October 16, 2012 0:56
American artist Walter Myers (Walter Myers) was born in 1958, a child is interested in astronomy. Through his paintings, drawn in accordance with the scientific evidence, we can admire the scenery of the other planets. Here is a selection of works from his Myers informative commentary.
See also issues — Great Photo Tour to space with the Hubble Space Telescope, 33 amazing photos of the Earth from space, incredible photos from space astronaut Douglas Wheelock.
Sunrise at the bottom of one of the canyons Maze Nights Tharsis province of Mars. The reddish color of the sky gives the scattered dust in the atmosphere, which consists mainly of "rust" — iron oxides (if the actual images shot using rovers, apply automatic color correction in the image editor, the sky they would be "normal" blue. Stones surface, however, thus acquire a greenish tint, which is not true, so right after all the way here.) This dust scatters and refracts light in part as a result of the Sun in the sky appears blue halo.
Dawn on Io, a moon of Jupiter. Surface, similar to the snow in the foreground consists of crystals of sulfur dioxide released into the surface of the geysers, like rising above now for close horizon. There is no atmosphere, creating turbulence, so the geyser has the correct form.
It is the most distant of the four large satellites of Jupiter. It is smaller than Ganymede, but more than Io and Europa. Callisto is also covered with a crust of ice mixed with rocks, beneath which contains an ocean of water (the closer to the outskirts of the solar system, the greater the proportion of oxygen in the material planets, and, consequently, the water), but the satellite tidal interaction hardly troubled, so the surface ice thickness can reach stokilometrovoy and volcanism absent, so that the presence of life is unlikely. In this picture we are looking at Jupiter from the position about 5 ° from the north pole of Callisto. The sun will soon be over the right edge of Jupiter, and its rays are refracted by the atmosphere of the giant planet. Blue dot to the left of Jupiter — is Earth, yellowish right — Venus, and the right and above it — Mercury. Whitish band of Jupiter — not the Milky Way, and the gas-dust disk in the plane of the ecliptic the inner solar system, known terrestrial observers as "zodiacal light"
Crescent Jupiter varies slowly over the horizon of Europe. The eccentricity of its orbit is constantly exposed to disturbances due to orbital resonance with Io, which is now just held against the background of Jupiter. Tidal deformation causes the surface of Europa covered crevasses and provides satellite warm, stimulating underground geological processes to remain subsurface ocean of liquid.
Disk of the sun from Mercury looks three times more than the Earth, and many times brighter, especially in the airless sky.
Full Neptune in the sky — the only source of light to the night side of Triton. A thin line across the disc of Neptune — is his ring, seen edge-on, and the dark circle — the shadow of the Triton. Opposite edge of depression in the middle ground is about 15 kilometers away.
Despite its small size and great distance from the Sun, Pluto has an atmosphere at times. This happens when Pluto, moving on its elongated orbit, comes closer to the Sun Neptune. During this twenty-year period piece about methane-nitrogen ice surface it evaporates, shrouding the planet atmosphere, the density of rival Mars. February 11, 1999 Pluto once again crossed the orbit of Neptune, and again it was further away from the Sun (and now would be the ninth, the farthest from the Sun, the planet, had in 2006 with the adoption of the definition of "planet" was not "demoted") . Now up to 2231 goda.on is ordinary (though larger) frozen planetoid Kuiper Belt — a dark, covered with armor frozen gases, places which acquired a reddish tinge on the interaction of the gamma-rays of open space.
The danger in itself can carry dawns on the planet Gliese 876d. Although, in reality, none of mankind does not know the real conditions on the planet. It orbits very close to the variable star — a red dwarf star Gliese 876. In this image shows how they imagined the artist. The mass of this planet several times the mass of Earth, and the size of its orbit is smaller than the orbit of Mercury. Gliese 876d rotates so slowly that the conditions on this planet day and night are very different. You can prevent the assumption that Gliese 876d possible strong volcanic activity, caused by gravitational tides that deformiruyuet and heating up the planet, and she is amplified in the daytime.
The main attraction of its system — the first open exoplanet Gliese 581 scientists from within the "habitable zone" — that is, not too close and not too far from a star to its surface could be liquid water. The surface temperature of the planet is between -3 ° C to +40 ° C, which means that it can be habitable. Gravity on its surface and a half times higher than the earth, and "year" is just 13 days. As a result of this close proximity relative to the star, Gliese 581 C is always turned to one side of it, so day and night are not there (even though the light can move up and down relative to the horizon due to the eccentricity of the orbit and the inclination of the planetary axis). The star Gliese 581 is half the diameter of the Sun and a hundred times dimmer.
