Chronicle of friendship 1917-1922 years

According to the writings of contemporary chroniclers of the Chechen-Ingush, their countrymen were the most loyal servants of the Emperor, the Emperor, to the bitter fighting for the snow-white case and immediately played a role in the victory of the Bolsheviks. In fact the main achievements of predecessors Dudayev and Basayev, as in today's times, there were robberies and executions against the peaceful population.

As usually happens with the weakening of state power, after the beginning of the revolutionary events of 1917 across the country immediately raised his head various nationalist movements. There was an exception and the North Caucasus. Already in April, there are so-called "national councils" mountain people. 1 (14) May 1917 at the Congress of Mountain Peoples of Vladikavkaz was established "The Union of Incorporated Mountaineers of the Caucasus." The Central Committee of the "Union" headed Chechen Topa Chermoev millionaire oilman.

At the insistence of the "Union" for the coming struggle for power and inter-tribal clashes in the autumn of the same year, was withdrawn from the front of the Caucasian Native Cavalry Division (the so-called "Wild Division"), launched by the time the housing. Not a very distinguished themselves in the fields of labor and failing to restore order in Petrograd during the August Kornilov, horsemen enthusiastically engaged in the struggle for samostiynost. And this struggle is, as expected, was interwoven with the desire to capture and plunder the adjacent land.

In November, "The Union of Incorporated Mountaineers of the Caucasus" has appointed the creation of "Mountain Republic", claimed the area from the Caspian to the Black Sea, including the Stavropol region, Kuban and Black Sea. Prime has all the same Chermoev. November 23 (December 6), 1917, the executive committee of the Chechen State Council forwarded the Grozny advice of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies ultimatum, demanding the disarmament of working groups and is located in the town of revolutionary-minded of the 111th Regiment.

The next day in the severity was provoked by the killing of several riders and an officer of the Chechen regiment "Wild Division". In the evening several hundred Chechen horsemen Novogroznenskoye looted and set fire to the oil fields that burned 18 months. Grozny Council adopted a decision on the withdrawal of the 111th Regiment in Stavropol.

But the big blow came in around the Cossack villages. Back in the pre-revolutionary years with the connivance of the then authorities of their inhabitants is constantly tormented by robberies, robberies and murders committed by the freedom-loving outlaws. After the start of the 1st World War, when battle-worthy male population of the Cossack villages was taken back to the front, Caucasian crime have gained unusual proportions.

At the end of 1917 the Chechens and Ingush began systematic expulsion of the Russian population. In November, the Ingush village was set on fire and destroyed the field marshal. December 30 Chechens looted and burned the village Kochanowski. The same happened to the village and knew Elijah.

In January 1918, the Ingush captured and sacked Vladikavkaz. This "feat" was likely due to general disorganization and disintegration. To the question, where are the troops who were supposed to protect the city, the military chieftain of the Terek Cossack Army L.E.Medyanik honestly replied, "Yes, they had fled their homes … have only 6 members of the Government (meaning Terek army government. — IP), Gen. Goloshchapov and a few officers and Cossacks. " As expressed on this subject in his memoirs, Lieutenant-General Anton Denikin, Ingush robbed "Vladikavkaz people — for their weakness and acquiescence."

Meanwhile, March 3, 1918 in Pyatigorsk, at the 2nd Congress of the Peoples of Terek Terek Russian was proclaimed a republic. Management of the Mountain Republic fled to Georgia. There, in the criteria of the German-Turkish intervention, May 11, 1918 was formed a new government headed by Gorsky with all the same Chermoyevs. On the same day proclaimed the establishment of the independent Russian Federation puppet "of the highlanders of the North Caucasus." In October 1918, a convoy of Turkish troops "government" moved to Dagestan, settling in Temir-Khan-Shura (Buynaksk now). November 17 it had signed a contract with the Turkish commander-F.Yusuf Izzet Pasha about staying in Dagestan Turkish occupation troops.

