The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg. Creation of the Baltic Fleet

The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg.  Creation of the Baltic Fleet Taking into account the fact that the military actions in Pomerania delayed (see article Operations in Northern Germany), the Russian command decided to make coming to Finland. Operations in Finland Peter pocketed great importance: the capture of Finnish land and out of Russian troops on the coast of the Gulf of Bothnia were doing exactly the danger the Swedish countryside. After Åland Russian troops could be put at the very Stockholm. In addition, Finland was the principal supply base, it is very lupila loss of Sweden. Our homeland has received "trump card" for peace negotiations with the Swedish government. Finland wishes to include in the Russian Federation, Peter did not show.

By 1713 was a plan of the military campaign in Finland. The Army received the puzzle going from Vyborg, captured in 1710, to Helsingfors (Helsinki finn.). After the capture of Helsingfors troops were to advance to the Abo. A huge role in the operation to capture Finland was to play the Baltic Fleet. Galley fleet with the landing forces and the reserves after the beginning of the navigation had to go from Kronshlot to Helsingfors, supporting acts of ground forces from the sea. Ship Navy received puzzle cover acts galley squadron of the Gulf of Finland. The command indicated that during the operation, the troops do not have to ruin the country, taking with local residents only contribution. To supply the Russian troops with food and other supplies intended to make shopping in Vyborg.

A fleet in the Baltic Sea

By the beginning of the Great Northern War Our home did not have access to the Baltic Sea and because it had no fleet in the sea basin. In the Russian-Swedish collisions at sea and lakes in the years 1700-1702 the Russian army used small cargo vessels — boats, plows, lodi, sailboat. Immediately there was feverish work on the new shipyards in winter 1702 began to build a shipyard at Sjas River, which flows into Lake Ladoga, in 1703, the ships were built on the river Volkhov and Svir. We Lodeynoye field was created Olonetsk Shipyard (Svir Shipyard) — it has become one of the main centers of the Baltic Fleet were standing. The first ship laid on Olonetsky shipyards, was a three-masted 28-gun frigate "Standart". On Olonetskaya shipyard in 1703-1706 years were built first rank Baltic Fleet ships 11 frigates and 12 snows, and then a few battleships. Apart from this, at this shipyard until 1724 and was laid and built a substantial number of small ships and vessels — from boats to bombarding ships (more than 800 ships and vessels). For a role in shipbuilding work and manning of the north passing the most experienced craftsmen and professionals from the Azov Fleet.

In the autumn of 1704 the first ships of the Baltic Fleet began to arrive on the Neva River in St. Petersburg. October 18 to the fortress came first detachment of new vehicles. They were met by an artillery salute. In the spring of 1705 came another party. In the end of May 1705 in the Baltic Fleet had 20 pennants with 270 guns, and 2.2 million people in the carriages. Command of the squadron tasked Russian vice-admiral of Norwegian descent Cornelius Cruijsen. In the same month, the first time the ships came from St. Petersburg to the Gulf of Finland, and stood in Kronshlot. The squadron took part in repulsing the attack on the Swedish peninsula Kotlin.

The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg.  Creation of the Baltic Fleet

Admirpal Cornelius Cruys.

In 1706, the Baltic Fleet took part in the operation to capture Vyborg. October 12, a detachment of five small boats under the command of Sergeant of the Life Guards regiment Misha Schepotyeva (as crew was 51 people) was ordered to carry out a raid in Vyborg Bay and capture a ship with luck. In the mist of missed the boat with the Swedish merchant ships and ran into two military bot, their were 4 guns and 100 crew members. Russian boat bravely went on the attack and boarded a boat "Espern." Fight differed a great bitterness: out of 51 people in the Russian squad survived 13 (6 of them the wounded), of 100 Swedish prisoner took 27 people. In addition, a handful of brave men managed to fight off the attack of the second robot and led "Espern" on its base.

