November 2, 2012 7:46
In 1814, after the defeat in the war with Russia, the French emperor was deposed and exiled to the island of Elba, which is in the Mediterranean Sea. However, being able to deceive him oversight of the commissioners, Napoleon in 1815 with the help of his soldiers captured ships stationed in the port, and landed in France. The popularity of the emperor of the people was so great that he never had a serious resistance. Yet, June 18, 1815 his forces were defeated …
After that Napoleon surrendered to the British and was exiled to the island of St. Helena in the South Atlantic. This is a very small piece of land, on which at the time were about 6000 people.
I must admit that Napoleon would not be myself if it had not tried to escape from prison. He is constantly developing options to escape from the island of St. Helena. Bonaparte had supporters, who also sit on their hands. Frankly, their plans were grandiose scale!
In 1797, the American designer of Pul-tone sent a letter inviting Directory destroy the British fleet out of the water with the help of special devices that can swim at depth.
From the inventor of the contracted, he set to work, and in May 1800 underwater vessel was lowered into the water. It had a length of 21 feet and 4 inches, a width of 7 feet, if you have three windows, which allows you to visually navigate. For the movement of the water used by the screw from the four blades, which, through a system of gears spinning two sailors. The submarine was named after a marine mollusk "Nautilus." He took part in actions against the British fleet, and on September 12 came from Havre, and after three days autonomously, breaking 50 miles, twice tried to bring the mines under the bottom of the British ships. But of this scheme did not work.
After coming to power of Napoleon Fulton went to him and asked for an audience with a loan of 57,000 francs for the construction of a better ship and making 20 min. However, the idea of the inventor did not cause Bonaparte enthusiasm. After that, Fulton built his own expense improved "Nautilus-2", and July 3, 1801 in Brest, led the team of three people to try a test dive to a depth of 35 feet. This was followed by tests on the surface under sail. Using a can of compressed air with a pressure of 200 atmospheres allowed to finish while scuba diving up to 6 hours. Recent tests conducted in the presence of the Commission and the Ministry of the Navy Academy. On the roads of the port of Brest to anchor the old bark, Fulton underwater compass came to the goal, led by the bottom of a mine and blew up his ship. The results reported to Napoleon. But one, and this time to abandon the project.
Island of Oblivion
It should be noted that the former French emperor had made a unique memory. Staying at St. Helena, he kept in mind the details of all his battles, which dictated the secretaries. Certainly, he remembered about the proposed project "Nautilus." That's when he had a plan: to escape from the island on a submarine Fulton.
But where will the money to build a new underwater vehicle? Already many years historians have found out some interesting information: the bank in Amsterdam Laffina Bonaparte had an account in the amount of 100 million francs.
His brother Joseph bought north of New York City a large plot of land, and moved there to live a lot of people who have fled from persecution of the Bourbons in France. Many of them received life pension fund from the unknown. Clear that they were personal funds Bonaparte.
Joseph could agree to build a submarine with a reputable company Robert Fulton, who after the death of its head designer assistant Livingston. American researchers in the XIX century, it was revealed that during the period of Napoleon on the island were built in the U.S. "Nautilus-3 ', which is larger than their previous counterparts, and also had a longer duration of diving.
Let's pay attention also to the following interesting fact. At St. Helena were the commissioners of Russia, Austria and Prussia. Of the messages sent by the Russian representative Balmenom Tsar Alexander I should:
"Since June 16, 1816 to April 1820 on the island visited by 73 ships. Almost all of them were British, except for four: two belonged to Russia and the two came from the United States. " The fact that the island is visited by Russian vessels, is not surprising, because at that time they often circumnavigate the world in order to maintain the connection between European Russia and the Far East.
Visitors from America
Suspicious was the fact that the American sailing here never appeared. Who came from the U.S. ships were called "Ocean" and "Lady Kennedy." Their captain was one and the same person by the name of Johnson. From observations Commissioner indicated that he deliberately delayed their ships stay in port, studied geography of the island, winds and currents.
All this led Balmain to the idea that living in America is prepared Bonapartists escape their leader. Studies of American historians that the construction of "Nautilus-3" was involved in the same Johnson who knew the navigation in the region, the wind rose, the characterization of the coast of St. Helena and the possibility of ships. An experienced sailor has been recruiting crew for the submarine, its launching and training team.
But how is it possible to implement? Action Scheme was approximately as follows.
"Nautilus-3" on board a fast clipper ship under the command of Captain Johnson sent to the island. The ship arrived in the designated area, places to drift away from where it can not find the coast guard. At night, the submarine surfaced moving under sail, is a bay located near the places where usually walks Napoleon and masked. After dinner Bonaparte often made horse ride along the beach on a 10-mile route, he was accompanied by several British officers who rode behind in the distance.
The crew of "Nautilus-3" has not been difficult to shoot the guards out of the bushes, and then they sat down together with Napoleon would submarine sank to the depth and immersion sailed from the island. When the place to escape to the British soldiers arrived, they could not find any ships in the sea, or air balloons in the air — hence, the fugitive would be sought on the island and in port.
In the tropics, it gets dark early, and as night fell "Nautilus-3" came up, and then sail, using a fair wind, the morning would get to the clipper. Cooked sailboat tear himself away from any English warship, and therefore Bonaparte had every chance to come to him in the U.S.. Despite the clever and detailed plan, escape is still not taken place. Prevented the death — May 5, 1821 the deposed emperor died.
Back in July 1817 personal physician O'Mara found in his patient the first signs of poisoning and reported the Russian Commissioner. Apparently, the English governor realized that his prisoner has conceived a clever escape, which can not be prevented, and therefore ordered the poisoning.
What would happen if an escape from the island did take place? Certainly, it would have led to an earlier overthrow of the Bourbons in France and return dynasty Bonaparte (Napoleon's nephew came to power in 1848). It is possible that Napoleon, after moving to the U.S., too, would not have to sit on their hands — the lust for power is sure to make him act. And with his wit, charisma and fame he could have made great political success and even (you never know ") to be the political leader of the United States.
The history of the submarine fleet would also evolved differently. Saving the emperor would be a great impetus to the development of similar projects in other countries, which would lead to the submarine fleet is much earlier than it actually happened.