Meanwhile, the bloody strife in the North Caucasus has continued to increase. According Denikin

"Chechens, other than its own complex internal strife, divided, and on the grounds of foreign policy, having formed just two of the State Council: the Grozny district, which had an old scores with the third, by order of Congress Goytinskogo came with the Bolsheviks and get their money, weapons and military supplies. Another part of the Chechens — Vedeno District — Ataginskogo obedience to the decision of the Congress, was standing on the side of the Cossacks, although it did not provide specific assistance to them, and was against the Bolsheviks. The first was so closely linked with Ingushetia, the second with Dagestan. Between the two groups flared up of strongest hatred, which led at times to a multi-day bloody battles than to some extent mitigated the risk position of the Terek Cossacks.

In autumn 1918, Chechnya has established close relations with the Turkish command in Baku, which is exerted through Dagestan Chechens in arms. "

In the night of 5 to 6 August 1918 in Vladikavkaz controlled the Bolsheviks stormed the Cossack and Ossetian troops, supported by part of the population of the town. Began heavy street fighting. In this situation, a temporary Extraordinary Commissioner of the South Russian Federation G.K.Ordzhonikidze secretly went to the Ingush village Bazorkino to negotiate with the favorite Ingush nationalists, Hitler's future servant Wassan Giray Dzhabagiev. In exchange for help in fighting with the rebels, he promised on behalf of the Russian government, in case of victory, to convey the Ingush land four Cossack villages. The offer was accepted. On the same night in Bazorkino began arriving Ingush armed groups. August 17, under pressure from defenders of the town of battle formations of the Cossacks and their followers flinch, panic and chaotic retreat in the direction of the village Arhonsky. The next day martial deeds were discontinued, but reddish brigands did not miss the option to once again plunder Vladikavkaz, captured the municipal bank and mint.

During execution shameful collusion of the village were evicted Sunzhensk, Aki-Yurt, Tarskaya and Tara Farm with a total population of 10 thousand people. During the eviction Ingush, under the terms of the agreement, were to "protect property and people from the villages of the criminal element." Instead, they are themselves engaged in robbery and looting. As written by the inhabitants of the village of Tara in the petition addressed to the 5th Congress of the Peoples of Terek:

"After the August events, the role of public village denies, Tara was an ultimatum: for 2-days to get out of the village. After village folded the gun, it came from the protection of the Ingush (weaving).

Instead of a day or as looting and robbery itself, the protection and, in the end, was ordered to leave the whole stanitsa immediately. Looting and killing. While drove to Vladikavkaz, the villagers have been plundered 242 horses, taken by means of 78 thousand rubles, robbed of thin
gs to 800,000 rubles, 13 people were shot. "

Vladikavkaz train met the Red Army and from them outlaws wrote, "We have seen the salvation."

For left in Ingush villages of property pledged to pay compensation to the displaced of 120 million rubles, but the amount has not been paid.

In December 1918, began coming of the Volunteer Army in the North Caucasus. January 21 (February 3) white troops came to Vladikavkaz. After 6 days of stubborn fighting, during which suffered a series of successive blows to the Ingush aouls, January 27 (February 9) Ingush State Council has expressed on behalf of their own people complete submission of Denikin's authority.

At this time was busy and harsh. First, in the spirit of today's spineless politicians, white government tried to "solve the problem of Chechnya at the negotiating table." Obviously, the Chechens immediately took it as a sign of helplessness.

"Twice in the severity of the Congress appointed Chechen representatives did not take place due to the failure of Bolshevik authorities to send their own attorneys. Chechnya was concerned, the area became impassable Severe everywhere frequent attacks and shootings, along with those Chechens train broke off communication with Petrovsky, producing collapse of 2-working trains. Serious revolt began, the center of which was the aul Goyty 25 miles from the Crucible.

Our waiting is almost two months has been understood as a weakness of the mountaineers. Meanwhile, the strategic situation in the Don and Manych sought hasty deployment may be large forces to the north. Gimp longer did not seem likely. The negotiations were broken off, and the issue given the power of weapons. "

March 23 (April 5) detachment of the Kuban and Terek Cossacks under the command of Lieutenant-General D.P.Dratsenko defeated the Chechen village in Alkhan-Yurt, where they have lost up to 1,000 people, and the aul was burned. Realizing that the ceremony will not be with them, Chechens in Grozny neighborhood began to send deputations from all sides with the expression of humility.

