February 18, 2013 4:13
Propose today again to touch the Swedish culture, in particular to the phenomenon it as "Vikings". But before you consider the most important museum piece for understanding the Viking Age, look at the first floor Swedish Historical Museum, on the wall next to a flea dressing room, which is decorated with children's drawings. Children can not be deceived, they throw all the excess and paint the essence of how it sees the adult part of the society.
For example, all Soviet children drew the second world is the same — with one side of the tank with the Stars, on the other side of the tank with a cross on top planes, explosions in the middle. In our society the second world, it does not the world is the Great Patriotic War, opposition to "our" and "Germans." How did they see the Vikings Swedish children?
The image of a classic, and this is how they are represented not just the majority of children, but most adults are not particularly familiar with the matter, for the images that constantly go in the media and on the plastic helmets that are sold in the shops of souvenirs. The fact is that the modern notion of "Viking" has long gone beyond a specific historical phenomenon, and it does not matter that there were no horns they had, no matter how to call these people what they were and what nationality were the differences between Norman Conquest, pirate raids and wars of Scandinavian kings. Everyone who went on the ships in the Baltic, regardless of occupation, and ethnicity were "Scandinavian Vikings."
And now the main exhibit at Viking issues. And it's not swords and helmets, this is not the layout of Birka, and East Silver. The main exhibit is the question I think is quite simple installation in the Swedish Army Museum.
That's what they say about the installation in the museum guide:
Why is this unknown "gentleman in a vacuum" completely out of another era is so important for understanding the Vikings? And because the horned Vikings under striped sails grew it on a fertile gotitsizma fertilized work of many Swedish scientists. Mentions of this phenomenon can be found, for example, in books and A.G.Kuzmina V.V.Fomina. Numerous articles on the subject was published L.P.Grot. To start a brief period of Swedish history, which began gotitsizm.
Gustav Eriksson Vasa (the one who built his own Titanic) for military support from the Hansa brought Sweden from the union with Denmark and Norway in 1523 took siege of the White House in Stockholm, and began to strengthen the independence of Sweden. This success was brilliantly developed his grandson Gustav II Adolf. Successful participation of Sweden in the first pan-European conflict, and a harbinger of future world wars — the Thirty Years War, as well as the eastward expansion has made it the most powerful country in the Baltic region. So, the middle of the 17th century, Russia is weakened and pushed from the Baltic trade routes Stolbovskaya World, Germany anemic, and its production is destroyed, Denmark and Poland did not dispute the power of Sweden over the region. In this situation has begun to strengthen the Swedish national identity. Under the rule of Christina (daughter died early Gustav II), increases the number of nobles, luxury palace receptions, as well as the active development of art and science. Survey of Swedish scientists became fashionable and good for Europe and the impact on the whole scientific community. Let me give a few specific examples described in the article Grotto LP Normanizma epistemological roots, as well as in a series of her article here.
Based on the work Johan Storm, the most influential scientist closer to Gustav II, another scientist Georg Shternelm6 created a treatise on the Hyperboreans "De Hyperboreis Dissertatio", where justified by the following ideas:
Scandinavia — a country of the Hyperboreans, described in ancient Greek myths, and Hyperboreans, from whom the Greeks got their most ancient gods — it svei;
Ancient Greek cults — Scandinavian descent, and the temple of Apollo — is a temple of Uppsala sveev;
Apollo — this one, and his son Njord — Nord is a name that the Greeks have translated into Greek, as Boreas;
Geographical names appearing in Greek myths are distorted Scandinavian example, Eliksiya (Elix) or the island of the Hyperboreans — is Helsingor or Heligsond in western Norway;
Names Hyperboreans — is Scandinavian names, such as sage Hyperborean Abaris of stories, mentioned by Herodotus — is distorted or Ewart Iwart etc.
