August 20, 2012 10:35
Vseslav Polotsk Polotsk prince fought with the children of Yaroslav the Wise, though, and a little longer, but held the throne of Kiev and in the chronicles and folk tales that portrayed the prince just fantastic personality. He has been called prophetic, magician and even a werewolf-volkolak.
Vseslav was the son of the Prince of Polotsk Brjachislav Izyaslavich — the grandson of Baptist of Russia Vladimir. On his mother's information is not preserved. But in "The Tale of Bygone Years", there is mention of the mysterious birth of the future prince of the Witch. It says that the mother gave birth Vseslav of sorcery. It also notes that "in his mind was yazveno." The wise men were told to mother
— This yazveno shall bind him, let him wear it to death.
Researchers have two versions that chroniclers meant by the word
"Yazveno." Some believe that it is a special birthmark, which subsequently Vseslav covered with a bandage. According to another version, the prince was born "in a shirt," or "shirt". So the common people called cases where a child is born the wrapped bubble of membranes. Subsequently Vseslav could wear a piece of this skin as a talisman.
By the way, these days you can often hear the expression "born under a lucky" in relation to a man narrowly escaped disaster. This is an echo of the ancient beliefs. However, the ancient Slavs believed the birth of "a shirt" is not only a sign of good luck, and shape-shifting. According to legends, a person could obtain the gift of being converted into an animal and learn witchcraft.
The Sorcerer's Apprentice
In the Russian legend has such a character — the hero Volh Vseslavich, famous not only strength and valor, but also the ability to transform into various animals. Many historians believe that it was his Vseslav prototype. Describing in epic maturation Volkhov national storytellers noted that it almost from the cradle began to master the converse case and wear armor. When he was seven years old, my mother gave it to learn, and "charter Volkhov Sciences went out." A hero with ten years began to learn the ancient wisdom: clear handle a falcon, gray wolf and bay tour with golden horns. Of course, these are just myths. Yet chroniclers frequently mentioned the supernatural Polotsk prince and named him only as the Witch. For example, as presented in Vseslav "Lay":
In the night … he scoured warrior;
Till all hours from Kiev he had time to T'mutarakan,
Great Wolf to Kherson he way pereryskival.
V1044, the father died Vseslav, and Prince has inherited his father's principality of Polotsk. After ten years of his reign, died ruler of Kievan Rus Yaroslav the Wise, and the state began to rule his three sons: Izyaslav, Svyatoslav and Vsevolod. Initially Vseslav excellent terms with Yaroslaviches and even in 1060 with them went to the military campaign against the nomadic Torquay. But later 'their relationship soured. Which is why there is a conflict, history is silent, but the differences come down to the fact that Vseslav gathered an army and went to war against Kievan Rus. It is noteworthy that this event was preceded by a really mystical experiences.
In 1063 there are about Novgorod Volkhov river flowed backwards for five days. Sages interpreted this as a bad omen and decided that in the near future, the city faces a terrible tragedy. By the way, as noted by historians for Volkhov in the opposite direction — not a myth. This, though very rarely, but it happened so that there is a scientific explanation.
Second sign happened two years later. In the sky to the west there was a huge star with red beams. It is a period of seven days was rising every night and shine until dawn. "This star was like a bloody, heralding the shedding of blood" — recorded in the annals. Rather, it is once again flew past Earth Halley's comet, which occurs every 75-76 years. Incidentally, the same comet British considered a harbinger of the death of King Edward the Confessor and the subsequent capture of England by William I the Conqueror.
In the same year, and was the third sign — the solar eclipse. This was in the "Tale of Bygone Years" states: "The sun has changed and there was no light, but it was like a month, about such ignorant sun is said to be eaten." Of course, this sign is also not expecting anything good.
But that's not all. Shortly after the eclipse of the fishermen on the river seine Setoml caught strange creature. On the surface it was a child, but very ugly. As noted by the chroniclers, "on the face of it were shameful parts, and another one can not say for shame." Frightened, the fishermen being thrown back into the river. This terrible discovery also considered a harbinger of misfortune.
Epic of Volkhov — one of the oldest in Russia. Its hero, hero-werewolf is born of the serpent and the woman.
In the garden, on the green
Walking-walking young Princess Martha Vseslavovna —
Stepped on a snake fierce.
Curled fierce snakes
About chebota green morocco,
About stockings, silk,
Trunk has a white thighs.
That sometimes the princess conceived
Became pregnant and gave birth at the appointed term:
A and the sky is bright enlightened month —
And in Kiev was born a mighty warrior,
Young Volh Vseslavevich.