Denikin was proclaimed ruler of Chechnya General of Artillery Eriskhana Aliyev, an ethnic Chechen, Ingush — Ingush Major General Safarbek Mal'sagov. But the real power was in the hands of the chief of the troops in the North Caucasus Companion Cavalry General Kornilov I.G.Erdeli.

In May 1919, after the occupation of Dagestan snowy troops, "Gorskoe government" has declared its dissolution and again fled to the friendly Georgia.

Having achieved the recognition of his own power, white started mobilizing the Chechens and Ingush in his army. Order of VSYUR chief Lt. Gen. Denikin number 341 of February 23 (March 8) 1919 in the armed forces in southern Russia and the Caucasus Volunteer Army was included Ingush Cavalry Division. But this compound remained on the paper. As recalled Denikin himself: "Formation of the Ingush for the Volunteer Army regiments not progressed, and instead of going lurking formation of local groups. Ingushetia as before was an aggressive armed camp, which was listed with only one argument — the power. "

In the end, managed to do just Ingush Cavalry Brigade of the 2-regiments. According to the commander of the Caucasian Army Lieutenant General P.N.Vrangelya mobilized Ingush differed very low combat capability. Yet, with the August 1919 Ingush team takes an active role in the fighting north of Tsaritsyn.

As for the Chechens, their contribution to the fight against Bolshevism was more significant. Order of Denikin's number 1 in 1101 (14) June 1919 was formed Chechen Cavalry Division, composed of four regiments of the Chechen and kumykskogo. Its commander was Major General Alexander P. Revishin, the figure is very bright. In the summer of 1917, when the Russian army colonel, he served hot supporter of the creation of the Crimean Tatar troops. Then he served as "independent Ukraine" at the hetman Skoropadskiy. After all, being in the White Army, the "internationalist" enthusiastically led the Chechen division.

May 30 (June 13), 1919 division to march forth in Astrakhan in a group of troops under the command of not so long ago pacified Chechnya, General Dratsenko. In the campaign involved three Chechen regiment. The 4th Regiment was in the process of formation.

Special honor on the battlefield Chechens won. As one of the officers recalled the division, Lieutenant-Captain Dmitry De Witt:

"1st Chechen Horse Regiment, who was in a deep, almost 10 versts, traversing the left, had to block the road Olenchevka — Fisheries, preventing approach to reddish reinforcements, but the regiment did not fulfill their own tasks, lost communication with the division in the morning and during the day or four times without result stormed the position of the Reds, while, in turn, he was attacked by a reddish cavalry and thrown far away in a field. Neobstrelyannye riders, hitting a difficult situation, they fled, and for the next day managed to raise nearly half a regiment: a large part of the running in the desert, and then defected to discover in Chechnya. "

And it is quite logical. According to the same DeWitt:

"The share of Chechen fighters as small, it is by nature — robber-abrek, and that not of daring: a sacrifice for him, he always outlines the weak and in case of victory over it becomes tough to sadism. In combat, the only engine of his thirst for plunder is also a sense of horror at the animal officer. After serving a year in the middle of the Chechens and having visited them in the home environment in the villages, I do not think we make a mistake, claiming that all the wonderful and generous traditions of the Caucasus and adat antiques are not made by them and not for them, and, of course, better educated and more talented tribes. At the same time urging the validity say Chechen irreplaceable and magnificent, when, wrapped in a rush, he was cast in the pursuit of a frustrated enemy. In this case — woe to the vanquished: Chechen climbs through. A long and stubborn fight, especially on foot, they do not stand up and just like any savage people, with the smallest trouble are panicking. "

And now the enemy is "brave jigits" got serious:

"Red Cavalry had a great sword — it was almost entirely reddish Cossacks and Chechens have been wound in most deadly. I myself beheld chipped skull, beheld completely severed arm, shoulder, chipped to 3-4-rib, and so on. — So could hack only highly trained cavalry soldiers or Cossacks. "

It is logical that the Chechen regiments began a general desertion:

"The shelves of the Chechen Cavalry Division suffered heavy losses during the campaign of the Steppe, but even more melted during the retreat from all non-ending desertion. The struggle against this evil becoming unworkable: no punishment, right up to the death penalty, could not hold the temptation Chechen run to home for themselves under the cover of night. After the retreat of the shelves were summarized in 1-2 squadron, and the whole division of 3 regiments in service totaled nearly 250-300 checkers. "

By order of General Revishina for armed robbery and desertion 6 Chechens from the 2nd Regiment were killed, another 54 publicly flogged ramrods.

