By the beginning of World War II in the North Sea was the theater, not including survey vessels, only one Russian warship (Tender "Bakan"), who served for the protection of fisheries. The appearance in 1915 in a white sea of German mines, which undermined merchant ships, led Navy Department to initiate an "Party of snow-white sea trawling." Assistance from the UK, to which more than once appealed Our homeland has been episodic and very feeble.
The results of the campaign in 1915 showed that trawling, protect communications and defense of the coast of the Arctic Ocean and snow-white sea forces to provide the Russian fleet, instead of relying on the British. Meanwhile, the ability to replenish the fleet of ships in the North were very limited, because the larger the royal fleets of the Russian Federation (the Baltic and the Black Sea) during the war have been isolated from the North. Regarding the free report North had only to Vladivostok, but it was based on the Siberian flotilla was small in number. Under the current circumstances the imperial government was forced to buy at least obsolete vessels. Since negotiations began buying in the Land of the Rising Sun 3 former Russian ships: battleships "Poltava" and "Relight" and the cruiser "Varyag", sunk in 1904, and then raised and restored by the Japanese. The acquisition of these ships, the translation of some of the military courts of the Siberian flotilla in the North Sea have allowed the ministry in February 1916 to decide on the organization of the fleet of the Arctic Ocean (SLO).
In March 1916, both the battleship and the "Varyag" arrived in Vladivostok. "Poltava" was enrolled in a class battleships, renamed "Cesme" and oriented to the Mediterranean Sea to spoof finds there cruiser "Askold", which was intended to transfer to the North. The cruiser "Varyag" in November 1916, came into the Kola Bay, where in January 1917 came and the battleship "Scesma" because the need for it in the Mediterranean passed. "Relight" as the way to the North, in December 1916 after leaving Port Said, hit a mine and sank .. In the end, the cruiser "Askold", having renovated in France, arrived in the Kola Bay in June 1917
From the Siberian flotilla flotilla in the Arctic Ocean have been translated: minelayer "Ussuri" (arrived in December 1915), destroyers "Bossy" and "Wuthering Heights" (gains transport "Xenia" in 1916), the destroyers "Captain Yurasovsky" , "Lieutenant Sergeev." "Silent" and "Fearless" (arrived in 1917) and an old submarine "Dolphin" (arrived in 1916).
Among the new military ships that managed to order abroad, the UK was ranked 12 minesweepers and Italy — a submarine "St. George "(arrived in Arkhangelsk in September 1917).
Not being able to create new orders or purchase ready-made warships abroad, the imperial government was forced to take it trawlers, whalers, yachts, steamers and convert them to military tribunal. So, in 1915 purchased the 6 Norwegian and British trawlers. It was later bought another 5 trawlers in Spain, Argentina and trawlers, one French and two Norwegian whaler and, in the end, three American trawler. It has also purchased 14 yachts and ships have been converted into messengers of the court.
Fleet replenishment of the Arctic Ocean going very slowly. Acquired yachts, ships and trawlers, intended as messengers of ships and minesweepers were usually alterations and repairs abroad because their own fleet maintenance facilities were very limited. Fleet warships also idled repair. Thus, delayed the repair in the UK in 1917 destroyers "Bossy" and "Wuthering Heights" cruiser "Cook."
On 7 October 1917 the Arctic Ocean in the flotilla there were 89 combat and support ships 1.
ships of the line 1 ("Scesma")
2 cruisers ("Askold" and "Varyag")
Submarine 1 ("St. George")
messengers of ships 18
mine-layers 1 ("Ussuri")
4 survey vessels
8 port ships
icebreakers 2 ("Svjatogor" and "Mikula Selyaninovich")
Of them abroad were under repair one cruiser and two destroyers and refurbishing — 6 runners ships and three minesweepers.
The establishment of Russian power in the north and out of the Republic of the war led to a reduction in the fleet of the Arctic Ocean. Order of the naval department of the Central Committee of the fleet of the Arctic Ocean (Tseledflota) on February 26, 1918 has been declared the alleged subsequent composition of the fleet on the campaign of 1918:
1. Division trawling — 16 minesweepers.
2. The bellmen court for the protection of fisheries ("Gorislava", "Jaroslavna", "Kupava", "Taimyr" and "Vaygach").
3. Transport-shop "Xenia".
4. Service Communication — two messengers of the vessel ("Frost" and "Orlik") and two minesweepers.
5. The management of lighthouses and sailing directions — "Solombala", "Polar", "Ussuri" and two minesweepers.
6. The hydrographic expedition snow-white sea — two hydrographic vessel ("Murman" and "Lieutenant Ovtsyn") and three minesweepers.
