What is BCG?

What is BCG?

Even those who are not particularly fond of literature in the school, will recall that in the works of Russian literature of the XIX century. often referred to a disease called "consumption." So called in those days, pulmonary tuberculosis, thousands of claim lives. In 1882, the German microbiologist Robert Koch found the "intruder" — the bacterium that causes tuberculosis. In honor of the scientist, and she was named — "Koch's bacillus."

However, despite the fact that the perpetrator is already "knew by sight," mankind has almost half a century was the absolute hostage this fatal disease.

Only in 1923, two French scientists — A. Calmette and C. Guerin — have created a TB vaccine (hence the name of culture — Bacillum Calmette Guerin, BCG; in Russian transcription — BCG). Their task was not easy: it was necessary to create such a strain (ie, variety) of pathogenic bacteria, which First, will be stable in the environment (otherwise the vaccine can not be stored), andsecond capable of causing disease even to the extent that allows the human body to develop immunity, but will not cause harm to him. For 10 years, they were transplanted culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from Wednesday to Wednesday, and finally succeeded.

First the BCG vaccine has been used in the same 1923 in Paris, at the Pasteur Institute, and its administered orally (by mouth). The first vaccine strains cause different complications, and it took many years of work, the vaccine has received widespread.

In our country it was brought back in the pre-war period, but used only in large cities. Russian scientists have developed a dry vaccine that has persisted for a long time and could be transported to all corners of the country. However, the widespread use of the vaccine mandatory in the USSR began only in 1962 with the relevant decision of the government.

Modern BCG vaccine administered intradermally, ensuring the development of the local tuberculosis, non-threatening to the overall health of the person. As a result, the body produces specific protective antibodies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Why vaccinated infants?

It is proved that the baby's immune system is ready for vaccination from the moment of birth, and TB is one of the most dangerous infections, trapping the baby after discharge from the hospital. Usually vaccination carried out on3-7 day, and the sooner it is done, the sooner the body's immune system to get acquainted with the causative agent of tuberculosis, the more effective it will be the answer in the case of contact with an infectious agent.

It is better to produce BCG vaccine is in a maternity home, rather than in the clinic after discharge. First, in clinics are more common violations of vaccination techniques that can lead to complications. Secondly, child never safe from a meeting with Mycobacterium home, on the street, in the same clinic — and if he has no immunity such a meeting could be very dangerous.

When formed TB immunity?

Full TB immunity before the year. The criterion for a successful immunization is the appearance of the scar on his shoulder, at the site of vaccine — suffering a local investigation of cutaneous tuberculosis. Too small, inconspicuous scar shows a lack of immunization.

Particular care at the injection site

Through 2-3 months for skin formed at the injection site induration or thickening fabric — infiltration resembling a mosquito bite. Normally it should not be more than 1 mm in diameter. Sometimes infiltrate covered with a crust. Crust in any case can not be removed! It may fall off on their own, soak in water treatment and then reappear. When bathing a child should avoid this area soaping washcloth. By 6 months, usually formed by a delicate scar that takes its final shape by the year. It is strictly forbidden to lubricate the injection site with antiseptic solutions — green paint, iodine, alcohol, as this can damage the development of the necessary process.

Who BCG vaccination is contraindicated?

  • children in families where there were cases of congenital or acquired (caused by HIV-infection) immunodeficiency;
  • children, brothers or sisters who experienced severe complications of tuberculosis vaccination;
  • children with congenital fermentopathy — a congenital insufficiency a enzyme or its absence;
  • serious hereditary diseases (eg, Down syndrome);
  • severe perinatal lesions of the central nervous system (cerebral palsy).

BCG vaccination is delayed:

  • for any infectious processes;
  • hemolytic disease of the newborn (ie disease that developed as a result of blood incompatibility of mother and fetus byRh factor or blood group);
  • with a deep degree of prematurity.

What complications can be after BCG vaccination

Complications after vaccination are divided into two categories:

  1. Severe complications associated with generalization (spread) infection. Vaccine BCG — which, as already mentioned above, the living culture. Therefore, it can cause specific (ie related to the development of tuberculosis) complications. Typically, these complications are associated with the wrong selection of children to be vaccinated. However, I would like to emphasize that the risk of such complications is much less than the risk of disease in unvaccinated children.
  2. Lighter-related complications, including, in violation of the art of vaccine administration or with substandard vaccine.

Ulceration infiltrate. Thickening of the seal area or tissue at the injection site (infiltration) increases in diameter (greater than 1 mm), ulcerated, painless ulcer with a small discharge.

Education subcutaneous infiltration. Infiltration is not formed in the skin and under the skin. It looks like "ball", palpated under the smooth, intact skin. This complication due to the excessively deep vaccine administration, and, if time does not see a doctor, can infiltrate into the break, and the infection gets into the bloodstream.

Keloid formation (rough scar).This is a rare complication, and the newborn, it is less common than in older children. It is a common inherited disorder in which any damage to the skin is accompanied by excessive growth of scar tissue. In the case of keloid formation after vaccination scar is bright, shows through blood vessels, sometimes itchy.

The spread of infection to the lymph nodes. In this case, determined by painless enlarged axillary lymph nodes that mothers often notice when bathing baby. This lymph node has a size of hazelnut, and sometimes — chicken eggs. Occasionally an infection breaks through the skin, and forms a fistula, that is the channel through which departs pus.

If you experience any of the above complications, as well as other unusual phenomena, you should immediately contact your doctor.

About revaccination

Immunity acquired after vaccination with BCG, saved an average of 5 years. To maintain the adaptive immune re-vaccination (booster) is currently being performed at 7 and 14 years old. Recent studies show that more boosters inappropriate.

Even if your child is vaccinated with BCG from the schedule, do not be surprised to demand the passage of the Mantoux test — it is necessary to check the state of anti-TB immunity. It is, inter alia, helps determine how effectively held BCG.

It is important to know

Rightly believed that tuberculosis — a disease of people of low income. However, it is important to kn
ow that, due to the unfavorable epidemiological situation in our country and in the world, the disease can occur any person, regardless of their income. Indeed, the recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis among affluent sections of society.

In theory, parents have the right to refuse vaccination with BCG their child. However, taking such a decision, it is necessary to remember that TB is not insured by anyone, especially a defenseless child. Among infants tuberculosis do not choose "safe" and "disadvantaged" children. Based on this, I would like to emphasize the importance of vaccination and commitment of all newborn children, regardless of social status.

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