This transfer of our radio is addressed to those who are in captivity, as well as the families and friends of these people. Now the country's 48 prisons are about 47 thousand people. It's more than 2,000 the number of Belarusians who were sitting in Stalin's labor camps and prisons in 1937-1938.
Among the themes of our program:
— "Lord, grant that I did not had bad dreams" — a review of letters of juvenile prisoners.
— Or correct prisons? The survey on the streets of Mogilev.
— Belarusian prison — the history and the present. On his content Lukishki says Boris Kit.
— The prison in rock style. The verses of the song Kolas from the new album Liavon Wolski.
— Berlin psyhaanalityk of post-traumatic syndrome, which occurs every third prisoner Stasi or the KGB.
A transfer of open column
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"Lord, grant that I did not had bad dreams"
This is a line from a letter signed by Anatoly minor.
Today we introduce you to the excerpts from the letters of those who went to jail "for youngster." As the psychologists, virtually everyone who turned out for the first time in captivity, especially in teenagers, prison is a state of shock. Finally, if continued for two or three months, many more than ever in my life would not have committed the crime in the first place because of the fear of the prison system. Now after six months, experts say, the person starts to get used to everything, including violence — forced sex, blood, violence.
For 15-year-old Anatoly today most beautiful thing in life — is good and beautiful dreams with pictures from the outside …
"Every night, falling asleep, I pray," Lord, grant that I dreamed of will. "But I keep dreaming and dreaming prison. Recently had a dream my mother … But it was again in prison, as if she is coming out on a date. Me cause I'm running for a long time, constipation, locks, lokalki … And if you take refuge — my mother disappears. And sometimes I dream of my mother — she was crying and saying, "I got sick …".
"Lord, grant that I did not had bad dreams."
And here is a letter from Sergei, who in prison for the third time. The writer is convinced that, once introduced into the prison, very easy to get caught in it again.
"I went to prison at age 15. They put me thought this fix, but made a mistake. In prison, people razlyutovvaetstsa and begins to build a criminal plans for the future.
It's all talk about their adventures. And the one who hears these stories, unwittingly begins to think, man caught because he was wrong, but I do not have errors. And then they'd go. The man who earlier could not kill a chicken, without the fear of going to kill another person. So correctly say: prison — not a school correct, and the school of crime ".
"Pervohod" Andrew would like to correct a lot in life.
"My life — says the young man, — is a solid failure. I was almost 16 years old, and I have already been twice convicted. First walked on the case as a witness, and so I was given bail parents. But I did not come, and I caught second time. judge told me at the trial that if I continued to steal, then I go to jail. This was the last time I forgave. then a third time, thinking it was too late. They gave me two and a half years for a stolen mobile phone, that my friend sold for $ 10 and split it into two.
Here where I sit, it is still normal compared to other prisons. But I do not nayadayusya of the gruel, which are fed. For five months I lost four and a half kilos.
You can cry, but what does it mean? You do not care no help and no one will feed. When I got here, I was surprised by the people with whom I sit. You could say — they're all like animals, they are wild. No one will give you a single piece of bread, not to share what he has. There is no justice and no justice, there is no good and clever. Who could — and he survived, those who could not — in order to "delete" and he will live on filthy offended "cock."
Now the sun outside the window, and I'd love to go free, to his mother. I want to hug and cry, to say — "I'm sorry, Mom, for everything that I've done, for what I had so long been away from you. Because I want to fix it."
The worst thing for Andrew — to get in this atmosphere again. "Life is not the raspberries, and imprisoned it — hell," says the young man.
According to psychologists, the prison itself is traumatic psyche. The most traumatized those "youngsters" in which the Court is final after a breakdown in communication with relatives.
"Either fix prisons" — VOX POPULI
The survey on the streets of Mogilev
Mr."I do not think so, do not solve the problem. When a man so ugly, it does not correct the prison. Rather, it cripples. There's also a lot of different people. Once there, for example, male or female. They live in that environment. Same proverb is: who pavyadessya, on and rack. "
Mrs."Do not decide. Conditions there is no such person to make a man. When such a person, then it has no remedy. Should have sex with him when he was lying across the bench. Parenting — the most important thing. I do not know, I have not was, but I think that cripples the prison. "
Mr."No, it does not solve. Not change the people there. Man himself has to change. And against the force will not work."
Mrs."Prison probably cripple. When a man is strong in its power, it may not skalechytstsa. But basically crippled people there. In our world, maybe all necessary there to plant, because someone, somewhere, something committed. Prison can not solve anything. "
Mr."No, of course. What you do not see is how many people have been convicted? Only when our economy is normal, then the person will work and change. But now we have for economic crimes are given more than one murder. And for economic, political and beyond. So what can I say! There are a lot of all, and also education. "
Mrs."Here are all individually. Whom she treats, and who mutilates. More, of course, those who mutilate. People are coming out of prison some embittered. At work do not get, do not get home."