Sound familiar? Indeed, in the same period, Peter Peter de Erzelunda publishes «Regin Muschowitici Sciographia» or «Muschowitiske Cronika» for the first time in science suggests that the ancient Russian princes were born in Sweden. Peter's argument is similar to the argument Petreev Bure and Shternelm6a, such as names of old prince Rurik, Truvor and Sineus — is distorted by the Swedish names Eric Siggia and Toure. Played a huge role and fake negotiation protocol with Novgorod. To negotiate with the Novgorod was Swedish and Russian protocol entry. According to Russian records Archimandrite Cyprian said he was at the Grand Prince of Novgorod named Rodorikus, comes from the Roman Empire, thus stressing the ancient lineage of Novgorod princes. The Swedish same protocol is a slight typo "Grand Prince of Sweden by the name of Rurik." Unexpected Petreev opinion went against the spread in the 17th century German-historiographical tradition (Munster, Herberstein), the output of the Vikings Wagram, so they contradicted published two years before his own work on the ancient Petreev ready-Swedish king, where arguments about ancient history, he mentioned the arrival of Rurik, Truvor and Sineus of Prussia. Although the sharp change of mind and a fake protocol does not seem quite so surprising, given the Swedes in Novgorod and negotiations in 1613 in Vyborg on the name of the Swedish Prince Carl Philip on the throne. New data were taken into scientific and gradually began to spread in the European scientific community.
Earlier in the 16th century in Western Europe, widely developed gotitsizma ideas — ready to glorify the great past as conqueror of the world and the ancestors of the Germanic peoples. For the cradle of the great names of consonance ready-German and began to southern Sweden and Götaland.
In the late 17th century. Rudbeck catch — put together ideas gotitsizma, work Johan Storm, Peter Petreev, and their own views. The resulting mixture of hell even got its name "rudbekianizm" synonymous with the best of our time is "fomenkovschina." In his book "Atlantis" Rudbeck proves that:
Sweden was the cradle of European science and culture, including Greek, Roman and ancient.
For the names of many people and names of countries with ancient authors hid direct ancestors of the Swedes and Sweden in antiquity.
Plato's Atlantis is Sweden.
Sweden is the island of the Hyperboreans, Boreas name can be found among the ancestors of the Swedish king. So, one of them was named Pore / Bora (Pore / Bore), which the Greeks pronounced as Northwind. From him and went expression "kind of Boreas."
The same "philology" uses Rudbeck and to prove that the other place names from the Greek myths — as Scandinavian origin.
He also identifies the Swedes and the Scythians who "conquered Slavs, turned them into slavery and were lords over them."
According to Rudbeck, during the life of Alexander the Great One and his descendants ruled over most of the lands around the Black Sea, and then power went to the gothic-Swedish king Germanarihu. Even then, "the Swedish wolves" roamed freely as the Baltic and the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea up to Sparta and back.
That goes back to Rudbeck many followers now postulated normanizma ideas, in particular, the interpretation of the origin of the name of the Vikings, to share traditional Bayer.
All these ideas were seen as progressive for its time but the idea started gotitsizma active PR because of the cultural confrontation "North and South" — Italian humanists began to oppose the Roman culture Gothic barbarians. Accordingly, people who considered themselves descendants of the Goths, creating the opposite theory, and therefore works very well match Rudbeck social inquiry and were received with great enthusiasm.
Once upon a cultural rift was on Western Europe, will begin later this opposition between the Goths and Slavs, and especially aggravated it before the second World War. In fact, it is the opposition so far.
Within gotitsizma term "Gothic" and "German" gradually merged into one. At one time it added a third synonym — "Norman", from which gradually emerged historiographical cliche: "Gothic period" in European history was tantamount to "Norman period." We owe this to the Swedish gotitsizmu — namely, the works of Swedish religious leader Olaf Petri, who was the first in Swedish historiography touched on Viking expeditions. Petrie said that the Normans of medieval sources — most likely come from Sweden, Denmark or Norway. In the original ancient texts Norden began to translate as "the Nordic countries", and the adjective nordisk has become almost synonymous with the Scandinavian. Mixed and Nortmanni collective term for different ethnoses groups and Norveorum — ethnonym clear that without too much complexity can be associated with future Norwegians.