7. Sea ice breakers ("Svjatogor" and "Mikula Selyaninovich").
8. Submarine — "St. George "(to send to the Baltic Sea).
9. Murmansk survey — survey vessel "Pahtusov."
10. Two destroyers (more than serviceable).
"Court and agencies — said in the order — not included in this list are subject to either eliminate or reduce …".
May 24 on the basis of the directive board of the People's Commissariat for Maritime Affairs followed by a new order in which the composition of the fleet was further reduced, and some vessels (trawlers) are changed. Instead of the division was left squad of 12 trawlers units, hydrographic expedition excluded all minesweepers, a submarine "St. George "surrendered to the port for long-term storage 2.
But the "period of peace" in the North did not last long. The British established themselves firmly in the North during the war, were not going to evacuate. They regarded the North as one of the principal bases for the implementation of the plan of its own military intervention against the Russian Russia. In Murmansk, the British found the support of the counter-revolutionary units headed by the Deputy Chairman of the Murmansk Regional Council Yuriev. Most of the naval officers was set up by militant Russian authorities and tightly interwoven with the officers of the British and French warships stationed in the port of Murmansk.
In March 1918, the White Finns fled to coming to the capture of Karelia and Murmansk, but the Red Army troops threw back their back. In the area of Kemi was sent from Archangel icebreaker "Mikula Selyaninovich", which came on April 6 Fr. Rombak, landed on the ice guerrilla group, headed for the Kemi, and for the next day or unloaded gun. Then the "Mikula Selyaninovich" opened fire on the enemy, forcing him to move 3.
But the coming of the White Finns used the "allies". Under the guise of "aid" in the defense of the Murmansk region from the White Finns and Germans Anglo-French troops occup
ied the whole line of the railroad from Murmansk to Kemi. In March 1918, for standing in the port of Murmansk British squadron (battleship "Glory," cruiser "Ifidzheniya", etc.) joined the British cruiser "Cochran", and a little later — the French cruiser "Amiral On." In May came to Murmansk South American cruiser "Olympia".
St. George and his accomplices hiding behind Tseledflota order to reduce the fleet of the Arctic Ocean, hastily conducted demobilization of personnel Murmansk squad flotilla of ships, trying to get rid of the revolutionary-minded sailors. In response to the request of the Russian government's removal of invaders from Murmansk Regional Council on June 30 officially announced the break with the Russian government and then signed with the UK, U.S. and French agreement "for the purpose of joint actions … in defense of the Murmansk region from the German coalition powers "4. In the period from 2 to 12 July "allies" fled to the open edge of the occupation of Murmansk to the Magpies inclusive. By August, the Murmansk region was above 10 thousand. soldiers and officers of the interventionists.
August 1st British cruisers "Cochrane" and "Attentiv" and trucks with seaplane approached about. Mudyug. Cruisers opened artillery fire on the island of batteries and seaplanes fired their machine guns. Despite the successful return of consuming battery. Mudyug were suppressed, and the British have open access to the Northern Dvina. To prevent enemy ships to Archangel, at the mouth of the river were flooded icebreakers "Svjatogor" and "Mikula Selyaninovich", and then the minelayer "Ussuri". But, despite this, the Russian authorities had to evacuate the Archangel.
August 2 in Arkhangelsk was formed "provisional government" of the Northern Region, led by Tchaikovsky. In the upcoming battle between the actions of the Red Army and the White Guards and interventionists took place on the land front, and on the Northern Dvina and Onega. Court Flotilla Arctic Ocean at the hands of white, with the exception of a small 5, in particular the role of civilian war did not take.
The entire period of white power in the North is characterized by full decline Flotilla Arctic Ocean.