Mr."Maim alleged. Evil people out there. Here — looking for that plant. As for murder, it is only a prison, and what action if bullying, it is not necessary, and to plant. Maybe work education." Chemistry "any".
Two young men"Some people wake up in prison after a sense of responsibility. Correction for him. Some — on the contrary. They are getting angrier. It depends on what education was. As parents affected. When people from orphanages, the pokey little impact on them."
With a young girl"A sense of what will be many prisons? There will need to put more people. No, this approach does not solve the problem. Should somehow bring up better. A man who got there without it will not be able."
Mr."Prison does not solve anything. When a person has something
of human remains, the prison until the end of his maim. This is not an institution to educate people. Term he spent there, say, five years — it became even worse. And then brought the worst here, and will educate the younger generation in the spirit. "
Belarusian prison. History and the Present
In this section, we tell about the former Belarusian Jail, as well as their famous barman. Today Belarusian enlightener and world-renowned scientist, mathematician, physicist, designer of American rocketry Boris Keith, who recently turned 101 years old, will continue his memories of Lukishki and other Belarusian prison the first half of the 20th century.
Borys Kit: In Lukishki prisoners beaten
Tatiana Poklad, Vilnius
As the prisoners slept and how they washed, or allowed them to visitors as interrogations were conducted and how the guards treated the prisoners, as released from prison and how to react in the Vilnius University in the 30s of the last century for the arrest of a student on political charges — about all remembered Boris Kit, when I called him to Germany, where the scientist now living.
Boris Kit (China) comes from Novogrudok, by the end of the Second World War, he studied and worked in educational activities in their native lands, was a teacher (since 1931) and Director (since 1939) of Vilna Belarusian gymnasium and later, in the autumn of 1939 .. — Director revived in Navahrudak school, as a school inspector later organized the Belarusian primary and secondary schools. After the exile Boris Kit — the world famous American scientist, a specialist in the field of astronautics, mathematics, physics, chemistry, Professor Emeritus of the University of Maryland in the United States, the International Academy of Astronautics. Borys Kit worked for the space agency NASA, invented the fuel for rocket engines. A prison experience a distinguished mathematician and educator received by the Polish authorities in their native Novogrudok in Vilnius, in the famous Lukishki, and later, during the German occupation — in the Gestapo prison in the Deep and Vileika.
"Polls have arrested many people, activists of the Belarusian"
In Lukishki prison Boris Kit to keep the time of arrests in the case of the Belarusian Society of the school.
"Polls arrested many people Belarusian activists, was the defeat of the Belarusian Society School (HH). Then chairman of the Grand Slam was Gregory Screen — says Boris. — By the way, at first we were sitting in the city, at a central point, where they keep all the prisoners of the week before sent to Lukishki. So I was sitting there first week and sat through the wall Gregory Screen. "
Gregory Screen, Belarusian choral conductor, folklorist, was engaged in educational and cultural work, not political matters. However, he faced three trials. Borys Kit earlier in the memories recorded Vasil Bykov summer of 2001 in Frankfurt am Main, recalled that "sat with a screen, which of firewood was in the next cell. Brushwood was the leader of the dance in the screens was terribly nervous, almost do not cry, I went and shouted, and I knocked him through the door: you softly, come on. A Screen was a very nice man. "
In Lukishki prisoners beaten
In the detention center conditions were not very good in comparison with Lukishki recalls Boris Kit, but there is no long held:
"There's a long sit, do not give anything, and in Lukishki was normal. Drove the bath, there was his own. Every day at 2:00 taken out for a walk. They all could stumble, so that already had a life. A slept on beds, beds were such primitive. "
The prisoners could meet with visitors and receive parcels, recalled Boris Kit. True, no one came to him — there was not one. That's when he sat in the Second World War in Vileika, then the food parcels from his wife helped to survive. And in Lukishki fed, in contrast to the Gestapo prison. Borys Kit also said that "in Polish prisoners did not beat any Novogrudskaya prison or in Vilnius Lukishki."
"Do not beat him, not really. But screamed and threatened during interrogation, intimidation," — said Boris Keith, who was imprisoned in Lukishki few weeks and Novogrudskaya prison — a few days.