No doubt under the "northerners" Continental Europe is a first Scandinavians. But in each case would be worth to deal separately, as there are many counterexamples.
The Swedish writer Olaus Magnus in his famous work "The History of the Northern Peoples' nordiska folken to include not only the Scandinavians, but the Lithuanian and Russian, and the term refers to Nortmannos foreigners. In the Frankish chronicles Norman called the population living beyond the Elbe, ie fact-Saxons transalbingi. Some chroniclers wrote about the Normans as Marcomanni. Among these authors are, for example, the Archbishop of Mainz Rabanusa Maurus (780-856).
Abbey abbot Lobbskogo Folkuin (965-990) wrote about the Normans as nordalbingah (part Saxons), chronicler Ademar Shavansky (989-1034) called them transalbingami (also part of the Saxons).
Adam of Bremen have said Norman residents Nordsachsen from the Danes, and determines Gelmgold Nortmanni not as people, but as an army, which consisted of the bravest Danorum, Sueonum, Norveorum, in effect saying that they obey the same power as incomprehensible. "Saxon Annales» (Annalisto Saxo) displays the Normans from the bottom of Scythia. And the Italian bishop Liudprand Cremona (ca. 920-971/2), a century before Adam of Bremen in his "Antapodosis" (949 g) twice mentioned the Normans as natives of Russia:
"The city of Constantinople (Constantinopolitana urbs) … Surrounded by savage peoples. After all, from the north to the nearest neighbors are Hungary (Hungarii), Pechenegs (Pizenaci), the Khazars (Chazari), Russ (Rusii), which otherwise we call the Normans (Nordmanni), and Bulgaria (Bulgarii) »
"Get to the north inhabit a nation, which the Greeks (Greci) in appearance called Rus,???, We're on a site call the Normans. After all, in German (Teutonum) language means nord north and man — man, so something north of people and may be called by the Normans. "
So, it is clear that the Normans are simply "northern people", and what kind of people we have in mind is dependent on the location of the author, but in the public mind is firmly established equality between the Normans and the Scandinavians.
To the "Gothic-German-Norman top" at one point attached another name "Vikings", found in some Icelandic sagas, and mentioned once chronicler Adam of Bremen.
Interestingly, the word Viking is probably the borrowing is fixed in the sources for 100 years before the adoption of science Viking period, and in sources outside of Scandinavia, it was used to refer to pirates and to the 19th century, the identification of these two terms dominated in academic circles, not only Sweden and Denmark, and Norway. But in the 19th century, the poet Eric Geier Esayya Tegner and begin to form a romantic artistic image "obscheskandinavskih" Vikings. And out of the ordinary pirates Vikings become almost a Knights of the Round Table, and becomes a warrior-traders-colonialists in one. In addition to poetry and strengthening the "opera" of the image in the Scandinavian Viking helmet with horns and a striped sail and with a huge ax helped representatives of Romanticism in art. Horned helmet, for example, taken from an earlier continental culture Gauls and sail most likely just invented, because no evidence or written material has survived.
Gradually the image of artistic Vikings became an independent phenomenon, and moved into the story, and all of these things, the Normans, Scandinavian Vikings firmly fused with each other, so much so that scholars and translators arbitrarily change is quoting some other, which ultimately distorts the picture, it is seen and now, even in Russian publications.
With the Vikings the same story that the Normans — originally it pirates, multinational phenomenon. Saxo Grammaticus mentioned Wendy and Curonians and Semigallians and estii who were participants in or victims of pirate teams of pirates. Famous yomsvikingi venedskom based in the city, and their ships were different from the Scandinavian, pirating and Ruyan. But gradually the image of the Vikings became exclusively Scandinavian.
Why is the study of specific individual people — Danes, Norwegians and was substituted sveev story about Vikings and why these stories began to spread is from Sweden? The fact that Sweden was a peripheral Scandinavian world, she was neither a center of Viking expeditions, no center Norman conquest.