Podrozhala damp earth,
Rocked the glorious kingdom of Indian,
Sea of blue much noise
For the sake of birth, athletic,
Young Volha Vseslavich.
The fish went to the depths of the sea,
The bird flew high in the sky,
Tours of the mountain yes deer went
Hares, foxes on chaschitsam,
And wolves, bears on spruce,
Sables, martens on the islands …
Became Volh vegetable materet,
Learned to Volh many tricks:
Volkhov on the blue seas
Gray wolf prowl through the dark woods,
A bay tour — the golden horn to scour the field
Clear falcon fly under the cloud …
The arrival of the werewolf
The trouble was not long in coming — in 1065 Vseslav started an open war against Kievan Rus. First, he and his warriors raided neighboring principalities, including Kiev and ravaged the land. Then tried to seize Pskov, but to no avail: the city withstood the siege, and the prince had to retreat. But in 1067 something happened which feared Novgorod: Polotsk army seized Novgorod, and "Pozega Vseslav city." In this case, the prince withdrew Novgorod Sophia Cathedral bells and tipped them to your own Polotsk Sophia Cathedral. Vseslav built it specifically to show that Polotsk worthy to occupy the position of Russia, equal Kiev and Novgorod. Generally, Polotsk princes, who also was kind of Rurik, never recognized seniority Kiev on Russian soil, which often resulted in strife.
Vseslav in describing the campaign in 1065, the authors of "The Song of Igor's Campaign" do not forget to mention the magical essence of the prince: Lyutyi beast at midnight he jumped from Belgrade Sineyu obveshenny gloom. Morning as he hoisted strikuzy, opened the gates of glory smashed Novugorodu Yaroslavovo, Wolf raced with Dudutok
On said river Nemiga squad Vseslav Sorcerer met with an army of Yaroslav. Upon learning of the capture of Novgorod, those gathered an army and hurried to stop the invaders. The battle took place in early March, the soldiers had to fight in the dead of winter, buried in the snow. As we have already mentioned in number 32. in the story of an alliance of Yaroslav, Vseslav defeated. Still, he managed to escape death and return to Polotsk.
A few months later received a letter from the Prince of Kiev: Yaroslav offered to make peace, and invited him to come to the negotiations. Vseslav agreed to stop civil wars and went on a boat to the city of Orsha. where there was a camp of the enemy forces. For his safety, he did not care, because the rulers of Kievan Rus kissed the cross, guaranteeing him immunity. But the invitation to peace talks was a trap: Yaroslav violated the oath. They grabbed Vseslav, was taken to Kiev and put into prison.
An unknown number have been extended confinement Vseslav, if in 1068 the army Yaroslavichy not defeated Cumans. Kiev decided that the cause of defeat was the bad government of Prince Izyaslav Yaroslavich and magistrates Kosnyachko. In the city of revolt. In this case, the townspeople remembered languishing in prison Vseslav Sorcerer. Although the prince of Polotsk raided Kievan Rus, he used the Russian people had a reputation for great honor and a skilled warrior. "Already he certainly is able to deliver us from the enemy" — decided people.
Seeing that conceived Kievites squad advised Izyaslav:
— Send the correct person to Vseslav. Let podzovet tricked him to the window, and pierced with a sword.
But Izyaslav refused, saying that he would not murder a relative. After all, he had to Vseslav great-nephew. As a result Izyaslav had to flee the city, and Vseslav, unwittingly, took the throne of Kievan Rus. However, his reign did not last long — only seven months. By next year, Izyaslav supported by Polish army, he returned to win the throne of Kiev. Vseslav first decided to give him a fight, and even pushed towards Kiev squad. But … either he knew not overcome, and maybe did not want to fight for the principality acquired by him against his will, while his mother was waiting for … Polock
In general, when Kiev troops were encamped near Belgorod, Vseslav Witch of the night left him and returned to his homeland. Deprived of the prince, the people of Kiev went home and soon opened the city gates to the former ruler.
Izyaslav Vseslav not forgive this, albeit involuntary, but the seizure of power. Again to take the throne of Kievan Rus, he marched to Polotsk, took it by storm and made it the princes his sons, first Mstislav (who soon died), and then Svatopluk. But already in 1071 Vseslav Wizard could recover his principality. After that, he was prince of Polotsk thirty years, all these years without stopping the fight with the rulers of Kievan Rus, and died of natural causes April 14, 1101
"Secrets of the twentieth century" in August 2012