Chosin. In the icy hell and back

There is a perception that Americans can not fight a war in a languid criteria. Like, yeah, the army in shtatovtsev good, but only if the fighting side by side refrigerator with cool cola, a Michelin-star restaurant and a hotel instead of the barracks. This is not the case. The most glorious battle the U.S. Marine Corps — Battle of Chosinskom Reservoir, Korean War. The craziest fight in the history of the U.S. Armed Forces, held at a temperature of — 40 degrees repeatedly overwhelming odds. I know about the advanced Russian anti-American sentiment in the middle. But I also know that real men can appreciate a worthy opponent. Because I will tell to you about the Chosin.

Chosin.  In the icy hell and back

But first a little history. The Korean War in June 1950 began with the fact that North Korea's troops at one point stormed South Korea, instantly destroying the South Korean side. South American occupation troops left after the war with Japan, took the brunt and despite the constant attack of North Koreans managed to keep the security perimeter around the important ports — Busan, which is then started throwing around reinforcement. Having increased its military grouping in the Pusan perimeter, in September 1950 the Americans broke through the front line, paying the North Koreans in a chaotic retreat.

Immediately at 160 km to the north was carried brilliant landing at Inchon — Americans have managed to put 40,000 people in the deepest rear Communists, turning those into a chaotic retreat. Caught between a rock and a hard place Inhchona Busan, reddish run so that only your heels glittered front of the Communists fell for almost a day, the North Korean army ceased to exist. Of the 200,000 bardovyh invaders who crossed the 38th parallel, reversing only 25,000 returned. Without guns. Without technology. Without hope.

But hope emerged from the Yankees. By the end of October 1950, most of the area was occupied by North Korea, under the control of the Communists remained only in the northern mountains. General MacArthur announced the coming of the finishing strip to the Yalu River, promising the troops that they will return home for Christmas. In the end, being able to make a paltry remnants of units of narrow-eyed commies? It's nothing. But apart from the North Koreans entered the game one more force. China. Americans ignored the warnings of the Chinese people to quit the life and continued to attack North Korea to the north, believing that China will send a pair of ill-trained divisions, purely for demonstration.

Americans were wrong. As soon as they moved to the Yalu River, flat terrain changed to hills at first, then to the mountains, and then the terrible mountains. If there has got modern Russian, he would have seen that the North Korean him terribly reminiscent Chechnya. The narrow mountain roads. Endless mountain ranges, from which all along the ground to sweep both hands. Steep cliffs. Mountains. Landslides. Landslides. On the slowly advancing troops X Corps — the same one that some time ago so brilliantly landed at Inchon — began to fall came from Siberia anticyclone in Korea comes the cool winter in the last 100 years. Because of impassable mountains of the East Korean strike force was obliged to divide, X Corps was left with no connection to the rest of the troops continued to move forward, to Chosinskomu reservoir. The temperature dropped. Trucks ripped off a cliff. All the more often and more often get messages about Chinese detachments seen — but the command believed that their maximum 30,000. In fact, General Peng Dehuai secretly threw across the border 200,000 people against the doomed 8th Army, another 150,000 were moving towards the Chosin, to our X Corps, who had a nearly 30 000 people with a basis in the form of 1st Marine Division, United States.

At the theoretical level, X Corps numbered 103,000 man, but they were spread over a large 640 kilometer front, specifically because at the Battle of Chosin involved 30,000.

It should say more about the balance of power. Americans have a lot of the heavy equipment and the beautiful air support, but in the mountain criteria (Chechnya) armored vehicles often become a burden of care that you want to protect and guard against unexpected attacks from the surrounding mountains. The Chinese have had only small arms and light weapons, ammunition and uniforms minimum and burros as a head tf. The Chinese have experienced a minor bug in everything, right up to the food — but in a paradoxical way the criteria Korean Chechnya it was no drawback, but an advantage. Without the need to haul iron mountain, the Chinese simply tossed their part to significant distances, constantly arranging ambushes and surprise attacks, with a star turn — attack the middle of the night. When out of the darkness chilled runs a tremendous horde, principal, how much you have tanks or what's your gun, basically, if you can perekolot them all in the melee. Unlike the Chechens, dealt a blow from a distance and fleeing, Chinese preferred cover the enemy's positions in human waves, almost spilling strengthen the Yankees. And they crossed the border were 350,000 only start — by the end of the war in Korea was 1.3 million Chinese soldiers (still under 700,000, including the wounded, were killed in the Americans). While maintaining strict discipline, secretly moving NIGHT MODE, using all the features of the mountain relief, the Chinese are not allowed to bring the Yankees advantage in firepower. Chinese circulars directly forbidden to engage in open areas (rasktayut per minute), exclusively in the mountains, only once, only very tightly to the enemy orders.