14. Planetarium or wandering planet called a planet that did not revolve around the stars, drifting freely in interstellar space. Some are formed like stars, as a result of gravitational contraction of gas and dust clouds, others have, like ordinary planets in star systems, but they were thrown out into space because of disturbance from the neighboring planets. Planetarium to be fairly common in the galaxy, but they are almost impossible to find, and most of the wandering planets, most likely, will never be opened. If the mass of the planetarium is 0.6-0.8 from the earth and above, it is able to hold an atmosphere, which will stop heat from the subsoil, and the temperature and pressure at the surface may be acceptable to dvzhe life. On the surface of their reigns eternal night. Globular cluster, which travels along the edge of this planetary contains about 50,000 stars and is close to our own galaxy. Perhaps in his heart, as in the nuclei of many galaxies, supermassive black hole lurks. Globular clusters typically contain very old stars and planetary this is probably also much older than the Earth.
15. When the life of a star like our Sun, is nearing the end, it expands to more than 200 times its original diameter, becoming a red giant and destroying the inner planets of the system. Then, within a few tens of thousands of years, the star occasionally throws off its outer layers into space, sometimes with the formation of concentric shells, leaving a small, very hot core, which cools and shrinks to become a white dwarf. Here we see the beginning of compression — star throws the first of its gas shells. This ghostly sphere will expand gradually, coming ultimately far beyond the orbit of this planet — "Pluto" of the solar system, almost all of its history — tens of billions of years — far carried through on its outskirts as a dark dead ball covered with a layer of frozen gases. The last hundred million years, it is bathed in streams of light and heat, melted nitrogen-methane atmosphere of ice formed, and on the surface of the water flowing with this. But soon — in astronomical terms — this planet is again plunged into darkness and cold — this time forever.
16. Gloomy landscape nameless planet, drifting with his star system in the depths of a dense absorbing nebula — an immense interstellar gas and dust clouds.
Light from other stars is hidden, while the solar wind out from a system "blows up" the material of the nebula, creating a bubble around the star on the free space, which is visible in the sky as a bright spot necessary, within about 160 million kilometers — is a tiny tear in dark cloud, whose dimensions are measured light years. Planet whose surface we can see, was once geologically active world with a significant atmosphere — as evidenced by the absence of impact craters — but after immersion in a nebula of solar light and heat reaching the surface decreased so that a large part of the atmosphere is simply frozen and of snow. The life that once flourished here, disappeared.
Discovered in 1995, Teide 1 is one of the brown dwarfs — Stars tiny mass of several tens of times less than the Sun — and is four hundred light years from Earth in the star cluster Pleiades. Teide 1 has a mass about 55 times that of Jupiter, and is quite large for a brown dwarf. and, therefore, hot enough to support the synthesis of lithium in its depths, but it is not able to start the process of nuclear fusion of hydrogen, like our Sun. There is this substars probably about 120 million years (compared with 4.5 billion years of the Sun), and burns at a temperature of 2200 ° C — and not nearly as hot as the sun. The planet, which we look at the Teide 1, is located at a distance from it of about 6.5 million kilometers. It has the atmosphere and even the clouds, but she's too young for life. Light in the sky looks threatening great, but in reality its diameter is only twice that of Jupiter. All brown dwarfs are comparable to the size of Jupiter — the more massive of them are just more dense. As for life on this planet, it would, most likely, simply did not have time to develop over a short period of active life of a star — she meted out for about three hundred million years, and then another billion years, it will slowly dotlevat at least a thousand degrees and is no longer considered star.
This world is like the Earth … but he deserted. Perhaps here, for some reason did not have life, in spite of favorable conditions, and maybe life is just no time to the emergence of a form and get out on the land.
Some Earth-like planets may be located too far from the stars to their surface to maintain an acceptable temperature for life. "Too far away" in this case — a relative term, depending on the composition of the atmosphere and the presence or absence of the greenhouse effect. In the history of our Earth was a period (850-630 million years ago), when all it is a solid ice desert from pole to pole and the equator was as cold as in modern Antarctica. By the beginning of this global glaciation on earth already existed celled life, and if the volcanoes over millions of years is not saturated the atmosphere with carbon dioxide and methane, so that the ice began to melt, life on Earth has so far been presented to the bacteria yutyaschimisya on rocky outcrops and in areas of volcanic activity
Alien world with a different geology. Education resemble remnants of layered ice. Judging by the lack of sediment in the lowlands, they are formed by melting and not weathering.