More conciliatory Tsentromur June 20 (Central Committee of the Murmansk squad vessels) under the guise of "the circumstances of wartime," gave consent to a "temporary occupation" under the British housing Tender "Sokolitsa" 6. July 12 in Murmansk British had "temporarily" handed cruiser "Askold", which came after the counterrevolutionary coup in Arkhangelsk under the Russian flag, but with the British team. After a certain number of days in the cruiser was raised the British flag. Later, "Askold" went to the UK and "Russian command" was not passed. Already on August 5 "government" by Tchaikovsky, granted the request of the "union of command" in the face of British Admiral Kemp, the British handed over to the "temporary use" Tender "Gorislava" icebreakers "Svjatogor" and "Mikula Selyaninovich" and eight minesweepers. Formally, the court handed down the fleet of the Arctic Ocean, on the grounds that the "provisional government", recognizing themselves in a state of war with Germany, provides its ships to the British in order "by the union." Conditions for the transfer of vessels to anticipate that the court "remain the property of the Russian" and "will sail under the Russian flag" 7. But the British did not respect these conditions.
"The Governor-General of the Northern Region," General Miller in his own telegram Russian "Ambassador" in Paris in September 1919, said: "With the coming of winter … Arkhangelsk to gravitate to him localities, so as not to be cut off from the rest of the world, to be serviced by a fleet of icebreakers … Meanwhile, the total number of available 12 icebreakers and icebreaking ships at our disposal is just one. One icebreaker died. Two icebreakers were taken by the French and the British one, without any criterion soon on arrival allies in the North region and has not returned, despite the cessation of hostilities with Germany … As for the other 7, they were commissioned by the British Admiralty charterer, whose term has expired now "8.
But the British did not were considered to requests for the return of white breakers, explaining the recent capture of the need to "protect" these icebreakers from the Bolsheviks "in view of weak position Archangel." When, in March 1919, the chief of the district of Arkhangelsk aqua handy icebreaker to spend at sea research vessel "Polar", a senior British officer Commodore Heid to a request for an icebreaker said: "We regret to inform you that there is no free icebreaker …" 9 .
Due to the hasty demobilization of personnel ships Murmansk squad, first held in 1918, four destroyers of the "Captain Yurasovsky" from March to June 1918 were in charge of the port of Murmansk without teams. First of June after the death of the steamer "Fedor Chizhov" and the fishing vessel "Chariton Laptev," sunk in May, the German submarine U-22, white appealed to Admiral Kemp lead with a request to assist the embattled destroyers for anti-submarine warfare. Admiral Kemp, knowing that white-no funds to repair or instruction to staff these destroyers, offered them to renovate and equip "allied" teams, handing destroyers in the conduct of the British command and looking up at their British flags.
As a result of negotiations with the British commander of snow-white destroyers "Fearless" and "Lieutenant Sergeev" were submitted for repair: the first — to the French cruiser "Amiral On", and the second — the British battleship "Glory." The destroyer "Captain Yurasovsky" was allocated for the repair of the South American cruiser "Olympia". Only destroyer "Silent" repaired Russian floating workshop "Xenia". In autumn 1918 the destroyers "Captain Yurasovsky", "Lieutenant Sergeev" and "Fearless" sailed under the Russian flag under the command of Russian officers, but with foreign teams. On the destroyer "Lieutenant Sergeev," was a British team at the "Captain Yurasovskaya" — South American, and the "silent" — French, translated from "Fearless" after the tragedy. Meanwhile, according to the agreement, on the destroyers of about 1/5 of the team was to be the Russian 10.
Despite the multiple samples of snow-white command in late 1918 and throughout 1919 to get back the occupied court, a significant part of the last returned and has not been. Remained with the British and sailed under the English flag trawlers: T6, T12, T13, T14, T16, T17, T19, T31, T36 and T41. During the counter-revolutionary coup in Arkhangelsk French captured trawlers T20 and T22, and picked up on their French flags, considering these trawlers "spoils of war" 11.
Care icebreakers for repairs in the UK often ended in that they are no longer vorachivalis. Thus, "Mikula Selyaninovich" in the fall of 1918 went to the UK for repair under the Russian flag. To illumine the same in 1919, he, along with the icebreaker "Ilya Muromets" was passed by the British to the French, who manned the icebreakers their teams and picked up on their French flags. The last of which were built in the UK commissioned by the Royal Government of icebreakers — "St. Alexander Nevsky ", completed construction in late 1917, was captured by the British and it was raised the British flag. Under the title of "Alexander", this ice-breaker came in 1918 in Arkhangelsk.
Under the British flag floated as an icebreaker "Svjatogor."
