials, metals, precious stones and spices from Central Asia, Afghanistan, Persia and South India. Among the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro was found dozens of male and female figures in terracotta and the thumbnail images of various animals, as well as clay seals with pictographic inscriptions.
Cities of the Indus Valley were made of bricks — but not raw, which was used by the Sumerians, and of burnt brick. This fact, as well as the remains of huge dams, to protect the city from floods, and a dense network of ditches clearly showed that five thousand years ago, heavy rains in the Indus Valley were quite frequent, so much so that the abundance of water threatened the city's buildings. The Sumerians could build their city of mud-brick, as rains in southern Mesopotamia were a rare phenomenon. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley, by contrast, clearly had an excess of water — and this is all the more surprising that today it is one of the driest places on the planet.
Indus civilization holds many unsolved mysteries. We do not know, in fact, it was called, who built it. Forgotten the name of her mysterious cities. Unknown, and the language of this civilization, the characters on the Indies seals are still undeciphered …
To date, several hypotheses to explain the reasons for the "crash" is so extensive, powerful and advanced civilization. Among them: climate change, due to the motion of tectonic plates, floods, earthquakes, invasion of nomadic tribes. The civilization declined quite rapidly. A disaster in Mohenjo — Daro generally come suddenly.
Causes of death of Mohenjo — daro
From the survey it was clear: Mohenjo-daro was the victim of some kind of environmental catastrophe, it happened suddenly and did not last long. However, the force of it was such that it led to a sudden and irreversible destruction of the whole city. Another interesting fact is that almost simultaneously with the Mohedzho-Daro were killed and others, located near large cities.
According to some reports, on a hill where there was a town, there was a massive explosion, the ruins of the buildings were melted, and the skeletons in the vicinity of the explosion — radioactive. Allegedly, in 1927, archaeologists found a 27 or 44 fully preserved human skeletons with elevated levels of radiation. The authorities began to worry. You can not give people the evidence that in the middle of the second millennium, someone used the powerful nuclear bomb. What was needed was some kind of version. First start in the media disinformation message saying that the one hundred and forty miles from Mohenjo-daro allegedly found an ancient earthquake epicenter, which was the cause of the tragedy. However, no one believed that the quake was capable of melted rocks. Then came one AP Nevsky, who said that it was a comet. Like, at the entrance to the atmosphere appeared static electricity force in millions of amps, it was he who destroyed the city. However, at Mohenjo-Daro was not found signs of flooding, volcanic eruptions or the fall of large meteorites.
The first version. Mohenjo-daro and black lightning
In the magazine "Around the World» № 7 for 1987 was published an article by Professor M. Dmitriev, "Black Lightning over the Mohenjo-Daro." In her heat, melted rocks at "Ground Zero", the explosion was due to a large number of fireballs, or physico-chemical entities (FHO) (Black Lightning), which are unstable and their decay, considerable temperature. These formations are able to exist for a long time and give off noxious fumes. It is assumed that they and "strangled" residents. And FHO can explode like a conventional ball lightning. That aggression huge accumulation of "black lightning" proponents of this hypothesis explain the melted rocks and skeletons of people on the streets of Mohenjo-Daro …
But what made the black lightning accumulate it in Mohenzhdo-daro? The ruins of the city are in the territory of Pakistan, near the border with India. It's just at the junction of the Indian and Eurasian tectonic plates. At this point in the earth's crust there are huge tectonic stresses. It is believed that the collision of these two plates, continued for millions of years, has led to the emergence of mountain-fold belt, now called the Himalayas. The pressure at the junction of two plates could cause a huge voltage in rocks containing quartz. For the same reason, a voltage in pezozazhigalke. Only here the continental scale. At the same time between Earth's surface and the upper layers of the atmosphere there is great tension. The upper layer was ionized by solar radiation, it is electrically conductive. The Earth's surface and the ionosphere are the plates of the capacitor-planetary. Atmospheric layer is an insulator therebetween. One can imagine what kind of lightning can happen if you close the surface to the ionosphere.
There was even a hypothesis that Nikola Tesla learned to induce ionospheric breakdown and even boasted that can burn electricity once an army or navy.
The ancient Indian myths speak of some intolerable glare. Perhaps it was an incredible ionospheric lightning.
If, indeed, was an incredible lightning, it shall have to be more than an incredible fulgurite. This channel is fused soil, extending deep into the earth in a lightning strike.
In this regard, we can recall the town Sasovo in the Ryazan region. Thanks to investigate geologist V.Larina was found to cause accidental explosion of the place (also accompanied by a piezoelectric phenomena). Rose from the depths of hydrogen, a volatile mix that erupted with the effect similar to the vacuum bomb. Fortunately, this did not happen in the city, and a little further away. However, in contrast to the Mohenjo-Daro, there was no melting or flash was too short. There were also cases when one of the anomalous wells in Yakutia burned deep hydrogen burning in and around the well from the heat of the sand just a sintered glass.