On November 27 of the 42nd Chinese Army stormed the X Corps, narrow line stretched around Chosinskogo reservoir quickly and perfectly isolated group of American troops from each other. To the left of the reservoir, nor placed Yudam of the first Marine division, just otbivshie countless grievous assaults of the Chinese, causing 'singing, screaming, strumming (the Chinese have used for communication in a battle gongs) masses of terrible loss. Realizing that there are major enemy forces, the Chinese have suffered blow a bit lower on the critical principle pass Toktong where heroically defended by the second company of the 7th Marine Regiment. In case of success the Chinese attack the main force of Marines in Yudam-or would have been completely cut off from the outside world — and therefore the company of 220 people to death was 5 days and nights, reflecting the incessant attacks over 2,000 Chinese at a temperature of minus 40 degrees. The howling wind. Total darkness. Mountain pass. Capsules with morphine that doctors keep in his mouth to defrost and inject wounded, and wave after wave, wave after wave of fearless, inhuman, insensitive Chinese, the breaking as if there are people alive, but bots.

By the second night through a snowstorm and hordes of Chinese to pass broke the other parts of the division — by the time of the 220 people without the help of others could stand on his feet only 82, and everything was covered mountains of corpses, the second company of over 1000 interrupted damned narrow-eyed Communists. Specifically, during the break-out Yudam nor Toktongu Major General Oliver Smith made his famous "Retreat? Hell, we're just stepping in a different direction". Because of the rubble and snow column was moving so slowly that rolling down on top of the Chinese clung South American trucks, climbed up and joined the melee with the soldiers who were sitting in bodies, sometimes delighting them with grenades. Jump down, kill a Chinese, is trying to break the glass in the butt
of the driver's door, dodge the blow of another Chinese, third shoot, kick up a fourth and a time to jump back into the truck before the convoy moves on — and all at a temperature of minus 40 degrees, a feral howl of the wind, high in the mountains. Yes, at Chosin were able to have fun!

Breaking through the pass Toktong and remains united with the heroic second company, the Marines continued to move south, hoping to get through to the main base in the Hagar-ri. To the west of the Chosin fate at one point attacked several divisions of the special group "Faith" (Faith) was formed not so successful — its cut cleaned. Of 3000 "believers" 600 people were from KATUSA, Korean subsidiary units. Specifically on him and knocked the Chinese, knowing that this is the weakest element of the defense. The Koreans ran through the crowd rushed into the breach Chinese Zerg, Americans tended to persist, but in the Chosin was no room for faith, hope, or love. Only a brutal massacre in ice and fire. At first, a few 10-s Yankees just chilled in the trenches, then commander of the McLean was wounded and taken prisoner by the Chinese, which he took to be a long-awaited reinforcements, and to top it off, at the very last, desperate attempt to break through to their previously worked perfectly for naval aviation Error thrown off the remnants of "Faith" napalm. The head of the column was burned to the ground, it was night, drives the Zerg air force base on the left, and the Chinese have surrounded the little remaining of the column, like hungry ants surround the freshest corpse of the animal. By dawn, only a few hundreds of randomly moving around, able to get to the Hagar-ri. A special group of "Faith" was the largest South American division, destroyed during the Korean War, destroyed due to a number of catastrophic accidents — it looks like someone up there really does not like to rely on him so openly. God has given, Chinese ate.

