As usually happens with the weakening of state power, after the beginning of the revolutionary events of 1917 across the country immediately raised his head various nationalist movements. There was an exception and the North Caucasus. Already in April, there are so-called "national councils" mountain people. 1 (14) May 1917 at the Congress of Mountain Peoples of Vladikavkaz was established "The Union of Incorporated Mountaineers of the Caucasus." The Central Committee of the "Union" headed Chechen Topa Chermoev millionaire oilman.
At the insistence of the "Union" for the coming struggle for power and inter-tribal clashes in the autumn of the same year, was withdrawn from the front of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Division (the so-called "Wild Division"), launched by the time the housing. Not a very distinguished themselves in the fields of labor and failing to restore order in Petrograd during the August Kornilov, horsemen enthusiastically engaged in the struggle for samostiynost. And this struggle is, as expected, was interwoven with the desire to capture and plunder the adjacent land.
In November, "The Union of Incorporated Mountaineers of the Caucasus" has appointed the creation of "Mountain Republic", claimed the area from the Caspian to the Black Sea, including the Stavropol region, Kuban and Black Sea. Prime has all the same Chermoev. November 23 (December 6), 1917, the executive committee of the Chechen State Council forwarded the Grozny advice of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies ultimatum, demanding the disarmament of working groups and is located in the town of revolutionary-minded of the 111th Regiment.
The next day in the severity was provoked by the killing of several riders and an officer of the Chechen regiment "Wild Division". In the evening several hundred Chechen horsemen Novogroznenskoye looted and set fire to the oil fields that burned 18 months. Grozny Council adopted a decision on the withdrawal of the 111th Regiment in Stavropol.
But the big blow came in around the Cossack villages. Back in the pre-revolutionary years with the connivance of the then authorities of their inhabitants is constantly tormented by robberies, robberies and murders committed by the freedom-loving outlaws. After the start of the 1st World War, when battle-worthy male population of the Cossack villages was taken back to the front, Caucasian crime have gained unusual proportions.
At the end of 1917 the Chechens and Ingush began systematic expulsion of the Russian population. In November, the Ingush village was set on fire and destroyed the field marshal. December 30 Chechens looted and burned the village Kochanowski. The same happened to the village and knew Elijah.
In January 1918, the Ingush captured and sacked Vladikavkaz. This "feat" was likely due to general disorganization and disintegration. To the question, where are the troops who were supposed to protect the city, the military chieftain of the Terek Cossack Army L.E.Medyanik honestly replied, "Yes, they had fled their homes … have only 6 members of the Government (meaning Terek army government. — IP), Gen. Goloshchapov and a few officers and Cossacks. " As expressed on this subject in his memoirs, Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin, Ingush robbed "Vladikavkaz people — for their weakness and acquiescence."
Meanwhile, March 3, 1918 in Pyatigorsk, at the 2nd Congress of the Peoples of Terek Terek Russian was proclaimed a republic. Management of the Mountain Republic fled to Georgia. There, in the criteria of the German-Turkish intervention, May 11, 1918 was formed a new government headed by Gorsky with all the same Chermoyevs. On the same day proclaimed the establishment of the independent Russian Federation puppet "of the highlanders of the North Caucasus." In October 1918, a convoy of Turkish troops "government" moved to Dagestan, settling in Temir-Khan-Shura (Buynaksk now). November 17 it had signed a contract with the Turkish commander-F.Yusuf Izzet Pasha about staying in Dagestan Turkish occupation troops.
Meanwhile, the bloody strife in the North Caucasus has continued to increase. According Denikin
In autumn 1918, Chechnya has established close relations with the Turkish command in Baku, which is exerted through Dagestan Chechens in arms. "
In the night of 5 to 6 August 1918 in Vladikavkaz controlled the Bolsheviks stormed the Cossack and Ossetian troops, supported by part of the population of the town. Began heavy street fighting. In this situation, a temporary Extraordinary Commissioner of the South Russian Federation G.K.Ordzhonikidze secretly went to the Ingush village Bazorkino to negotiate with the favorite Ingush nationalists, Hitler's future servant Wassan Giray Dzhabagiev. In exchange for help in fighting with the rebels, he promised on behalf of the Russian government, in case of victory, to convey the Ingush land four Cossack villages. The offer was accepted. On the same night in Bazorkino began arriving Ingush armed groups. August 17, under pressure from defenders of the town of battle formations of the Cossacks and their followers flinch, panic and chaotic retreat in the direction of the village Arhonsky. The next day martial deeds were discontinued, but reddish brigands did not miss the option to once again plunder Vladikavkaz, captured the municipal bank and mint.
