The builders of the pyramids are not only successfully raised monoliths, impossibly high for our current construction techniques, but also quite inexplicably manipulated in such circumstances, where, in principle, impossible to place any lifting device. Thus, in the pyramid of Menkaure has a system of multiple cameras and passageways carved into the rock beneath its base. One of these cameras is covered multi-ton granite slabs, with the gap between the plates and the overhanging rock above them is a matter of centimeters. In such a small space is physically impossible to manipulate with these monoliths, dropping them into place. The only opportunity — to lift plate from the floor up.
But how? Hands of the workers? But the camera is so small that it can simultaneously accommodate only a few people. Today's installers in such circumstances may be used jacks. But then, according to Egyptologists, in the era of the Old Kingdom did not even know the simple block or tackle.
In the ancient Egyptian traditions and Arab legends, there are indications of how the pyramids were built at Giza. In particular, the XIII century Arab historian Ibrahim bin Vazif-Sah follows describes the delivery of construction blocks from the quarries to the pyramids:
"They were covered with pieces of writings, and when the stone was cut down and ended its proper treatment, they then put on top of those pieces of stone, gave it a push, and he moved it to push 100 sahm (about 300 meters), and then they repeated while the stone did not reach the pyramids. "
Of course, from the point of view of today, rationally thinking person, such a description does not look convincing. It felt echo kargokulta. However, a number of ancient legends (and not only Egyptian, but, say, and South American) relate the movement of large stone monoliths with a wonderful ability to aliens from the sky to make such monoliths weightless, after which they are either "were themselves" (as Easter Island) , or they can be easily "push for a distance of 100 sahm."
Another great paradoxes are revealed when meeting with the accuracy of the pyramid builders work. And the accuracy of this was awesome. Modern geodetic measurements, the following four dimensions of length of the foot of the Great Pyramid:
- Northern foot: 230.25 meters
- Western foot: 230.36 meters
- South footstool: 230.45 meters
- Eastern foot: 230.39 meters
This shows that the difference between the longest and the shortest side of a huge building is only 20 centimeters, or less than 0.1 percent. When you consider that the construction is mainly used blocks of two meters in length, the permissible tolerance for each block was only 0.2 millimeters. But such an admission is difficult to sustain, even with modern technology available! How, then, did it the builders of Khufu, the disposal of which, according to Egyptologists, there was only a meter "device" like a rope, divided nodules on his elbows, and they worked, according to X. Kink, using copper chisels and stone hammers?
The Egyptians of the Old Kingdom era did not know of the magnetic compass. The question naturally arises: how they managed with such stunning accuracy orient the Great Pyramid of the countries of the world? Measurements of the Egyptian government surveyors conducted in 1925, found that the deviation from the direction of the sides of the pyramid N — S is only four minutes of arc (ie, the error is only 0.018%), and from the line 3 — in — two minutes and 12 seconds (error 0.009%)! Such accuracy of orientation can be achieved only with the help of advanced optical surveying instruments.
In addition, from the point of view of today, rational thinking in civil engineering, it is unclear why it was generally achieve such accuracy. Even if the base of the pyramid was drawn by two degrees (error of the order of one per cent), it is not possible with the naked eye would see. A difficulty to be overcome in order to reduce the error of orientation with two or three degrees and two minutes are huge. Obviously, the builders of the pyramids were very good reasons for this decision.
Architects of the pyramid is very accurate (accuracy to two minutes of arc) stand and angle of its four faces. As a result, its vertex and raised almost 150 meters, is located just above the center of the base. The side faces of the pyramid are not flat. Precise geodetic measurements established that they are concave like a giant mirror reflecting telescope to the centers of the faces to a depth of 3.5 feet (1.07 meters) and the angle of the concavity is 37 arc seconds. No time these sides were lined with mirror-polished slabs of white fine-grained limestone brought from the other bank of the Nile. As already mentioned, this veneer crumbled as a result of the earthquake and most of it was taken to the construction of Cairo. But near the base of the pyramid at the end of XIX century there was still a sufficient number of plates facing. They examined a large British archaeologist Flinders Petrie.
The latter with a huge surprise stated that the size of large slabs (recall that the mass of each such plate 10 tons!) Soaked with accuracy of 0.2 millimeters, and the joints between them fit so well that they can not stick blade pocketknife.
"Even just put plates with such precision — an achievement, but to do it with a cement binder — something almost impossible. It can be compared only to that of the optical system with an area of several acres. "
Strikes and careful polishing of the surface of the plate facing. Its consistency is 0.01 arc seconds for 75 seconds of arc, that is, close to the optic!
"This difference arises from the copper line with a change in its temperature by 15 degrees. This treatment is much closer to the work of optometrists than masons. "
Such processing accuracy can be achieved only with the help of the most modern grinding machines, but certainly not by hand with sand and grinding stone, according to Egyptologists. Roughened by hand nine hectares of limestone with optical precision? It sounds ridiculous. Read the rest … TOMB: The second question is: How? (Part 4)
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