After returning from a bad hike division had sformirovyvaetsya anew. 17 (30) July depleted Ch
echen regiments arrived in Kizlyar. From there, lost in the train, the remnants of the Chechen Cavalry Division headed for a new formation in Stavropol.

Meanwhile, in Chechnya and Ingushetia lasted uprising:

"In the North Caucasus uprising is not over. In the second half of June, they swept through Ingushetia, Dagestan mountain (Ali Hajj), the mountainous Chechnya (Uzun Haji and Sheripov) zatihnuv in July, they were repeated in August with the newest force in Chechnya and Dagestan under the Turkish and Azerbaijani officers and with the strong influence of Russian money and Bolshevik propaganda directed from Astrakhan … Although these uprisings are constantly oppressed by the Russian authorities, even though they have never flared up to the point of threatening our actual rear, but still did always unnerving political situation, diverting attention, effort and money from the direction of the head of all our desires and thoughts. "

In September 1919, in the village of Vedeno proclaimed the establishment of the North Caucasus emirstva. Ruler of the newly-minted Sharia monarchy became imam Uzun Haji. The threat from the Volunteer Army forced the Imam to conclude an alliance with the local Bolsheviks, the guerrilla army under the command of the famous fighters for Soviet power in the Caucasus N.F.Gikalo joined the troops emirstva.

In general, one should not exaggerate the role of these performances, as do love arrogant representatives of the "small but proud nation":

"Recently, I read the memories of Denikin. General writes: "Why I did not take Moscow? I never thought that the peoples of the robbery — the Chechens and Ingush — will be on the side of the Bolsheviks, whom I had to punch out point-blank range. And against these thugs will form part of my officer. '"

There is the usual lies. That's what the memoirs of Denikin in fact:

"The cup is full of people's patience … While the Russian Cossack and voluntary blood flows for the liberation of the homeland, mobilized, equipped with Russian weapon Chechens and Ingush masses deserting and taking advantage of the lack of local male population engaged in looting, robbery, murder and an open rebellion. "

Meanwhile, from 28 September to 20 December 1919 Chechen division participates in battles with insurgents Nestor Makhno in a group of special forces mission, caused a stir on the part of the looting:

"Within a few days, as I have in the squadron took a new case, so appropriate for the Chechens. Walking through the market square, I heard a cry of the strong, and right so I was approached by a man, saying, "Something is wrong with your Chechen." I went in and saw a lot of self-rider of the 2nd Platoon, fend off a brave women, clung to his coat-tails of Circassian. "I love you, oblique devil, deliver to the chief, if not return boots" — screaming woman. I'm right there on the spot took apart their dispute. It was completely obvious that Chechen stolen boots lying on a cart, a Chechen argued that bought them. I gave the order to return them to Baba, and most go to the squadron, and to report the incident sergeant. In the evening, having come to the squadron after the roll call, I called the offending rider down.

I did a little vyznat all face, swollen and blue from bruises, is that, through the hands of the sergeant, he almost passed and his own platoon, and that in this case the phrase "Mr. sergeant sensitive pleased with him talk" was a literal and not figuratively. My sergeant, he Dagestan, Chechens treated with undisguised contempt and hold high their own authority, without embarrassment to indulge in their own heavy fist, causing riders feared him and dragged in his presence. In earlier times, serving as a constant in the regiment, I was opposed to battering, considering that the disposal of the officer has other actions on the subordinate, but, once in the Aboriginal environment, I am sure that physical punishment is the only constructive measure. Chechens as semi-wild people only recognize the strength and only her and obey; same humanity and any half-measures taken by them as a sign of weakness. "

"I was beginning to convince myself and would like to believe that keeping strictly in the hands of the Chechens and preventing looting of them can make a good fighter, unfortunately, life is not long to refute all of my dreams.