In this period was the construction process of the main base of the fleet and an important commercial port — St. Petersburg. Barely 10 s of thousands of people sparsely populated wetland is rapidly transformed. Dug channels were cut cuttings, embankments were built land, built hundreds of residential and office buildings, fortifications. In November 1704 on the left bank of the Neva was laid a large shipyard — the Admiralty. For its construction lured unemployed people with Olonetskaya shipyards, masters of Rostov, Vladimir, Novgorod and other cities. Already year major shipyards were built, and around their sawmill, smithy, smolokurni, rope, sail, mast workshops. Were laid first ships. Construction went to the criteria of the war and the dangers of an attack on the Swedes Petersburg, because the Admiralty was protected by a shaft with five bastions of land on the perimeter were dug ditches filled with water. In 1706, began to float the first ships — the first ship on the water descent occurred on May 10 (April 29) 1706. Navy received pram with 18 guns. Pram — Artillery is flat-bottomed sailing vessel, which was used for operations in shallow waters near the coast and in the rivers and coastal forts against enemy fortifications. On the significance of this shipyard says that for 1715 the company employed up to 10 thousand people.

The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg.  Creation of the Baltic Fleet

Admiralty. Engraving AF Zubov. 1716.

Immediately in St. Petersburg were laid and other shipyards. In 1712, at the mouth of the river. Sinks laid Skampaveyny yard, later recognized as the Galley yard. Here was transferred to the Admiralty shipyard construction of small and medium-sized vessels (scampaways, semigallays and galleys). In 1716, began to build a particularistic shipyard — It was set up for the creation of various types of small sailing and rowing boats, repair of foreign and Russian commercial vessels. With this Peter did Nevsky Shipyard fleet — the first yacht club in Russia and the world. As a result, St. Petersburg turned into one of the largest shipbuilding centers not only in Russia, but also in Europe. They built ships and in Arkhangelsk.

Naturally, one can not say about the negative consequences of the construction of St. Petersburg. Thousands of working people and farmers who have mobilized for the construction of St. Petersburg and other principal objects, working in the most difficult criteria. They worked 12-14 hours a day, received a small salary, subject to fines, corporal punishment, golodovali, frozen, drowned. In
the end, hundreds and thousands of people were killed.

The government during the Great Northern War spent on the construction and development of the armed forces of a large part of the budget. For example, in 1710, of 3 million 134 thousand rubles, the total municipal revenues for the army and navy izderzhali 3 million. Immediately with the creation of the shipyards were in the process of building companies related industries. In Kholmogory did the ropes in the capital Hamovnom yard canvas, etc. In St. Petersburg, founded the Cannon yard Ohtinski powder mill, Sestroretsky weapons factory. In Russia grew galaxy experienced shipbuilding craftsmen. Some of them offered a "breakthrough" ideas, so carpenter Yefim Nikonov proposed project "secret vessel" — a submarine, master Alex Bourtsev drafted wheel ship that could go like the wind, and against him.

The first ships of the Baltic Fleet were inferior in their seagoing ships and fighting qualities of the leading naval powers, who had years of experience in the construction of ships. But the pace of technological progress in the construction of the Russian fleet were the highest so that within 10-15 years after the laying of the first ships in the Baltic shipyards in the Baltic Fleet had ships that were on the same level with the best foreign courts. Much work has been done on the strength, stability, Technical and navigational equipment, increased armament of ships. Exclusively for the first 7 years of the Northern War of the Baltic Fleet includes about 200 combat and support ships. The main fleet of sailing ships were the battleships, frigates, brigs and snows. Battleships — this is a huge three-masted ships with 2-3 artillery decks, which were equipped 50-80 guns, with a displacement of 800-1200 tons, a crew of 300-500 people. So, the first ship of the line, which is laid and built in the St. Petersburg Admiralty, was the 54-gun "Poltava". Ship was launched on 15 (26) in June 1712, had a displacement of 1,100-1,200 tons, a crew of 300 to 460 man. The very first liner, built for the Baltic Fleet were 50-gun battleship Grade 4: "Vyborg", "Pernod" Riga "and one unnamed. They were not vsepolnotsennymi combat units, because had a small draft and were flat-bottomed. They were laid in 1708 and was launched on the water in 1710. Battleships were built on Novoladozhskaya Olonetskaya and shipyards.

