Training and combat aircraft — a profitable solution or a tragic mistake?

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

We love freebies that are willing to give any money for it.
— Mikhail Zadornov


80% of the Russian Air Force combat losses in Afghanistan fell to the DShK anti-aircraft artillery and Mujahideen
— statistics


Disguised dugout was found in a wooded area Vedeno district on Wednesday, October 24, during search operations on the territory of the Chechen Republic. The cache was found MANPADS type of complex is not specified.
— Post RIA Announcements from 25.10.2012, the

For each step in the sky pilot begins with a flight training aircraft (CF) — a very lightweight machine with low price and operating costs. With all of this TCB should be easy to manage and promote the development of flight abilities of newly minted "Icarus".
The designs TCB majestic huge amount, more well-known — a Czech L-39 "Albatross" (main TCB Warsaw Pact), the South American legend of the T-38 Talon, British "Hawk" modern "twin brothers" — Russian Yak-130 and M-Italian 346 Master. Over 100 years of aviation, aircraft technician training has made the path of plywood biplanes "Farman" and the U-2 to supersonic jet machines are not sufficiently compliant with the current flight instrumentation and features a real combat aircraft. And every time the designers of aircraft, as are the airmen were thinking about the possibility of the introduction of the training machines as a fighting technique: indeed, if TCB — the essence of the same plane, then why not use it during the war, even for a "second line "for the solution of auxiliary problems.

46th (Taman) Guards Night Bomber Regiment, 23672 sorties, 2,902,980 kg of bombs dropped — a unique ladies Aviation Regiment during the stateliness Russian war who fought on the U-2 aircraft.

Our training aircraft was not created for military action. Woody biplane with 2 outdoor cabins located one behind the other, and dual controls — for the pilot and navigator. Without radio and bronespinok to help protect the crew from bullets with a low-power engine, which could reach the highest speed of 120 km / h. On the plane was not the bomb bay, bomb bomb racks to append directly below the plane of the aircraft. There was no sight, we made them ourselves and dubbed PPR (piece of cake).
Rakobolskaya IV, Kravtsov NF — "We called the night witches"


The Regiment "Night Witches" was not created by the criterion is not bad — compulsory measure in the hardest times. Despite the act only in black time of the day, the skill of pilots and the lack of radar from the Germans, fighting the loss of the front line were 32 people, very many of the 1st Regiment.

During the storm, residents of Okinawa Japan have used everything that could fly for suicidal kamikaze attacks — from the newest fighters to float seaplane training and an old biplane Ki-79. Covered with a cloth slightly Ki-79 were kept in the air, but were almost invisible to the U.S. radar, which gave a chance for the successful implementation of the task.
Kamikaze — an instrument of the desperate and despairing, in times of great people of the country of the rising sun would never have sent a training machine in the fight.

In the era of jet aircraft thought the introduction of training aircraft as combat vehicles received the second birth — a jump in speed and capacity of aircraft gave the most optimistic forecasts for the introduction of high efficiency jet trainer in a hot conflict, especially against ground targets. From a technical point of view, the idea looked easier to normal: set the academic plane a couple of pylons for the suspension of unguided munitions and equip the workplace Pilot simple sight. There was even a special term — trainingbattle plane. Inexpensive and severely!

However, a careful analysis of this theory, there is a number of controversial issues. And put the question bluntly: whether it be to create an effective training and combat aircraft?
First, let's identify the main tasks facing the combat training machine:

1. Education and training of flight personnel: take-off and landing, piloting, navigation, perform complex maneuvers, the acquisition of skills in the action limiting regimes of flight operations in case of failures and mistakes of technology pilot, flight operations of closed orders in the afternoon and in the criteria of visual sight, the completion of the implementation of military bases during operations on land and air tselyam.Kak follows a trivial CNF imposed requirements: ease of piloting, reliability, low price of the machine and its operating costs. General layout ideas: double cab (student + instructor), a duplicate set of controls, flight control and navigation devices.

