On past and present Navy doctor thinks the country, managing the expert council of the Defense of the State Duma Boris Usvyatsov
It is no exaggeration to say that for the first time in recent years, on the eve of Prof. prazdnichka — days of the patron of the Fatherland and active servicemen, the first decision of the new management called in the midst of the approval of experts in military affairs, and throughout society. In particular joy that comes not only work on the bugs, and veterans of the Armed Forces can read with optimism about the future of the Army and Navy. This is due, of course, with the mission to the post of Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu. Already the first decision of the new management called in the midst of the approval of experts in military affairs, and throughout society. In particular joy that comes not only work on the bugs, and certain steps in the creation of modern armed forces to ensure the country’s security. With all of this very principle not confined to bureaucratic boundaries, and with the expertise to teach and society.
For example. In the near future in the media disk imaging arise interviews, statements, comments generals, politicians, military professionals, dedicated to the Navy of — his condition, and prospects of development activities. This is quite natural: the military-political situation in the world, modern dangers and challenges addressed Russian Federation, including the marine areas bezotstupno require our country «second mighty hand» — a massive navy.
In our view, nothing unusual in the ensuing discussion, no. The whole history of the Russian Federation clearly demonstrates that it should increment fleet and military force, and international influence, and the new territories, and that is especially important now that the direct economic dividends. And at the same time the government’s weakness is necessarily reflected in its sea power, resulting in frequent were political and economic loss of the country. So it was in the Crimean War, in which the technological gap and naval forces led, in fact, to the defeat of our country. It was worth the fleet of more than 100 sunken ships under the terms of the Paris contract in 1856.
During like a victorious war with Turkey in 1877-1878 the Russian army was obliged to withdraw from the walls of Constantinople at only one news of the event in the pouring area of the British fleet. Later incompetent political and military decisions forced idle fleet at the initial stage of the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905) that led to the fall of Port Arthur, and in the coming defeat and laws of the Russian fleet at Tsushima. As a result, the country received a severe social and political turmoil.
«The military-strategic parity was achieved not only the quantity, and the highest quality of our ships»
And take the First World War, the 100th anniversary of the beginning of which is celebrated this year? She left without Russian Baltic fleet and bases, not counting the Kronstadt. The cost of the tremendous forces country recovered its naval forces, which have proved to be excellent in Lofty Russian war. But in 1950-1960-ies Nikita Khrushchev, did not understand the fleet was destroyed about 400 new ships, folded almost all naval aviation, eliminated the Amur Flotilla, and lovely river ships monitors, armed 130-mm guns, were cut into scrap metal .
Their senses quickly. Unsafe down around Russian Union military and political situation forced once again take control of the restoration of the fleet. By the mid-1980s the country faced with enough already slim and relatively equilibrium applets military shipbuilding. We were in the lead in matters of creation and construction of complex automated high-speed torpedo anti apparatus (PLA), the largest in the world amphibious hovercraft, attack submarines with a diving depth of 1000 meters. We were first introduced to the gas turbine power ships, supersonic cruise missiles began to use managed hydrofoils at high-speed ships, amphibious hovercraft and rocket. Each decade in order to introduce a new generation of submarines and surface ships …
Quite obvious that the military-strategic parity was achieved not only the amount, and the highest quality of our ships, which is quite consistent with the world standards.
Unfortunately, all that remained in the past. During the second half of the 1980s, the government completed the program and take shipbuilding finance operating. But after the collapse of the USSR we have lost and districts based on the Baltic, Black and Caspian Seas, as airfields, dockyards infrastructure part of the facilities management system. Graduated from the same fleet defeat dashing 90.
Samples somehow improve the situation adoption of such documents as the «Policy Framework Russian Federation in the field of naval operations for the period up to 2010» and «Plan of construction and development of the Navy, 2001-2005,» did not bring the desired result. Most of the measures prescribed in them have remained on paper. As a result, the operational ability of the Navy to address the tasks conferred on it by the ocean zone decreased by 3-4 times in sea — on the third part. In the Russian Navy is a few 10’s in the main types of obsolete warships that are difficult to handle even with that task as distant campaigns in the Indian Ocean, where seafarers, straining and sweating boilers turbines later, fighting pirates. Feeling rather weak presence of Russian fleet in the oceans, more frequent seizures sassy our civilian courts …
Now it is no secret that in the base reforms on giving the armed forces of a new kind of organization was put U.S. Army — and strategic command, and brigade structure, and much more. With all this, it seems, went blind copying of this organization, because, for example, does not take into account that the Joint Chiefs of U.S. armed forces, which, in fact, does the same functions as our General Staff, includes these species headquarters responsible for the condition and development of subordinate forces. The same has been the headquarters of the U.S. Navy’s continued readiness of naval forces, the development of systems of command and control, etc..