Called three-masted frigate ships with 30-40 guns, they conceded battleships in firepower, but were faster. Their displacement was 500-600 tons, the crew was in the 150-250 people. Brigs and snows — it's small two-three-masted sailing ships armed with cannons 14-18, displacement — 300-370 tons, crew — 80-110 people. They are in most cases used for reconnaissance and messenger service.

Feature of the coastal waters of the Baltic Sea is the large number of islands, narrow bays, wide shallow water reefs, zigzag passages, etc. This complicated navigation huge sailing ships. Required ships with a small draft and the highest maneuvering characteristics. These qualities meet the sailing-rowing boats — scampaways, galleys. Galleys Baltic Fleet were armed with guns 19, had 16 pairs of oars, the crew of rowers 200-250 (6-8 people per oar), 40-50 sailors, as a certain number of gunners, carpenters, etc. Skampaveya — a small galley, with one -two guns, with a crew of 100-150. Galleys and scampaways used to transport troops, supplies of various kinds, landing and fire support of landing forces, reconnaissance and security during operations in the archipelago could be used for boarding combat. The galleys and skampaveyah, not counting the crew usually are and fighter units.

The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg.  Creation of the Baltic Fleet

Galley "Dvina" in 1721.

Peter introduced for warships naval flag — crisp white rectangular cloth with blue diagonal stripes (St. Andrew's flag). For merchant ships also organized flag — a rectangular panel with 3 horizontal stripes: a snow-white, blue and reddish.

In the construction of the Naval Forces of the Russian Federation took an active role many followers of Peter. One of the closest aides of the Russian Tsar in the naval administration in the past three years, the 10-s was Count Fyodor Matveyevich Apraxin. He was a soldier in Arkhangelsk, in 1700, was appointed head of the Admiralty order of Azov and the governor took an active role in the development of the Azov Fleet, and from 1708 carried the title of supreme naval admiral-general. In 1718 he became the first president of the Admiralty Board. Coupled with the king ruled the fighting army and navy in the Gulf before the end of the Great Northern War. In construction, shipyards, harbors, companies have shown tremendous managerial capabilities Golovin, Alexander Menshikov, F. Saltykov, I. Tatischev etc.

The Finnish campaign 1712-1714 gg.  Creation of the Baltic Fleet

Monument FM Apraksin in Vyborg.

It is clear that such transformations achieved mass professionals of different profiles, and some foreigners were not enough. Peter made great efforts for the creation of schools for training. In 1701 in Moscow, opened the Naval School in 1715 in St. Petersburg — the Naval Academy. In the years 1701-1715 Navigation School graduated 1,200 people, many of them got a mission to the Baltic Fleet. In addition, in the first quarter of the 18th century, organized about 10 schools, where trained professionals for the Navy: the school at the Voronezh Admiralty shipyard in Kronstadt, Revel, Astrakhan, Kazan, etc. As a result, the Russian navy could do without foreigners — In 1721, Peter rebuked take the fleet of foreign people. Fleet Acquisition fellow soldiers in the first years of the Northern War was carried out on the basis of conscription, as in the army. The service was indefinite, subject to municipal duties, palace, monastery and landowners, farmers and other taxable estates of. For that period of history, this system has been advanced. It allowed the armed forces to create a homogeneous composition of the government, with enough highest level of morale and discipline, in contrast to the mercenary armies of Western Europe. Levy system is permitted for the first 15 years of the Northern War mobilize the army and navy of 330 thousand people. This is a broker drastically increase the combat power of the Armed Forces, and significantly increased the tax burden on the population.

Prior to the campaign in Finland, the Russian command has taken measures in order to strengthen the Baltic Fleet. Thus, only during the winter 1712-1713 was built 90 years brigantine, 50 scampaways, 3 Pramila. Galley fleet received strict company: it consisted of three divisions, each had 1 semigallays, 20 scampaways, 10 Brigantine, 20 sailboat and crew of 5.4 thousand infantry soldier. Apart from the construction of warships in Russian shipyards government decided to buy them abroad, because there was a lack of huge sailing ships. In the years 1710-1714 the British and the Dutch had bought 16 ships of the line and six frigates. As a result, by 1714 in the Baltic fleet includes 17 ships of the line, 9 frigates, 3 snows, 177 scampaways and brigantine, 22 auxiliary vessels.

To
be continued …

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