This version of the black lightning researcher V.Kandyba support. He recalls the many ancient reports of strong glow air and all sorts of unusual phenomena in China, Ethiopia, India, Egypt, Scotland.
Version two. Mohenjo-daro and the earthquake
This version of the proposed American researcher geologD. Raikes, who has studied the structure of the layers of the earth in the area of Mohenjo — Daro. He found that in a hundred and forty kilometers to the south of the city center was the strongest earthquake that changed the face of the Indus Valley. Probably from it all started. Apparently, the earthquake heaved the ground, the Indus was baffled, and his water turned back. Then began an offensive mud flows. The settlements near Mohenjo-daro multimeter were buried under a layer of silt and sand. The townspeople tried to defend himself, began to build the dam, traces of which were found during excavations. But in dealing with water and mud flows became harder and harder.
Scientists believe that the onset of the sea mud lasted about one hundred years. As a result, the element of victory, and the city was killed.
Some scientists believe that one of the factors causing the earthquake, there may be changes in atmospheric pressure
This version became especially popular after the strong earthquake that survived India and Pakistan in October 2005.
Version Three. Mohenjo-daro and floods
Some historians believe that the city was the victim of a series of powerful floods — often pours the Indus flooded Mohenjo-daro, and the inhabitants were forced to leave the city. As shown pictures of the cosmos, the Indus river and a number of other local rivers repeatedly changed their direction. This was due to motions of the crust. Moreover, the Indus repeatedly flooded Mohenjo-Daro. As a result, damage the drainage system, resulting in a hot climate terrible epidemic began, literally slanting people. Staying Alive hastily left the city.
In support of this version of researchers refer to the archaeologists who found seven or nine layers of silt between the levels of a mature culture of Mohenjo — Daro. Thus, the city was successively destroyed and rebuilt at least seven times. Each time a new city built on top of old ones.
Version Four. Mohenjo — Daro and ancient weapons
This version was presented in his book "Nuclear explosion in 2000 BC» («AtomicDestructionin2000 BC», 1979), David Davenport and Ettore Vincenti. English student of culture and language of ancient India D. Davenport, Sanskrit scholar, was born and lived for some time in India. He was obsessed with the idea of transferring the ancient Indian texts from Sanskrit into English and objective interpretation of the philosophical and historical significance of the matters described in these texts. He also spent 12 years in Pakistan, studying the ruins of Mohenjo — Daro.
D. Davenport with Vincenti Italian researcher found that about 3,700 years ago at the top of the hill around which was built Mohenjo — daro, there was a massive explosion, similar to the atomic (according to various estimates, the date of destruction varies from 1500 to 2000 BC . e.). They have put in my book scheme destruction of buildings. If you look at it closely, you can see clearly outlined epicenter, within which all buildings swept away. As one moves from the center to the periphery of the fracture reduced, gradually taper off. Becomes clear why the outlying buildings are the most preserved buildings of Mohenjo-Daro.
A careful examination of the destroyed buildings D. Davenport and E. Vincenti found that the diameter of the explosion is about 50 m At this point all is melted and crystallized, all the buildings have been razed to the ground. At a distance of 60 m from the center of the explosion melted bricks and stones on the one hand, which indicates the direction of the explosion.
It is known that stones melt at a temperature of about 2000 ° C. In these places, and found the sand turned into glass. (The same layers of green glass were found in the Nevada desert (USA) after the nuclear tests).
In the direction from the center to the periphery of the extent of damage to buildings is gradually reduced.
The researchers also found that destroyed the ancient city of three powerful shock waves that spread for a mile from the epicenter of the explosion. Among the ruins in an area with a radius of more than 400 meters of scattered pieces of clay, ceramic, and some minerals that have undergone rapid melting. All the people who were in the midst of instantly disappeared, so archaeologists did not find skeletons.
Researchers sent a so-called black stones that were scattered through the streets of the city, at the Institute of Mineralogy, University of Rome and to the laboratory of the National Research Council (Italy). It turned out that the black stones — it is nothing like shards of pottery, sintered at a temperature of about 1400-1600 degrees, and then hardened.
Such education, tektites arising under high temperature, the scientists found in different parts of the Earth. In 1822, in Moscow, in Russian translation was published with a French book by Propiaka "memorable in the world, or a description of existing in the world of rare works of art and nature" (Part 1). It is possible to read a small but very interesting section "Osteklyanennyya fortress in heulandite that in Scotland."