During execution shameful collusion of the village were evicted Sunzhensk, Aki-Yurt, Tarskaya and Tara Farm with a total population of 10 thousand people. During the eviction Ingush, under the terms of the agreement, were to "protect property and people from the villages of the criminal element." Instead, they are themselves engaged in robbery and looting. As written by the inhabitants of the village of Tara in the petition addressed to the 5th Congress of the Peoples of Terek:
Instead of a day or as looting and robbery itself, the protection and, in the end, was ordered to leave the whole stanitsa immediately. Looting and killing. While drove to Vladikavkaz, the villagers have been plundered 242 horses, taken by means of 78 thousand rubles, robbed of thin
gs to 800,000 rubles, 13 people were shot. "
Vladikavkaz train met the Red Army and from them outlaws wrote, "We have seen the salvation."
For left in Ingush villages of property pledged to pay compensation to the displaced of 120 million rubles, but the amount has not been paid.
In December 1918, began coming of the Volunteer Army in the North Caucasus. January 21 (February 3) white troops came to Vladikavkaz. After 6 days of stubborn fighting, during which suffered a series of successive blows to the Ingush aouls, January 27 (February 9) Ingush State Council has expressed on behalf of their own people complete submission of Denikin's authority.
At this time was busy and harsh. First, in the spirit of today's spineless politicians, white government tried to "solve the problem of Chechnya at the negotiating table." Obviously, the Chechens immediately took it as a sign of helplessness.
Our waiting is almost two months has been understood as a weakness of the mountaineers. Meanwhile, the strategic situation in the Don and Manych sought hasty deployment may be large forces to the north. Gimp longer did not seem likely. The negotiations were broken off, and the issue given the power of weapons. "
March 23 (April 5) detachment of the Kuban and Terek Cossacks under the command of Lieutenant-General D.P.Dratsenko defeated the Chechen village in Alkhan-Yurt, where they have lost up to 1,000 people, and the aul was burned. Realizing that the ceremony will not be with them, Chechens in Grozny neighborhood began to send deputations from all sides with the expression of humility.
Denikin was proclaimed ruler of Chechnya General of Artillery Eriskhana Aliyev, an ethnic Chechen, Ingush — Ingush Major General Safarbek Mal'sagov. But the real power was in the hands of the chief of the troops in the North Caucasus Companion Cavalry General Kornilov I.G.Erdeli.
In May 1919, after the occupation of Dagestan snowy troops, "Gorskoe government" has declared its dissolution and again fled to the friendly Georgia.
Having achieved the recognition of his own power, white started mobilizing the Chechens and Ingush in his army. Order of VSYUR chief Lt. Gen. Denikin number 341 of February 23 (March 1919 in the armed forces in southern Russia and the Caucasus Volunteer Army was included Ingush Cavalry Division. But this compound remained on the paper. As recalled Denikin himself: "Formation of the Ingush for the Volunteer Army regiments not progressed, and instead of going lurking formation of local groups. Ingushetia as before was an aggressive armed camp, which was listed with only one argument — the power. "
In the end, managed to do just Ingush Cavalry Brigade of the 2-regiments. According to the commander of the Caucasian Army Lieutenant General P.N.Vrangelya mobilized Ingush differed very low combat capability. Yet, with the August 1919 Ingush team takes an active role in the fighting north of Tsaritsyn.
As for the Chechens, their contribution to the fight against Bolshevism was more significant. Order of Denikin's number 1 in 1101 (14) June 1919 was formed Chechen Cavalry Division, composed of four regiments of the Chechen and kumykskogo. Its commander was Major General Alexander P. Revishin, the figure is very bright. In the summer of 1917, when the Russian army colonel, he served hot supporter of the creation of the Crimean Tatar troops. Then he served as "independent Ukraine" at the hetman Skoropadskiy. After all, being in the White Army, the "internationalist" enthusiastically led the Chechen division.