No evidence of guilt released
But do not sit long, only those who were not afraid of shouting and threats, did not succumb to psychological pressure during interrogation and did not confess. There was no evidence of guilt — and released prisoners. Borys Kit recalls arrest in Navahrudak, then he was a student of sixth grade school Novogrudskaya:
"In Navahrudak was the defeat of the Belarusian peasants and the working masses. 50 people have been arrested. I sat in the police station, a few days long. Constantly going interrogations.
In Karelichy a museum, its director had found in the archives of the Grodno my interrogation protocols, so that they can now be seen.
What was it? And the fact that we have arrested 50 people after a few days have released five people, including me. Why? Because we have nothing to confess. And those that have admitted, received seven years in prison. "
Pistols and International
Well, what do students do in school Navahrudak how they were guilty of violating the law if they are whole classes were arrested in the case of the party "Belarusian peasants and the working mass"?
"Why am I? I was the best student in mathematics at school. And every day I came home community of students to solve problems. Police noticed it, for them it looked like a collection of Belarus. Thought that we make policy. And one day come to and arrested all of us in the house.
But we saw that the police is, and all the things that could harm us, under the stove thrown. We were the guys, of course, in high school playing around with bullets from guns. So we have it all at once thrown under the stove, nothing was to be seen. As long as they came in, we were OK. But still we were arrested.
Our guns are not found, but the other was, I did not have time to hide. We had such liberal views, you know, a lot of guys were members of the Communist Party, so I helped them "International" rewrite. And these have found my copy. I looked scary to the handwriting did not know that what I wrote. But it did not find anything, and I did not hold long, was released. "
And the prisoner returned to his studies at the school. The main thing was — not to recognize any guilt, hold firmly, emphasized Boris Kit, remembering those times. It was the same after Lukishki prison.
Not excluded from the university, but Professor offense
At the time of his arrest in Vilna Borys Kit was a third-year student at the Faculty of Mathematics of the University of Vilnius.
"And suddenly I was arrested, and I'm on the same week, there was a report done at the workshop — and I'm sitting on Lukishki. Professor so took it, you know, do not ask. And when I came out of prison, he asked me angrily:" What do you then do not come? do not understand. Why not informed that do not come? "He took offense at me. And how could I communicate with Lukishak! So Professor nothing found. I did not say anything — did not come, so could not come, what can I say. The university administration did not know I was in prison — my companion laughed, remembering that story. — No, it did not rule it out for the university, as it is now in Belarus. "
A release was unexpected, without warning. Borys Kit recalls:
"Nobody knew anything, never met me. We were sitting one evening with Basil Rogulya, we were together in the chamber. Suddenly, a loud voice:" China for dismissal! . " I let go, I mean. After 10 minutes came, opened the door and let me out. And I was very happy, running through the streets like a rabbit. "
"Prison in a rock style"
These days in the May Grodno and Brest Lavon Wolski presented his album "White Apple Tree thunder." The album includes twelve songs on poems by classical poetry of Mickiewicz, Chechot, Bogushevich to Heniyush, Tank, Panchenko, Baradulin. The basis of the song "In prison," put a short poem Kolas, written by the poet in 1908 during his stay in Minsk prison.
In verses Kolas "In prison," only twelve lines. It begins with these words:
"The sun will rise, the sun sets,
Day is night will replace the darkness,
A black cloud over us
Hangs close the prison. "
The song "In prison" sounds in the style of hard rock, the words and the music are successfully combined. Says Lavon Wolski:
"First, in Belarus several pyatsigoddyav is a very hot topic. I also have friends who were accused of various economic and political crimes. Therefore, I think this is such a pressing Belarus. Secondly, would such a heavy musical style to put into album. Certainly, prison theme and cumbersome words, they came to such a "metal."
Music critics and listeners differently perceived new album rock musician.
Volsky"I somehow got a negative response from professional music critics. A from the audience, on the contrary, very friendly, and even testify to the sale, neither in Grodno, Brest, no we do not have enough drive, although we took with the stock."
The public, "despite the propaganda of a different way of life, yet stretches to the Belarusian culture," concludes Lavon Wolski. He had the opportunity to once again feel that the lines of the classics of literature — not dead, concerts react to them very vividly.
"There was a problem all revive, and there could not be better suited prison poem, which falls on the" metalnuyu "style, I think so."
With each poet takes a few days, do not take one book, says Lavon Volsky:
"I methyl several poems look that appeals to me, and most do not care? There are no random verses. Kolasa I took a lot of" Pesnyary. "I was flipping through Kolasa-thumbed and in the end this was a very short poem, and so we have worked . "
Doctor of Philology Igor Zhuk recalls that the lattice prison — not an abstract image for Yakub Kolas
"Worse than that, he served Kolos and waited for the second time of his release by the Bolsheviks. Fortunately, he was lucky he was not planted."