Tektites — food disaster
Very exciting and writes in detail about tektites OV Mikhailov in the book "An Anthology of half-forgotten secrets of the cosmos, Earth, Sea, technology, history: the facts, the version of the hypothesis unsolved" (2005). Tektites have been found in various parts of the globe, and in some cases it was even real tektite field. A feature of such fields is a concentric structure: in the center of tektites more, and they are larger. There are fields and in strips (for example, the largest — Australasian).
According to O. Mikhailov, tektites have been found in Australia, South East Asia (Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam), Africa, Europe (Czech Republic), North America (Texas and Georgia) and the North-Western Asia (Kazakhstan , Aral Sea, the crater Zhamanshin). Moreover, 90% of all tektites was concentrated in the area of the Philippine Islands, Australia and Indochina.
Many researchers believe that the distribution of tektites in the world is random, but that's clearly not the case.
Among the many hypotheses about the origin of tektites there are hypotheses that relate to their origins with the explosions of giant meteorites on Earth. However, not all areas where tektites have been found, there are impact craters, and this plays against this hypothesis.
Among the most exotic hypotheses indicates even an alien version of the origin of tektites, according to which in the distant past, a huge interstellar alien spacecraft approached the planet and … hovered over her. Tektites as if formed from the melting of the Earth's rocks exposed to the fire of his rocket engines.
In the 60's of last century in some parts of the former Soviet Union (where nuclear weapons were tested) were found artificial tektites that were strikingly similar to tektites found in different parts of our planet. During ground nuclear explosion occurs huge fireball temperature and everything is close by (including soil, rocks), literally melted or evaporated to an amorphous state.
Modern scholars of Mohenjo — daro
Surprisingly, the "unusual" hypothesis Davenport already in the 80s of the last century has been "forgotten." Despite the fact that it explains many of the mysteries of Mohenjo — daro, continuing research in this direction was not followed.
At the end of the last century, a hypothesis supported by the Davenport Alan F. Alford, in his book "The Gods of the new millennium" (1998)
The Russian researcher Andrey Sklyarov also tried to analyze the hypothesis of Davenport, in his article "The Inhabited Island Earth."
Here are a few phrases there: "In some of the sources that mention the pro version Davenport and Vincenti, argues that found (somewhere outside of the epicenter), the remains of people radioactivity exceeded the norm by more than 50 times … I, unfortunately, did not find any confirmation these statements nor any (even if only questionable) information about who and when done research on radioactivity remains. Unfortunately, it is now virtually impossible to check the conclusions and Davenport and Vincenti of the explosive nature of the destruction in Mohenjo-daro, as a result of a thorough "restoration", carried out in recent decades, the appearance of the city has changed significantly — brick disintegrated dismantled, rebuilt the walls. So now here you can see just another "Disneyland for tourists" …
Fifth version. Mohenjo-Daro and the Alien
In the chronicles of the ancient Indian "Book Dzaena" says the legend of unearthly beings, had flown to the peaceful natives on a metal ship. The book says that one day, these creatures have quarreled with the locals. They moved to a nearby town, where they were chosen rulers. That's when the new leader of the city and released their enemies big glowing spear which destroyed all the buildings burned and people. And even those who came into town later, over time, became ill and died. A new leader, gathered all his men, their wives and children, fled to an unknown destination on a mysterious ship. Some researchers believe that Mohenjo — Daro and have the burnt city, but there is no evidence of this.
"The Great War in Heaven," described in ancient Indian Puranas and the ancient Greek author of "War of the Titans" Hesiod. The Bible describes the war in heaven, Michael army against the "Dragon — Jupiter" and "Lucifer — Venus." EP Blavatsky in her "Secret Doctrine" also wrote, referring to the Puranas, the war between the two races, which provoked the Deluge. Here's what he wrote in the book Tseren E. "Biblical hills" (Moscow, 1966, 1986), the famous Tower of Babel — that is ziggurat Etemenanki: "You can not find explanations to where it came from such a fever that does not just burn, but melted hundreds burnt bricks, burned up the whole body of the tower, which the heat of the speckle in a dense mass, like molten glass. " At the time, mention it and Mark Twain, who traveled in 1867 to the Middle East, "(It was) eight tiers (towers), two of which stand to this day … a giant, masonry, scattered in the middle of the earthquake, and the half-scorched molten lightning angry god. "
On these facts, and draws the attention of AA Gorbovskii in his book "Secrets of ancient history." For example, on the walls of Irish castles and Dundall Ekoss traces of a very high temperature — even melted granite boulders, and granite higher than the melting point of 1000 degrees Celsius!
Other signs of possible application of the unknown weapon were found in Asia Minor during the excavations of the ancient Hittite capital Hattusas, as well as in Central America.
Anyway, in many legends of the peoples of the world have stories about how the gods fought in the skies, using some aircraft, equipped with weapons. Especially numerous in the ancient Indian texts.