American researchers from the University of Michigan was able to identify another potential problem, which is likely to interfere with us to establish normal communication with extraterrestrial civilizations.
The new work, published in the American Journal of Physics, bears the name of "Physical Limits of Communication, or Why any sufficiently advanced technology is indistinguishable from noise."
Studies have shown that if you put her to send messages with the greatest efficiency, for the casual observers who are not familiar with the language inadvertently intercepted the message and a "news", it will not be different from random noise in the receiver. For example, if an e-mail to transmit a message consisting of a small number of signs — for example, "AAAAA", — then it will obviously contain very little information because the reader is seeing a number of recurring characters, can easily assume that the next character, likely to be also the letter "A" (the new information it thus — Sending another letter "A" — do not get).
In this example, the message looks completely coincidental. On the other hand, the message beginning with a sequence like "RPLUOFQX", from a theoretical point of view, has "a lot of information," as we will not be able to easily predict the continuation of the former. Paradoxically, it is "an absolute mess" that does not contain, from our point of view, no clear-cut information at all, it may be the most concentrated information transmission, and, on the other hand, from a formal point of view of the unpredictable noise can be considered as the most effective source of information. If it is the encoding method used by the message that we will not be able to detect a difference between the information-rich message and a random disorder in the letter.
NCCA plays on this theme was created by a huge number of works of art, like a computer, and in the "pre-computer" era. Suffice it to recall any comedy with another Ivan the Fool or crazy, whose casual, and (in fact) nonsense words and deeds in the eyes of the "too clever by half" surrounding endowed inaccessible to themselves a higher meaning. And in terms of our ability to actually "sentient beings" gives meaning to any casual "event-noise" raises a number of very different phenomena — from the "conspiracy" theories and constructs to cabalistic interpretation of dreams, Nostradamus, astrology and empowering "charisma" incompetent politicians, committing only nonsense.
A classic in this sense, is the story of Raymond Jones, "Noise", which tells how to use the banal hoax and libraries packed with a random set of books, clever scientists forced "re-invent" anti-gravity engine.
Newman and his colleagues showed that all the above is true in the case of radio waves through which we are going to contact with the "brothers in mind." When electromagnetic waves are used as a medium of communication, the most effective from the information point of view, the message format is indistinguishable from ordinary thermal radiation — it is the same type of radio waves that are emitted Preheat bodies like stars.
In other words, efficiently coded radio message that comes to us from outer space, is indistinguishable from the "signals" continuously sent us any ordinary star (of course, all this is true, if the transfer is not designed specifically for us, that is still unknown aliens intelligences, which requires trained first code).
This version has a downside. Imagine that some aliens have decided to gather evidence that the Earth appeared technological civilization. To make such a venture was a success, they would have to hurry — after all the time from the beginning of broadcasting with the Earth and to the point, as our radio and television signals become ubiquitous and efficiently encoded to wonder not clog the air (and we are then "turn into star "), on a cosmic scale is negligible. It is only in this infinitesimal period, our manmade activities will be easily distinguishable from other stars.
In the end, a 12-milliardnoletney history of the universe it is likely that extraterrestrial civilizations — if they exist in sufficient numbers — has long been in communication with each other, in any case, much longer than our paltry 80-year history of broadcasting. In this case, they probably learned to not wasted energy and encode their transmissions quite effective manner, compressing the data.
For us, these programs still did not exist. On this occasion, it should be noted that no arbitrarily efficiently encoded transfer is not complete without the "official marks". And in this "cover note" entitled to at least specify which "advanced codec" was used in this particular case, and to whom this "clear message" to the intended result (otherwise, with "absolute coding", using arbitrary "absolute codec" prepared in advance of a certain set of any noise you can get some random, full of absolutely new information message). Besides civilization, accustomed to "count kilobytes," and certainly not "twisted" the power of its transmitters more than necessary for a more or less effective transfer limit.
And in this case, they will need to insure more and some amount of redundant information necessary for the addressee in the case of what could successfully recover lost in the canyons of the star pieces "bit the corrupted" message. Perhaps it is on the search for this kind of "proprietary information" from the drop-down model of the usual noise, and future researchers should focus extraterrestrial intelligence.
According to another theory, in which science is not a hint, civilization, learned to create "absolute codecs" in any "brothers on reason" is simply not needed. Indeed, it is enough to apply to the first that fell noise (at least from the same stars) any of your "superkodek" — and thus not only generate new knowledge, but also how to "generate", called into being a new, hitherto unknown civilization with their language and culture. Among these phantoms and lose no wonder really really existing "them."
Meanwhile, one of the most famous American expert on the SETI (Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence) Seth Shostak think seriously about what it is we have to send the aliens in that case, if we want to go out with them on contact