The few ships that vorachivalis British, often found themselves in such a state that there was a question about their upcoming service. A commission appointed for receiving Tender "Gorislava" after leaving his British (the latter did not even bother to pass the ship), in his own act of April 25, 1919 noted that "the neglect and pollution of the ship at the time of leaving his English crew was indescribable" 12.
After the counter-revolutionary coup "government" Tchaikovsky Russian hastened to cancel the decree on the nationalization of the merchant fleet. Already in August 1918, Arkhangelsk-Murmansk Shipping Company were returned all his court.
Privately owned ships, were part of the fleet during the war by military shipboard duties, and were returned to their owners of old. Thus, in 1918-1919. returned to the ship-owners: minesweeper T7 ("great man") — Mighty fishery managers, minesweeper T9 ("Emma") and floating workshop "Antony" — Antufieva, transport "Savvaty" — Burkov, etc. The steamer "Coin" in November 1918, was sold at auction. Minesweepers T26, T28, T30, T40, and T42 were transferred to the trading house "Bezzubikov and sons." In February 1919, 12 trawlers were rented from the auctions to lease for 5 years 13.
As a result, the composition of the fleet of the Arctic Ocean to February 1919 fell to 12 messengers and survey vessels, 4 destroyers and minesweepers 9, except for an old battleship "Scesma" 14. In September 1919, the commander of the flotilla reported to Omsk of the Sea, "the Minister" Kolchak "government" that the destroyers, "" Fearless "and" Captain Yurasovsky "for unreliability body abolished" and that, except for four minesweepers, only the "messengers of the court" Jaroslavna "and "Gorislava" stick ready to swim with the staffs of "15. It was supposed to eliminate even a naval base in Murmansk.
Snow-white "government", seeking to alleviate the difficult economic situation, in August 1919 sent to Siberia for food naval expedition in the 3-survey vessels, 3 steamers and one barge. After December 1, it was also decided to send four steamer for flights abroad in order to earn the right to so snowy foreign currency. The same samples were made in 1919 to implement certain overseas vessels fleet. April 4 Russian "ambassador" in Paris telegraphed to General Miller in Arkhangelsk: "Tchaikovsky asks to: I conduct negotiations for the sale" Yaroslavny. '" May 5 "provisional government" decided "to recognize the desirable" messengers sale of ships, "Gorislava" and "Sokolitsa." November 28 General Miller telegraphed Russian "ambassadors" in Paris and London on the "Yaroslavny", "Gorislava" and "Sokolitsa": "Favor learn, not giving publicity, whether perfectly realize one of them" 16. But to realize these vessels failed.
The power of white drawing to a close. Interventionist troops left the North. First, in February 1920 Reddish Army defected to the coming of the Archangel. Snow-white steel hurriedly prepare for evacuation of Arkhangelsk. February 17 command the fleet has requested the presence of passengers on icebreakers and icebreaking ships, as on other courts, including the military 17. But it was too late. February 19 General Miller, leaving his army to its fate, fled to the icebreaker "Kozma Minin". Whitewashed tried to lead the best advice-boat flotilla — "Yaroslavna", but because of unfavorable ice conditions had to throw it. Icebreaker "Canada", whose team ran across the side of the Russian authorities, rushed in pursuit of the "Kozma Minin", overtook him in the throat and had a snow-white sea artillery exchanged fire with him, but to hold the White Guard icebreaker "Canada" has failed.
February 20 Archangel was liberated by the forces of the Red Army. Immediately to the left Murmansk uprising of workers, sailors and fighter, led the Bolshevik underground organization, and on February 22 there was a restored Russian power. Snow-white authorities in Murmansk ran on the steamer "Lomonosov". In March 1920, the liberation of the North has been completed.
