January 27, 2012 18:21
About the famous battle on the ice of Lake Peipus in April 1242 written many books and articles, but she has not been studied to the end — and our knowledge of it abound with white spots …
early 1242 the German Knights Teutons captured Pskov and moved to Novgorod. On Saturday, April 5, at dawn, the Russian troops led by Prince Alexander Nevsky of Novgorod, met the Crusaders in the ice of Lake Chud, stone the crows.
Alexander skillfully covered the flanks of the Knights built a wedge and hit ambush regiment took in the ring. Began celebrated in Russian history Ice. "And it was slashing evil, and the crackling of the refractive index of copies, and the sound of the section mechnogo and frozen lake moved. And could not see the ice: covered with blood … "Chronicle reports that the ice cover is retreating heavily armed knights passed and failed. Under the weight of his armor of enemy soldiers quickly went to the bottom, choking in ice water.
Some circumstances of battle remained for researchers in this "blind spot." Where the truth ends and where the fiction? Why does ice collapsed beneath his feet and the Knights withstood the severity of the Russian army? How could the Knights fell through the ice, if the thickness is off the coast of Lake Peipsi in early April, reaches a meter? Where did the legendary battle?
In Russian chronicles (Novgorod, Pskov, Suzdal, Rostov, Laurentian, etc.) and "elder Livonian rhymed chronicle" detailing the events leading up to the battle and the battle itself. Are its goals: "At the Lake Peipsi, the Tracts Uzmen, the raven rock." Local traditions specify that warriors fought just outside the village Samolvoy. To chronicle the figure-miniature depicts the confrontation of the parties before the battle, and in the background shows the ramparts, stone and other buildings. In the ancient chronicles, there are no references to the Crow Island (or another island) near the site of the battle. They speak of the battle on the ground and on the ice is mentioned only in the final part of the battle.
In search of answers to the many questions researchers were the first in the late 50-ies of XX century to the shores of Lake Peipsi went Leningrad archaeologists led by military historian George Karayev. Scientists gather to recreate the events of more than seven hundred years ago.
Initially came about by accident. Somehow, talking to fishermen, Karayev asked why they call Lake area near Cape Sigovets "accursed place." The fishermen explained: in this place to the most severe frost is polynya, "sigovitsa" because it has long been caught whitefish. In the cold, of course, and "sigovitsu" ice grab only tenuous it: go down there people — and was gone …
So it was not by chance the southern part of the lake the locals call the warm lake. Perhaps this is where the Crusaders were drowned? Here's the answer: the bottom of the lake in the "sigovits" replete outputs groundwater, prevent the formation of solid ice.
Archaeologists have determined that water Peipsi gradually come to the shore, is the result of slow tectonic process. Many ancient villages have been flooded, and their inhabitants moved to other, higher bank. The lake level is rising at 4 millimeters a year. Consequently, since the Alexander Nevsky water in the lake has risen a good three meters!
GN Karaev removed from the map of the depth of the lake is less than three meters, and a map of "younger" for seven hundred years. This card is suggested: the bottleneck in the ancient lake was just next door to the "sigovitsami." So get accurate snap chronicle "Uzmen", a name that does not exist on the modern map of the lake.
The hardest thing was to locate the "Raven Stone," for on the map of Lake Raven Stones, rocks and islands are more than a dozen. Divers examined Karayev Crow Island near Uzmeni and found that it is not more than the top of a huge steep underwater cliff. Next to it was unexpectedly discovered a stone shaft. Scientists decided that the name "Raven stone" applies not only to the ancient rock, but also quite strong border fortifications. It became clear that the battle begins here in that distant April morning.
Members of the expedition came to the conclusion that Crow stone centuries ago was a fifteen-high hill with steep slopes, it is visible from a distance and is a good reference point. But time and the waves have done their job: once a high hill with steep slopes disappeared under the water.
Researchers have tried to explain why the fleeing Knights sank through the ice and drowned. In fact, in early April, when there was a battle, the ice on the lake is still quite thick and durable. But the secret was that close to the Raven stone hit the bottom of the lake warm keys, forming a "sigovitsy", so the ice is less stable than in other places. Earlier, when the water level was lower underwater keys certainly hit straight on ice. Russian, of course, knew about it and went about dangerous places, and the enemy ran straight.
So what is the solution to the puzzle! But if it is true that at this point icy abyss swallowed whole knightly army, somewhere, there must be hidden and its trace. Archaeologists have set a goal: to find the latest evidence of this, but the circumstances have prevented the achievement of the ultimate goal. Find the burial places of soldiers killed in Ice Battle, failed. This is clearly stated in the report of expedition of the USSR. And soon there were allegations that in ancient times, the victims were taken to a disposal facility at home, so they say, it is impossible to find their remains.
Several years ago, a new generation of search engines — a group of Moscow amateur enthusiasts ancient history of Russia again tried to resolve the age-old mystery. It was to a large area of Gdov district of the Pskov region to find hidden in the ground tombs dated back to the Ice.
Research has shown that in those days in the area south of the now defunct village Kozlovo was a fortified outpost of Novgorod. It is here to connect with a group of Andrew Yaroslavich hidden in ambush, was Prince Alexander Nevsky. At the critical moment of the battle ambush regiment could go to the rear of the knights to surround them and ensure victory. The place is relatively flat. Nevsky troops from the north-west side were protected "sigovitsami" Peipsi, and on the east side — the wooded part of which were entrenched in the fortified town of Novgorod.
The Knights advanced to the south (from the village of Tabora). Unaware of the Novgorod reinforcement and feeling its military superiority in strength, they, without hesitation, rushed into the fight, once placed in the "network". This shows that the battle itself was on land, not far from the shore. By the end of the Battle of knightly army was forced into the spring ice Zhelchinskoy Bay, where many of them died. Their remains and weapons are still at the bottom of the bay.