Consider for example a modern reconstruction of equipment provided by the Vikings in the same Swedish Army Museum.
If a shield against the sword and ax particular objections have not, here's a helmet and chainmail cause. What we see with our scientists called Norman helmet in Western historiography it is called «Nasal helm» or "helmet with nanosnikom." By way of making them less complicated than welded spheroconical Russian helmets, and technologically evolved from frame helmet. Frame helmets consisted of a rim around the head and two crossed strips of metal, the spaces between them filled boiled leather. In Norman helmets used the same technology, but the gaps are not closed with leather, and metal, held together by rivets. Helmet with nanosnikom was widespread throughout Europe and probably arrived there from the East through Russia or Poland. In Scandinavia found no such helmet. The only Viking helmet found in Yermyunnbyu (Norway) and is a simplified version of the helmet Vendel period. Other helmets found, although they are common Vendel graves. Why there was such a regression should be dealt separately. Images and reliefs show small conical helmets (metal or leather — hard to say.) Thus the helmet with a modern image reconstruction European helmet and a typical Viking Gear has no bearing, while theoretically could be used by individual soldiers. For example, in the battle of St. Olaf II Neshare mobilized detachment of 100 selected soldiers, dressed in chain mail and a "foreign" helmets.
Reconstruction of the only surviving Viking helmet 9th century, based on fragments found in a grave in Yermyunnbyu that Ringerike (Norway).
But so did 200 years before. Helmet VII century of burial in a boat in Wendel:
As for the chain mail, they occur as rare, mostly small pieces of chain-mail fabric. As I mentioned, in Sweden found only one chain mail Viking Age. And even in the later periods of protection was a typical leather jacket with metal or ivory inlays.
More Gear can be found in R. Chartrand, K.Dyuram, M.Harrison, J. Heath. Vikings — sailors, pirates and warriors.
The same with the typical Viking Ship — Viking ship. Prepare materials for the paper, I was surprised to find that in Sweden found no Drakkari and none at the Viking ship, the maximum boat length up to 6 meters in graves. In 2009 the lake Venern found a large ship, which immediately before the examination, announced Drakkar, and found a piece of iron — a spear and sword of the Viking Age. Information can be found in a variety of article for 2009, with an enthusiastic "in Sweden found the first ship of the Viking Age." From there it migrated in the wiki. Here are just a ship made by the technology that was used until the 19th century, inclusive, and X-ray images, and even simple pieces of iron can be said that in general, and to arms to arms of the Vikings in particular, they have nothing. According to the Dr. Martin Rundkvist flagpole age is not earlier than the 16th century.
On the Population of Sweden during the Viking I once wrote — by archaeological evidence standing yards, is only just beginning to gather in small villages, and the scanty population.
I'm not trying to say that the Vikings were not, of course, there were pirates and the Norman conquest, were battles and heroes. But let's define the scope, and all rudbekovskie normanistskie pictures of countless hordes of Swedish Vikings, who stormed Constantinople and subjecting all of Eastern Europe, such as fade in the background of archaeological finds, or rather against their absence.
Why did the Vikings captured the minds and especially our scientists, After 80 years of the last century, the word Viking is almost not seen in the works of Soviet authors, and now in Russia began to leave work at work not just with the use of the term, and even the word Viking in the title. Swedish scientist J. Lind explains this phenomenon
"In the face of huge market forces that flooded the world with his Viking way, historians, even if they try to do it, can not turn the clock back to those original positions when the Vikings have not yet received its current image. So we should probably take a Viking in all its present Scandinavian garb, with horns on their helmets and beards shovel. We might even be happy that the tourism industry is using the brand "Viking", and we guarantee the best selling our work. "
Swedish conquerors and colonizers occurred the same situation as with the Hyperboreans, Atlantis and Russia. Advances in shipbuilding and the conquest of Danes and Norwegians, motley pirate gang, European armor and helmets, trade routes in the territory of Russia, this now belongs to the Vikings invented by the Swedes. Thus, the Vikings of the operetta — with horns under striped sails, and the market will not give it back so easy.