So Makar, snow-white failed to lead abroad remaining flotilla ships of the Arctic Ocean. But, as mentioned above, a significant part of the flotilla of ships was due to various circumstances abroad. These vessels, except icebreakers "Svjatogor" (now "Krasin") and "St. Alexander Nevsky "(now" Vladimir Ilyich "), were not returned Russian government. In the UK were: occupied in 1918 by the British cruiser "Askold"; cruiser "Varyag" is expected in the UK repairs since 1917 and sold after the war, a former civilian Russian naval attache in London for scrapping; destroyers "Bossy" and "Wuthering Heights", the court messengers "Mlada", "Dawn" and "Rush" , marching before the October Revolution in Russia after the alteration and renovation, the first — from Italy, and the last two — the United States. With all this "Mlada" already in 1920 was considered as part of the British fleet under the title "Elekriti" and served as a yacht and Tender British fleet commander in Chinese waters, and the "Breaking Dawn" under the title "Seprayz" — yacht and Tender British commander Fleet in the Mediterranean. Number of trawlers seized by the British during the war, civilian, four minesweepers (T13, T14, T16 and T17) were part of the British fleet directly to the second world war. Icebreaker "Mikula Selyaninovich" was sold in Canada for 3228 Cherbourg thousand francs. Two icebreakers — "Kozma Minin" and "Ilya Muromets" — were in the years 1928-1929. converted into mine-layers, and became part of the French fleet under the names "Castor" and "Pollux". Tender "Zlata" remained in France, where it was held refurbishment and court messengers "Sunrise" and "Rogday" (former icebreaker) and minesweepers T43, T44 and T45 — in America. Their fate is unknown.
State of the fleet of ships of the Arctic Ocean after the liberation of the Russian North left much to be desired a lot of the best. Global and then plainclothes war with virtually no harsh repair facilities in the fleet, as the barbaric rule of the White Guards and "allies" have led the court to a complete collapse of the flotilla. Russian command had to create a naval force in the north of the ships remaining after fleeing Whites. With all of this have been applied as a useful military court, and the available icebreakers.
Order dated June 26, 1920 was designated the subsequent part of the "Naval forces of the North Sea":
1. Marine squad.
2. River flotilla.
3. Hydrographic Expedition Arctic Ocean.
4. The hydrographic expedition snow-white sea.
5. The management of lighthouses and sailing snow-white sea.
6. Coastal Defence Vessels Murmansk region.
7. DIVING-rescue party.
In the marine squad were: battleship "Scesma" auxiliary cruisers "Lieutenant Dreyer" (former icebreaker "Ivan Susanin"), "Lieutenant Schmidt" (former icebreaker "Prince Pozharsky»), «III International" (former icebreaker " Canada "), cruiser-layers (former messengers of the court)," Jaroslavna "," Gorislava "and" Sokolitsa "destroyers" Captain Yurasovsky "and" Lieutenant Sergeev, "submarine" Communar "(formerly" St. George "), eight patrol boats, two boats (P5
and P8), two minesweepers (T15 and T24) and the motor yacht" Svetlana ".
In the "coastal defense of the Murmansk region" were seven patrol boats, four minesweepers and two steamers, and in the hydrographic expedition and the "Directorate of lighthouses and sailing snow-white sea" — survey vessels, ships, boats, and several former minesweepers.
With the end of the war do not apply to civilian service and obsolete vessels have been excluded from the system, but remained priemuschestvenno survey vessels. Icebreakers were handed commercial ports.
1 TSGAVF, f. 129r, 64. liter. 47. Here are not logged auxiliary vessels assigned to the naval ports of the Arctic Ocean and snow-white sea and patrol boats.
2 TSGAVMF, f. 129r, h 89, l. 20,, 84, l. 128.
Article 3 "Participation of sea ice breaker" Mikula Selyaninovich "in the battle for Kem front." — "Proceedings of the Archangel Council", 30 April 1918
4 TSGAVMF, f. 418. Op. 3, 71. liter. 9.
5 For example, for the formation of white flotilla on Lake Onega sent seven patrol boats.
6 TSGAVMF, f. 429r, 64, l. 60.
7 "The intervention in the North in the documents", Moscow, 1933, page 38.
8 TsGAOR SS, f. 17, 13, ll. 208-209.
9 TSGAVMF, f. 164s, 98 l. 74.
10 TSGAVMF, f. 129r, 64, ll. 107-108.
11 TSGAVMF, f. 164s, 98 l. 355
12 TSGAVMF, f. 164s, 98 l. 7.
13 TSGAVMF, f. 129r. , 64, ll. 60, 349, p. 164, 7, ll. 134-135, Street 94, l. 38:. 98 d, l. 31.
14 TSGAVMF, f. 129r. , 64, l. 64.
15 TSGAVMF, f. 164s, d 153, l. 192.
TsGAOR 16, p. 130, Op. 12, 7. liter. 12.
17 TSGAVMF, f. 164s, 7, p. 154.