The fight against looting became almost unbearable. Robbery was seemingly legitimized the entire tenor of camp life, as well roguish nature of the mountaineer. We stood in the middle of the rich, wealthy farmers, almost always German colonists without experiencing any defect in the food, milk, butter, honey, bread — all was pleasure, and yet complain about the theft of poultry continued. At one point, a Chechen catch a chicken or goose, he wrung his head and hid his prey under a burqa. There have been complaints and more serious: to substitutions of horses or robberies involving violence or threats. The regimental commander ruthlessly punish the guilty, but what could he do when some of his own aides were willing to look at all of these transgressions as to capture the spoils of war is so necessary for the promotion of the Chechens. "

In addition to looting Chechen fighters habit of sleeping on a different post:

"Circling Saving NIGHT MODE, I came across a sleeping guard in a field and watch podchaska. I hit both of his whip, they jumped up, rubbing his eyes, and in my dressing some of them mournfully said, "The captain, I'm sorry, but my fear is not the Bolsheviks, and so I ventured a little sleep." It was typical of the Chechens: NIGHT MODE they always fell asleep and could just fail. But God kept us if escorted by Chechens and slept. "

But God's patience is exhausted, and soon the Chechen warriors had twice the price for their carelessness. It happened after January 1, 1920 scruffy division was transferred to the Crimea. Managing the defense of the Crimea, Major General Ya.A.Slaschov recalled:

"Tup-Dzhankoi as naked Peninsula, advanced enumerated by the ice with Arabatskaya hands and has not given the ability to live in the cold more often as mine, and the enemy, I am not much worried. Because there were four guns of an old castle with a standard solid propellant missiles, shoot at three miles (the same as on the Perekop).

Of military units there I sent the Chechens, as, standing as the cavalry in the rear, so they robbed, there was no impossible to deal. I have them and caulked at Tup-Dzhankoi. Lived there only a few Tatars, Muslims and also terribly poor, so it was a loot. To soothe the nerves Revishina general who commanded the mountaineers, I gave there, though reluctantly heart, as the artillery was not much, even two light guns.

Lovely kidnappers in the rear, these Highlanders Reds first raid on February Tup-Dzhankoi stunningly slept, and later just as amazing dispersed, leaving all 6 guns. Reds was not so much that I have to move their counter did not even caught, but only found a sunken ice-gun. I especially felt sorry for 2-light castles and panoramas were carried corpses were reddish and guns.

After that, and past robberies we Revishinym become enemies. Before the fight he's all my statements about robberies argued that ro
bbery is not confirmed and that will help out the Highlanders in battle all the while referring to the authorities, to Lermontov inclusive. I myself was in the Caucasus and know what they are capable of dashing to rob, but that is sensitive — to escape. Having no faith in the Highlanders, I at his arrival in the Crimea gave the order to disband them and sent to the Caucasus to replenish parts, for which I was rebuked by Denikin (see under the patronage Revishina) with orders to keep them separate part. "

Indeed, the report of Major General Revishina commander 3rd Army Corps Slaschova on March 11, 1920 said:

"I do not deny that the Chechens robbed, robbed but they are in no way more than the other forces, as confirmed by multiple searches, produced by the chiefs having no relationship to the Chechen divisions."

Four day or later Chechen Division was finally disbanded and created a separate Crimean Cavalry Brigade. But soon she was again deployed to the division led by the same Revishinym.

June 9, 1920, having learned from the testimony of prisoners, in the village of Novo-Mikhailovka concentrate some of the snow-white horse, the command of the 3rd Cavalry Brigade of the 2nd Cavalry Division behalf Blinov decided to kill the enemy of night raids. Thanks disorderly usually against Chechen horsemen to military discipline is brilliantly succeeded. At dawn on June 10 in the fast-moving combat Chechen division headquarters was destroyed, and its commander General Revishin captured. Reddish captured countless trophies guns, machine guns, cars. On the streets of the village is a few hundred corpses zarublennyh and shot by the Chechens. Reds loss amounted to only a few of the wounded.