2. The use of a hot conflict. As can be seen, certainly stock: high flying features of this set of instrumentation and navigation equipment and avionics, radar of external stations and high-sighting system. Combat aircraft must possess excessive vitality and, in the standard, self-sealing fuel tanks also have reservations cockpit and important units. You should not discount the possibility of introducing mounted fuel tanks to increase the combat radius of the aircraft acts as an option — a system of in-flight refueling. For flights in the area of enemy air defenses is only the presence on board of principle: the system of radar warning receiver, automatic ejection of thermal traps, optional — plant production of active interference.

Justification, that the training and combat aircraft can be easing, do not stand up to scrutiny. You want to get a real fighting machine, not worthless "flying coffin". Training and combat aircraft should be able to do at least some military tasks, and to do this without all of the above is necessary. In fact, we get the first contradiction — the requirements for the combat vehicle is firmly agree with the requirements for the lightened training aircraft.

Maybe I'm very hard on training and combat aircraft. Each tool is created for specific tasks, let's see what tasks can make training aircraft:

Air combat, air intercept. Hmm … even the most fevered imagination can not be "carousel" of the "Albatross" and the F-16, or a pair of Yak-130 is going to intercept the Su-27. This is nonsense. Super-maneuverable supersonic fighters, once kitted with the latest weapons and avionics, not always come out the winner of the air battle. Exhibit the same against their kopotlivye combat-machine — it's nonsense. Teaching machines devoid of radar, and without radar and guided missiles "air-air" to go to the modern air combat — a stupid suicide.

Although … in history, there is a real battle scene, when October 25, 199
4 Dudayev eight L-39 suddenly stormed volley rockets group of Mi-24 helicopters of the federal forces. In the fast-moving air battle two "Crocodile" were shot down, but the other, finding the enemy, here took revenge by shooting a pair of combat-capable "Albatross."
The exception only confirms the generally accepted rule. With all of this fight "against the aircraft helicopter" like at first suggests the advantage of aircraft — which at that time did not completely observed.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

Belarusian L-39

Attacks on ground targets. As a rule it mean supporters of the "combat-capable machines." Clearly, the use of combat training aircraft in the criteria enemy advantages in the air quite unrealistic. As unrealistic and its use against targets with strong air defense — combat training aircraft is not able to escape to the maximum low-level — for him such flight mode is associated with a fatal risk, in the absence of perfect flight and navigation system and radar.

It remains the last chance — the use of training and combat vehicles in low-intensity conflicts. And that idea is good! At first glance, to raise the most powerful fighter-bomber or anti-attack to defeat disparate groups of terrorists, for example, in the mountainous regions of the North Caucasus or Afghanistan — a very stupid and wasteful. With such a small puzzles fully cope deshevenky combat training aircraft with a block NURS or container of cluster bombs. In the end, we get the impressive savings on running counterinsurgency warfare.

But … 80% of the Russian Air Force combat losses in Afghanistan fell to the DShK anti-aircraft artillery and the Mujahideen. This alarming fact has definitely indicates that application armored attack aircraft Su-25 is fully justified in conducting counterterrorism operations. How justified and the use of fighter-bombers, F-16, tracking down the mujahideen in the Afghan mountains.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

Cockpit F-16 on the HUD is projected picture, acquired by means of LANTIRN

The fact that many of the supporters of the "combat-capable aircraft," forgets about one principal parts — even special shock machines at once hard to find a point target (group of rebels, a single SUV, traces of extinct fire), especially in difficult mountainous terrain criteria. To solve similar problems of complex systems are used, for example, hinged containers sighting and navigation system LANTIRN. Complex increases the light of the stars in the 25 thousand times, and the impressions NATO pilots, allows to create and to do very weird things, the flip side — two hinged container, navigation (includes thermal imaging and radar to track the terrain) and an object (with a huge resolution of the imager, laser rangefinder and optical sensors for tracking purposes) — all this set pulls on a $ 5 million, a third of the price combat training Yak-130!