In the poem "Symon Music," published in Minsk in 1925, are these words: "Blacksmiths others, all those chains."
Igor Zhuk says:
"There's a curse, he sends Moscow and Warsaw, all at once, who lived on what is called from our table. Itself poem" Simon the music "- a curse lack of freedom. He began writing it when, by his own admission," for me closed heavy bars. "And then he wrote a magnificent hymn to freedom, which is the" Simon the music. "
To play it safe, Yakub Kolas in the works of the Soviet period had thoroughly encrypt your thoughts, say linguists.
PRISON AND HEALTH
"Every third prisoner Stasi or the KGB has post-traumatic stress syndrome"
"At least one in three of those who served in the dungeons of the Stasi or the KGB, sooner or later there is a so-called post-traumatic syndrome (PTS) — mental disorder that is caused by the experienced trauma." This is evidenced by guest of "Prison and health", the Berlin psyhaanalityk Karl-Heinz Bomberg. One of his specialty — the psychic trauma of the face during the political repression. Among the patients the doctor — about 150 former prisoners of the Stasi (East Germany's secret police). Many of them felt the symptoms of PTS only 10 and even 20 years after his release. This insomnia and nightmares, and fear of the slow travel or car headlights, the feeling that after you watch, the fear of harassment, threats, isolation, etc.
In an interview with "Freedom" by Dr. Karl-Heinz Bomberg, a former prisoner himself, "Stasi", talks about how to manipulate gedeeravskiya investigators concluded psyche as well — about the similarities in the response of the secret police of the former East Germany and the KGB of Belarus today.
Health problems can start and after 20 years in prison
At various times in a psychiatric study of Karl-Heinz Bomberga that Prentslaver Bergisch in the eastern part of Berlin, just turned around 150 victims of the Stasi. Many of them have mental problems or psyhasamatychnyya there in 10 years or even 20 after the fall of Honecker.
Brandenburzhats Thomas Haneman — Bomberga patient with 10 years of experience. In the days of the GDR, he received five years in prison for anti-government activities. Says Haneman, who is now 51 years old, true life, he felt only after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989. He changed a lot of professions, from akvalyangista to the owner, and felt quite normal, as every healthy person.
Only in the early 2000s, after 14 years of prison, he began to have nightmares, stomach pain, and unpredictable causeless hatred and aggression to all managers.
"Such vague, diffuse symptoms have many former" political "from the former GDR," said Bomberg. — "Treat people whose health is systematically destroying the Stasi, it is difficult."
Bomberg"Just recently I was approached by a patient who is twenty years after the Stasi prison on what not suffer. Never. And then he suddenly started to hurt. As it turns out, such pains are psyhagennyya reasons. After what these people have gone through, they are firmly in the doldrums. This is such a mental processing of gum-experienced — torture, interrogation and so on. A very important point that in addition to mental reaction to all this experience and there is physical, bodily reaction to the intolerable pain — the head, spine and joints. First Mental disorders cause complications in the gastrointestinal tract, the next body — the heart. Gradually comes not only mental, but also somatic depression ".
The most important thing — to get rid of distrust
Distrust in the former prisoners comes from the fact that for a long time, they are followed by security forces, said Bomberg. Now, after a long conversation with the doctor, many of his patients as the same Haneman, more calmly react to, say, a slow car travel, unexpected calls at the door or on the phone, do not complain of pain.
I know that many prisoners do not want to remember any of this, and want only to forget. And only after the policy, doctors, human rights activists will actively remind people of their rights, they believe in themselves again.
As Dr Bomberg, finally cured of experienced injustice, unfortunately, is impossible. Consequences psyhatravmy can only soften gradually reworking sensation experienced injustice. This is a ste
p-by-step and makes the doctor with his patients.
"Freedom""What would you recommend in this regard Belarusian prisoners who are in jail under heavy psychological pressure from the security services, as well as those who came from prison and feels certain mental disorders? Just keep in mind that a psychiatrist in the post-Soviet countries — a specialist to which people will go in the least, especially the so-called political ".
Bomberg"There are certain points that are associated with the policy, and can be resolved at the political level, in accordance with the agreements to which the Belarus. According to these agreements should carefully to enforce such rights as the right to contact a lawyer on a date for a medical examination. Also, some general international efforts could somehow establish appropriate consultation of Western mental health professionals to help the victim cope with his psyhatravmami. I know that many prisoners do not want to remember any of this, and want only to forget. And only after the policy, doctors, human rights activists will actively remind people of their rights, they believe in themselves again. I watch it on my patients who have a long silence. However, now that I know more about their rights, they are more engaged with their own problems. "