May 30 (June 13), 1919 division to march forth in Astrakhan in a group of troops under the command of not so long ago pacified Chechnya, General Dratsenko. In the campaign involved three Chechen regiment. The 4th Regiment was in the process of formation.
Special honor on the battlefield Chechens won. As one of the officers recalled the division, Lieutenant-Captain Dmitry De Witt:
And it is quite logical. According to the same DeWitt:
And now the enemy is "brave jigits" got serious:
It is logical that the Chechen regiments began a general desertion:
By order of General Revishina for armed robbery and desertion 6 Chechens from the 2nd Regiment were killed, another 54 publicly flogged ramrods.
After returning from a bad hike division had sformirovyvaetsya anew. 17 (30) July depleted Ch
echen regiments arrived in Kizlyar. From there, lost in the train, the remnants of the Chechen Cavalry Division headed for a new formation in Stavropol.
Meanwhile, in Chechnya and Ingushetia lasted uprising:
In September 1919, in the village of Vedeno proclaimed the establishment of the North Caucasus emirstva. Ruler of the newly-minted Sharia monarchy became imam Uzun Haji. The threat from the Volunteer Army forced the Imam to conclude an alliance with the local Bolsheviks, the guerrilla army under the command of the famous fighters for Soviet power in the Caucasus N.F.Gikalo joined the troops emirstva.
In general, one should not exaggerate the role of these performances, as do love arrogant representatives of the "small but proud nation":
There is the usual lies. That's what the memoirs of Denikin in fact:
Meanwhile, from 28 September to 20 December 1919 Chechen division participates in battles with insurgents Nestor Makhno in a group of special forces mission, caused a stir on the part of the looting:
I did a little vyznat all face, swollen and blue from bruises, is that, through the hands of the sergeant, he almost passed and his own platoon, and that in this case the phrase "Mr. sergeant sensitive pleased with him talk" was a literal and not figuratively. My sergeant, he Dagestan, Chechens treated with undisguised contempt and hold high their own authority, without embarrassment to indulge in their own heavy fist, causing riders feared him and dragged in his presence. In earlier times, serving as a constant in the regiment, I was opposed to battering, considering that the disposal of the officer has other actions on the subordinate, but, once in the Aboriginal environment, I am sure that physical punishment is the only constructive measure. Chechens as semi-wild people only recognize the strength and only her and obey; same humanity and any half-measures taken by them as a sign of weakness. "
The fight against looting became almost unbearable. Robbery was seemingly legitimized the entire tenor of camp life, as well roguish nature of the mountaineer. We stood in the middle of the rich, wealthy farmers, almost always German colonists without experiencing any defect in the food, milk, butter, honey, bread — all was pleasure, and yet complain about the theft of poultry continued. At one point, a Chechen catch a chicken or goose, he wrung his head and hid his prey under a burqa. There have been complaints and more serious: to substitutions of horses or robberies involving violence or threats. The regimental commander ruthlessly punish the guilty, but what could he do when some of his own aides were willing to look at all of these transgressions as to capture the spoils of war is so necessary for the promotion of the Chechens. "
In addition to looting Chechen fighters habit of sleeping on a different post:
But God's patience is exhausted, and soon the Chechen warriors had twice the price for their carelessness. It happened after January 1, 1920 scruffy division was transferred to the Crimea. Managing the defense of the Crimea, Major General Ya.A.Slaschov recalled:
Of military units there I sent the Chechens, as, standing as the cavalry in the rear, so they robbed, there was no impossible to deal. I have them and caulked at Tup-Dzhankoi. Lived there only a few Tatars, Muslims and also terribly poor, so it was a loot. To soothe the nerves Revishina general who commanded the mountaineers, I gave there, though reluctantly heart, as the artillery was not much, even two light guns.
Lovely kidnappers in the rear, these Highlanders Reds first raid on February Tup-Dzhankoi stunningly slept, and later just as amazing dispersed, leaving all 6 guns. Reds was not so much that I have to move their counter did not even caught, but only found a sunken ice-gun. I especially felt sorry for 2-light castles and panoramas were carried corpses were reddish and guns.