Russian analogue LANIRN'a — more than a cheap, but more complicated set of integrated digital SVP-24 (the theme of "Hephaestus") — sighting and navigation system for laser gyro, with support for satellite navigation and a three-dimensional display on the HUD. Set SVP-24 is mounted on the front of modernized Su-24 bombers.

For a comprehensive reconnaissance since the Afghan war used the thermal and radio direction finding systems for handheld radios opponent. A hinged containers complex "Winter" were able to find at night time even traces of a passing car not so long ago!

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

And read that, after such a mind-blowing facts ability of training and combat vehicles whose drivers are limited when searching for ground targets point only visual means, do not go to any comparison with real fighting machines.
In the end, we should not forget that at whom, and at Basmachi never lacked man-portable air defense systems are also more common, but more severe anti-aircraft: the ANC, automatic guns, hand-held tools.
With all of the above facts, it becomes evident that "combat-capable aircraft" are only good for the shooting of unarmed during the daylight hours in the open.

Case in point — one of the best training aircraft T-38 "Talon" for 50 years, never use their own
was used in a war zone. Although it would seem, "Talon" had all the chances of developing a military career. Good pedigree — "Talon" created on the basis of light F-5 "Tiger", the main fighter of the capitalist world in the years of the Cool War. As a result — supersonic flight speed (1.3 M), good maneuverability and flight properties, tremendous rate of climb — 170 m / s. The aircraft is equipped ventral holders mounted tanks and special equipment. New modifications received a "glass cockpit" with functional LCD displays and modern navigation equipment. Total was built in 1146 copies of the training aircraft, a plainclothes version of the T-38 and a version for training of NASA astronauts.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

Themselves as if the accident contributed to a military career "Talon" — U.S. frequently and successfully led the local war in all corners of the Earth. Grenada, Panama, the Colombian drug cartels, Afghanistan, Iraq and Yugoslavia … And yet, the T-38 "Talon" has never, in any case, did not find a military deployment.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

"
The glass enclosure" of the modern modifications T-38 Talon

The limited operational use L-39 «Albatros» in local conflicts on the territory of the former Soviet Union have also expressed the futility of this strategy: Abkhazia, Chechnya, Kyrgyzstan — training and combat aircraft from time to time bombed big goals (residential, where lived an aggressive ethnic group), but , the usefulness of these "deadly" air strikes were observed. Aviation Chechen fighters to own a complete liquidation in December 1994, has made several inconclusive raids on the position of the federal forces. Precision bombing, together with low power ammunition (50-kg and 100-kg bombs) made useless efforts pilots.

But on piloting features L-39 in the middle of training aircraft was not equal, unique flight characteristics "Albatross" have allowed to generate from their aerobatic group "Rus". And the pilots of the former Soviet Union and Warsaw Pact countries might well remember this common and easy training the plane on which they first took to the air.

At the current time in Lipetsk aviatsentr combat deployment and re-training of flight personnel continue to arrive new Yak-130, which are positioned as a combat-capable machine. Exceptionally stylish plane for the initial and primary flight training of pilots. From time to time you can hear from the pilots dissatisfaction with this plane — a very expensive and complicated for the Yak-130 training aircraft. Although it must be remembered that the yard 13th year of the twenty-first century, and aircraft equipment can not be normal, as the U-2 biplane. And for the highest quality and flight characteristics must pay. The main thing — do not overdo it. "Yak" good trainer, but about his martial traits have some doubts.
I am categorically opposed to all the "asymmetric" responses and other decisions in the spirit of "cheap and cheerful". If you do not have enough funds to implement true — it is better not to wage war in general. As practice shows, the majority of ersatz projects and the use of technology in the battle unprepared criteria leads only to raise hell of losses.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?
Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

Aermacchi M-346 Master initially developed in conjunction with the Special Design Bureau. Yakovlev. Then, because of disagreements, the project was divided into Russian (Yak-130) and Italian (M-346) parts. "Aermakki" is different from "Yak" new engine, extensive use of composites and titanium, otherwise they are very close.

Training and combat aircraft - a favorable decision or a tragic mistake?

"The glass cabin" Yak-130

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