But there were flukes — 58th Chinese division, to be storm base in the Hagar-ri (top reservoir, Yudamni top left, top right, "Faith," across the bottom — Hagar-ri, where the roads are connected), used an old Japanese card and naturally lost in the mountains. When the Chinese finally came to Hagar-ri, their movement detected, and the small garrison base was put on full alert — in the trenches put even cooks. In the case of capture Hagar When all South American forces above could be cut off, because the Chinese, and the garrison fought like animals. Commander Smith even called from the reference Fri Koto-ri (further down the road) all the existing forces, including the division of the British commandos. Halfway to Hagar When the Chinese stormed a convoy of Koto-ri and divided it into two parts — before eventually reached base only half the reinforcements, 300. All the same, together with the cooks them enough in order to survive until the arrival of the main forces of Yudam-no. Need to pay tribute to the Chinese people — suffering terrible losses, they still threw in the last attack in 1500 left over from the 58th fighter division, which almost completely killed. The whole Chinese division died trying to take over a small base with a tiny garrison.

Arrival broken through with Yudam-no residues and "Faith" produced by demoralizing the garrison faster memory — instead of the main forces of the heroes When Hagar saw the lingering death, injury, frostbite, half-dead people. And the same NIGHT MODE stormed the base 76, and 77 Chinese divisions stormed immediately from all sides, trying to pour a little half-dead human waves Yankees, by the time constantly battling a week of very icy winter of the century. The Marines repulsed all the attacks and the subsequent morning began to break first to Koto-ri, and then to Hungnam, the sacred port evacuation. The Chinese at that time there were only a paltry remains of their countless hordes, and the Chinese did the smart thing — ahead of X Corps, they took a principled strategic Funchilin pass by blowing up the only bridge. Get to it Americans were required to apply section of the bridge, which they have thrown off by parachute, and then under continuous fire anew to build a bridge. By the 9th December, bridge back, the troops moved forward, and the Chinese, knowing that I lost, thrown to attack the few survivors of the 60th and 58th divisions. By the time of the 2-units 9500 every soldier had the least 200 people. But the Chinese commissioners worked no worse than Russian in World — and the 200 man unconditionally rushed forward.

Needless to say, that they swiftly and ruthlessly destroyed — Marines have already felt the freshest taste the salty sea wind, the wind of salvation, the wind of life, and they are irresistibly drawn forward into the light, into life away from the frozen hell with endless hordes of Chinese under each mountain. When the X Corps in the end went to Hungnam, men with blackened with smoke and frost officials began to cry. Off the coast there was an armada of 193 ships, endless, yawning, ready to bring down fire and metal on at least some enemy's movement. The Chinese did not even try to approach the coast, allowing the Yankees slowly and with dignity, to evacuate, killing at Hungnam everything that could be of even the smallest value to the enemy, and take on board the above 100,000 North Korean refugees.

X Corps did not have to get out of the Chosin, X Corps had to stay in the Chosin forever, in the midst of snow in the middle of the ice, in the middle promorozhennaya rocks. Still, the Americans came, having lost only 10,000 people, breaking through the waves of the flesh, not to feel pain, but only attack, attack and attack again and again. In the fierce cold. In the fierce terrain. In the fierce night. Two Chinese divisions, fighting in the main only with parts of the 1st Marine Division, United States, have been completely destroyed, and another 6 divisions suffered the loss, making them incapable of fighting. Chairman Mao officially expressed his deepest sympathy and said that more than 40 000 Chinese civilian veterans of the war (ending in China only in 1949, a year before the Korean) found his death in the mountains of Chosin. The whole Chinese army was destroyed as a fighting unit alone Division Marines, marching and marching forward, no matter what. Heroic breakout from the Chosin paralyzed Chinese horde that frisky after the victory had to move on — but instead it has found that in some battalions there was not 1 person.

Two weeks of continuous march and incessant fighting. 40 degrees below zero. The endless horde attacking from all sides. Melee. Storming the mountains, desperate battle at the top, followed by a march to the mountain. Night ambush. Daytime ambush. The roar of gongs. Wounded, hundreds of freezing to death. Healthy sent to patrol and freezing to death. Malehankih soup portions in polovnichek — as long as doesh a huge portion of it is converted into a literal ice. Capsules with morphine in the mouth. Multiple frostbite and amputation of the right on the road, by the bullets of Chinese. Piles of corpses — and alive, lugging corpses on for themselves, "Since we are Marines, we always bury their own dead with honor". Mountain road covered with a thick layer of frozen blood. Mountain roads, covered with a thick layer of frozen glory.

Perhaps the Americans are all the same wage war.

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