We transferred to the Navy and the Caspian flotilla commanders of military districts, creating a so-called inter-species groups. And as a result of the Naval Fleet of the self of the Armed forces almost turned into ‘naval wing army. » From today and the head of the Main Command Staff of the Navy is not a lot that depends, because they were left without many control structures. Their functions transferred to other bodies.
«Evaluation of the situation in the oceans is always needed for all fleets, whatever they were»
And yet, every soldier knows that every management begins with an assessment of the situation. Assessment of the situation in the oceans is always needed for all fleets, whatever they were. What does commander of the Western District to the situation in the Arctic and Atlantic oceans? Previously, this was done by the intelligence and operational management of the Northern Fleet and the Head of Staff of the Navy. And at the moment who assesses the situation in the oceans? And it is not that usual, taking into account the increasing maritime activity in many countries. And later, unfortunately, become the norm when in strategic sectors and regions used arbitrary concepts as North, South, East and West, ignoring the ocean and sea theaters of military operations. Each fleet receives policy guidance from the military neighborhood which it is subordinated has its own stand-alone plan. It follows, in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation have untied between a 4 fleet.
Now touch on building ships. It must be exercised in accordance with the operational puzzles set for the fleets. But here the main command function is truncated to the maximum — to this day he is not in the definition of the main forces and resources required for the execution of tasks in the oceans. And as a result a mass of thorny issues to the projected and already taken into service warships. Many of them now obsolete, it is not clear under what tasks at sea made infinitely massive and expensive to manufacture ships.
And here are a few circumstances — is weak first single techno policy, which in turn puts our industry in a hard dependency on suppliers zabugornyh huge number of devices products and component base, technical re-equipment companies leisurely CMO. In modern Russian virtually exhausted technological advance made in the last century. Quite evident that the greatest need of new projects unification ships and submarines, achieved through the use of standardized power plants, weapons systems, combat information and control systems, electronic equipment, etc.. Such an approach adopted by all the leading naval powers, should reduce the cost of simplify and as a result, accelerate the construction of the fleet. And in the coming facilitate its provision and maintenance of combat readiness.
That still regard to training, then there «new look» it is simply not anticipating not only on the basis of organizational beliefs, and beliefs based on training professionals for the fleet. Reorganization, which it is appropriate to refer to the collapse, the military education system has undergone in the Navy. Also borrowed from the United States, it was almost all in Russian dysfunctional criteria. About 75 percent of the graduates are dismissed immediately after the release, receiving a diploma of higher education professor. And meanwhile unprecedented concentration of universities ruined many the best in their own way the military schools in the Navy, forcing them to merge with larger centers. As a result — dalneyshiekorennye necessary conversion, otherwise the number of officers in the Navy could fall to critical mark.
Military education should not be a service industry military. After training professionals — generating structure and staffing agencies — the structure of the distribution. Of course, that in the next to avoid distortions and different interpretations, the country needs a law on military education.
What to do?
Practically what we have at the moment, — direct antipode an old Russian system, distinguished by beliefs Navy veterans, sufficient speed, reliability, efficiency and the highest professionalism, management personnel. Again — and this system was not flawless, even more so in the criteria mid-2000s. Long overdue need to modernize, including downsizing and structural controls. But why it was necessary to act rashly?
What still needs to be done in order to fleet regained the meaning of life and could do their eternal destination? First, you have to create a scientific basis General Command of the Navy, capable of their own composition control of combat and mobilization readiness of the fleet, its construction. To implement this plan, you need to pass the fleets and the Caspian Flotilla in the administrative jurisdiction of the commander in chief of the Navy, assigning it full responsibility for the combat and mobilization readiness, and naval construction, equipping it with the customer functions of arms and military equipment. While taking these measures need to be faster as you can while there is still an opportunity to correct mistakes. According to another to pay for them to have very highest rates.
Boris Usvyatsov Managing advisory council on defense DG