Chronic renal failure

Chronic renal failure.  Photo from http://iws.ccccd.edu

What's this

Chronic kidney failure (CRF) — a condition in which as a result of progressive kidney disease is a gradual destruction of renal tissue. Because of this continuity is broken all the internal environment of the body, which leads to malfunction of organs and tissues.

Why did this happen

Causes of chronic renal failure are likely to be chronic glomerulonephritis and pyelonephritis, urolithiasis disease, tumors of the urinary system, systemic diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, vasculitis), metabolic diseases (diabetes, gout, amyloidosis), cardiovascular disorders (hypertension, atherosclerosis) and hereditary disease.

What's going on

Although a variety of reasons, changes in the kidneys with chronic renal failure can be reduced to a considerable reduction working kidney tissue. This in turn leads to azotemia, i.e. in higher concentrations in the blood of nitrogenous products of protein breakdown — urea, creatinine. As with the work kidney fail, these starting substances derived in other ways, mainly through the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal tract and lungs are not designed for such loads. This leads to the development of uremia — self-poisoning of the body. An aversion to meat, nausea and vomiting, a man tormented by a constant feeling of thirst. Muscle cramps, pain in the bones. A person becomes jaundiced hue, while breathing there is a smell of ammonia. Urine output is markedly reduced.

Thus, despite the use of diuretics, a person has edema, increased blood pressure, there is an imbalance of electrolytes. Because of the violation of the synthesis of biologically active substances in the kidneys develop anemia and gout, increased lipid content of blood, broken gonadal function, glucose metabolism, phosphorus and calcium.

The process of gradually progresses, and as a result a person can not survive without regular dialysis ("artificial kidney") or a kidney transplant.

Diagnosis

For the diagnosis of chronic renal failure used complex biochemical analyzes of blood and urine, determination of glomerular filtration rate, instrumental techniques (ultrasound, urography).

Treatment

When treating CRF Nephrology certainly makes recommendations for a diet low in protein and salt formulations eliminates the toxic effects on the kidney. Also provides treatment of metabolic disorders and complications as possible is carried out on the impact of the main disease, Promptly identified and treated disease, aggravating chronic renal failure (eg, urinary tract infection). In the later stages of the patients require regular dialysis or kidney transplantation.

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