What is it?
Cholera — It is an acute infectious disease, particularly relating to dangerous infections.
The causative agent of cholera is Vibrio cholerae (Vibrio cholerae) — slightly curved rod, vaguely resembling a comma. Vibrio have flagella, which allows them to move very quickly. The microorganism was discovered by famous German scientist Robert Koch in 1883.
There are two types of vibrio — a classic and
Such a large variation due to the extreme instability of the pathogen to hydrochloric acid, which is in our stomach. If the acidity is reduced (for example, atrophic gastritis) or hydrochloric acid significantly mixed (when using a large amount of liquid), the amount of Vibrio required for infection, reduced 100 thousand times.
Best vibrio proliferates at
On the surface of fruits and vegetables, such as watermelon, vibrio can live up to 5 days. The only source of infection — the patient man vibrionositel or out of the region, troubled by cholera, releasing agent with feces or vomit. This method of transmission of epidemiologists call
What if this happens?
Main events begin in the human body when a critical mass of vibrio gets from the stomach into the small intestine. It is warm and humid, the environment is alkaline, which is suitable for mass reproduction
The incubation period lasts from several hours to
During his turbulent life of vibrio produce the toxin — choleragen. The toxin causes extensive exudation of tissue into the lumen of the small intestine. And it starts powerful, so-called profuse diarrhea. A general intoxication causes uncontrollable vomiting. Man begins to pour out of a huge amount of liquid.
Clinical severity depends on many factors — the state of the organism, the number of agents lie inside, etc. When worn forms possible single liquid stool, and weak manifestations of intoxication. There is also a form of asymptomatic carriage — when the person does not feel sick, but released into the environment a huge number pathogens.
The classical picture of cholera — is frequent, up to 10 or more times a day, and diarrhea. Fluid loss is enormous — up to 20 liters per day, and in each milliliter contains up to a billion vibrio.
As a result of the massive loss of fluid is blood thickening and dehydration. The patient's condition deteriorated rapidly and dramatically.
The facial features are sharpened, eyes sink, turn blue lips and ears. The skin is cold (cholera — One of the few infections that are accompanied by low or normal body temperature). The skin loses its elasticity, easy-going in the folds and cracks down very long back, and the feet and the skin becomes wrinkled hands — the so-called "hands laundress." Shortness of breath, severe weakness.
In the absence of treatment with modern means half of the patients die within the first day.
Diagnosis of cholera during an outbreak is not difficult and is based, for the most part, in the clinical manifestations. The diagnosis of the first cases require bacteriological confirmation — the release of the pathogen in the vomit or stool. The main thing in the effort to curb the outbreak — isolation of cases and disinfection of sources spread of pathogens.
Treatment is carried out in a hospital infection, although
The mainstay of treatment — replenishing fluid loss and mikroelemetov, maintenance
Moved infection does not leave behind a persistent immunity and re-infection with cholera is possible at any time of life, and attempts to create an effective vaccine yet fruitless. The effectiveness of vaccination is currently being evaluated in
Basic preventive measures when visiting unfavorable for cholera areas — wash your hands before eating or preparing food and after using the toilet. Drink only boiled water, fruits and vegetables after washing with running water necessarily coddle; exclude purchases of products from unsuspecting people, swim only in approved areas.