After that, and past robberies we Revishinym become enemies. Before the fight he's all my statements about robberies argued that ro
bbery is not confirmed and that will help out the Highlanders in battle all the while referring to the authorities, to Lermontov inclusive. I myself was in the Caucasus and know what they are capable of dashing to rob, but that is sensitive — to escape. Having no faith in the Highlanders, I at his arrival in the Crimea gave the order to disband them and sent to the Caucasus to replenish parts, for which I was rebuked by Denikin (see under the patronage Revishina) with orders to keep them separate part. "
Indeed, the report of Major General Revishina commander 3rd Army Corps Slaschova on March 11, 1920 said:
Four day or later Chechen Division was finally disbanded and created a separate Crimean Cavalry Brigade. But soon she was again deployed to the division led by the same Revishinym.
June 9, 1920, having learned from the testimony of prisoners, in the village of Novo-Mikhailovka concentrate some of the snow-white horse, the command of the 3rd Cavalry Brigade of the 2nd Cavalry Division behalf Blinov decided to kill the enemy of night raids. Thanks disorderly usually against Chechen horsemen to military discipline is brilliantly succeeded. At dawn on June 10 in the fast-moving combat Chechen division headquarters was destroyed, and its commander General Revishin captured. Reddish captured countless trophies guns, machine guns, cars. On the streets of the village is a few hundred corpses zarublennyh and shot by the Chechens. Reds loss amounted to only a few of the wounded.
The defeat of the Chechen division headquarters became the typical crown of her infamous military way. Soon captive General Revishin already testified PBC member of the Southwestern Front to Stalin:
The reading of General Revishina help Britain and France Wrangel shorthand and will be sent to you for his signature as material for Chicherin.
June 25, 1920 »
Oppressed the high road
In January 1920, started coming strong troops of the Caucasian front. By early April, the Terek region and Dagestan were engaged reddish. True to the principles of "proletarian internationalism", according to which the royal Our homeland was a "prison of nations", the Chechens and Ingush — "oppressed nations" and the Cossacks — "servants of the autocracy", local Bolshevik favorites headed by Ordzhonikidze immediately started to evict the Cossack villages, with in order to give them the land Chechens and Ingush. In late April, the Cossacks were again evicted four villages Sunzhensk band was returning back when Denikin.
Soon, under the pretext of counter-revolutionary role of the Cossacks in the uprising were evicted another 5 villages: Yermolovskoye, Romanov, Samashki, St. Michael and Kalinovskaja, their lands were transferred to the Chechens. But Ordzhonikidze and his associates were not going to stop there, it is planning to move out of the village Sunzhensk strip. Only thanks to the solid position of Stalin and Kalinin deportation Cossack population managed to finish.
Contrary to the wailing about the oppressed Highlanders, who were deprived of royalties Tipo ground, long after the deportation of Cossacks Chechens did not express a desire to move into the liberated village. It is not surprisingly. As recalled visited Chechnya Staff-Captain De Witt, whose memoirs I have already quoted:
In this assessment, a White Guard officer in full solidarity reddish commanders. As written in the "Summary of banditry in the North-Caucasian military environment, as to 1 September 1925," the chief of the intelligence Vreede neighborhood Zakutnyaya Vreede and chief of operations Speranskii:
This is also referred to in a dated August 1922 report Vreede Chairman RVC Sunzhenskiy neighborhood of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs with the soft-spoken title "On mass robberies and robberies in the Sunzha surrounded by the inhabitants of the Chechen and Ingush people":
During the period from June 15 to August 1, 1922 was uvorovan 14 horses, 4 cattle and a bull, and from 1 August to 1 September, it was uvorovan 149 horses, 23 cattle and a bull, 23 hive with bees, killed 3 people and injured 2 people , captured 4 people, 2 people beaten with rifle butts, raped woman. It was plundered four threshing machines, withdrawn 5 vans, robbed 58 million rubles. In Sernovodskaya militia abducted 20 pcs. rifles, 1,800 pcs. chuck, 25 people were stripped bald. "
Supporting the "liberation movement" of Chechens and Ingush, reddish soon faced with the need to push his way, taken from the "curse of the royal past."