The defeat of the Chechen division headquarters became the typical crown of her infamous military way. Soon captive General Revishin already testified PBC member of the Southwestern Front to Stalin:

"Taken prisoner by us in the tenth of June on the Crimean front war general Revishin said in my presence: a) the uniforms, guns, rifles, tanks, bombs Wrangel's troops get priemuschestvenno from the British, and later the French, and b) from the sea service Wrangel British high court and a little French, and c) fuel (liquid) Wrangell receives from Batum (meaning, Baku should not let fuel Tiflis, which can realize it Batum), d) General Erdelyi, Georgia and interned extraditable us in May was already in the Crimea ( means Georgia disingenuous and fooling us).

The reading of General Revishina help Britain and France Wrangel shorthand and will be sent to you for his signature as material for Chicherin.

June 25, 1920 »

Oppressed the high road

In January 1920, started coming strong troops of the Caucasian front. By early April, the Terek region and Dagestan were engaged reddish. True to the principles of "proletarian internationalism", according to which the royal Our homeland was a "prison of nations", the Chechens and Ingush — "oppressed nations" and the Cossacks — "servants of the autocracy", local Bolshevik favorites headed by Ordzhonikidze immediately started to evict the Cossack villages, with in order to give them the land Chechens and Ingush. In late April, the Cossacks were again evicted four villages Sunzhensk band was returning back when Denikin.

Soon, under the pretext of counter-revolutionary role of the Cossacks in the uprising were evicted another 5 villages: Yermolovskoye, Romanov, Samashki, St. Michael and Kalinovskaja, their lands were transferred to the Chechens. But Ordzhonikidze and his associates were not going to stop there, it is planning to move out of the village Sunzhensk strip. Only thanks to the solid position of Stalin and Kalinin deportation Cossack population managed to finish.

Contrary to the wailing about the oppressed Highlanders, who were deprived of royalties Tipo ground, long after the deportation of Cossacks Chechens did not express a desire to move into the liberated village. It is not surprisingly. As recalled visited Chechnya Staff-Captain De Witt, whose memoirs I have already quoted:

"All the homework, farm, work in their gardens, and so on. lies on the wives, the amount of which depends only on the means of the spouse … The men usually do nothing at all and terribly lazy. Purpose of — protection of its own focus on various Vendetta. Robbery as a means of existence in their lives completely legalized, especially when it comes to their hated neighbors — Terek Cossacks, which Chechens have long lead times of war. All the men, and even kids, always under arms, without which they will not dare to leave their own home. Rob and kill them more on the way, arranging ambushes, with all that often, not dividing the fair prey, they become enemies for life, avenging the offender and all his family. Commerce, they practically do not lead, except that the horses. The region is rich and only female labor feeds them more abundantly. "

In this assessment, a White Guard officer in full solidarity reddish commanders. As written in the "Summary of banditry in the North-Caucasian military environment, as to 1 September 1925," the chief of the intelligence Vreede neighborhood Zakutnyaya Vreede and chief of operations Speranskii:

"Provided after the revolution in rich earth plane lands Chechens are one hundred percent do not use, are backward forms of its agriculture, not hardworking. In its own weight Chechens are prone to banditry as the principal source of easy money, which contributes a huge presence of weapons. "

This is also referred to in a dated August 1922 report Vreede Chairman RVC Sunzhenskiy neighborhood of the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs with the soft-spoken title "On mass robberies and robberies in the Sunzha surrounded by the inhabitants of the Chechen and Ingush people":

"The looting carried out both NIGHT MODE and afternoon Sleptsovskaya, Trinity, Nesterovskaya, Field Marshal, Assinovskaia, Sernovodskaya, Huth. Davydenko.

During the period from June 15 to August 1, 1922 was uvorovan 14 horses, 4 cattle and a bull, and from 1 August to 1 September, it was uvorovan 149 horses, 23 cattle and a bull, 23 hive with bees, killed 3 people and injured 2 people , captured 4 people, 2 people beaten with rifle butts, raped woman. It was plundered four threshing machines, withdrawn 5 vans, robbed 58 million rubles. In Sernovodskaya militia abducted 20 pcs. rifles, 1,800 pcs. chuck, 25 people were stripped bald. "

Supporting the "liberation movement" of Chechens and Ingush, reddish soon faced with the need to push his way, taken from the "curse of the royal past."

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