If a woman is not pregnant, then the presence of chlamydia in her body is not much to show. Their favorite habitat — the cervix (or rather, cervical mucus). It was there that they are colonies, ie are not all over. This fact is linked so often happens when a doctor takes a swab from the cervix and there are chlamydia, and the other through the day and take a smear, but chlamydia is not re-find it. That is why the diagnostic value of smears for Chlamydia is quite low — about 30%.
How does chlamydia
During acute infection, the complaints of women may be different, depending on the spread of chlamydia.
In finding of chlamydia in the cervix may be slight vaginal discharge, accompanied by a mild pulling pain in the lower abdomen, which is typical of the local exacerbation of the process (in chronic complaints almost never). If the infection spreads higher (uterus, tubes), the more pronounced the complaint, because, for example, may start an inflammation of the appendages.
Exacerbation Chlamydia infection is especially dangerous during pregnancy because it can lead to all kinds of complications.
- in the early stages possible miscarriages
- the later stages of the premature discharge of amniotic fluid and preterm birth,
- in childbirth high probability of fetal infection (conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, otitis, and even pneumonia).
Diagnosis of Chlamydia
The most accurate method is a blood test for antibodies (immunoglobulins) to chlamydia. If you detect a low concentration of these antibodies, we speak of chronic carrier of chlamydia. If the concentration is high — a worsening hlamidinoy infection.
The diagnosis of "chlamydia" justified in confirming his two fundamentally different methods of diagnosis: smear (microscopy) and blood for antibodies to chlamydia (method Biochemical). Only when the titer (concentration) of antibody is high and / or the presence of infection-specific complaints, showing a course of treatment.
The numbers must be multiples, ie more or less twice the previous (IgA and IgG 1:40 1:80). Equivocal or negative titers are 1:05 or less. Elevated IgG figures suggest that the process is chronic. In this case, treatment shown with certain complaints, or, if before that person never been treated over the infection. High numbers IgA, mainly occurs in the course of acute (primary infection) or exacerbation of chronic that needs treatment.
What to do in case of a positive analysis?
We must remember that 100% reliable method to date is almost non-existent, including, without an exceptionmethod IFA
It may be:
- smears for the method of mutual funds (examination by fluorescent microscopy) — which can also be a "false positive" responses
- PCR analysis of blood (in principle based on genetic engineering or study of DNA fragments) — Today, its accuracy is very high.
In search of the truth of the diagnosis, quite often, things can hang back or financial capacity of the patients, or the lack of equipment for the laboratory. The better the body's defenses, the less likely to be infected with chlamydia. In which case, you face only a "carrier" for you it's not dangerous (in a blood test will be determined only IgG, at low titers).
The best is if both surveyed the whole family (all interested persons, including children) as in this case, you can identify who is at what stage and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment.
In most cases, pathogens and Mycoplasma ureplazmoz does not manifest itself (hidden bacteriocarrier), and only cause an exacerbation of the process, similar to chlamydia, complications of pregnancy and infection of the fetus. Therefore, when examining women who were in the past the problems described above, and blood smears taken at least once on the three pathogen. By the way, studies have shown that hormonal contraceptive pill reduces the risk of infection with chlamydia, this effect was associated with an increase in the protective properties of the cervical mucus (decreasing its permeability to bacteria). As mentioned above, chlamydia dangerous for pregnant women.
What to do?
But what do you do if
Placenta can be a mesh filter through which large molecules can not pass (they remain in the mother). Therefore, in the treatment of pregnant antibiotics are used, harmless to the fetus (ie those that do not pass through the placenta). These include drugs whose molecular weight is greater than the "carrying capacity" of the capillaries. However, when taking these drugs is still possible effects on the fetus. Antibiotic acts primarily on the mother body, but the treatment period it changes the metabolism, which in turn affects the metabolism of the fetus. Antibiotics are always prescribe short courses, in order that the effects were minimal.