In 1992, Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia, which led to the brutal Bosnian war, which waged war among themselves Croats, Serbs and Slavic Muslims (Bosniaks), with the support of NATO. In the course of the war were killed, according to various estimates, between 100 and 200 thousand people, hundreds of thousands of refugees, was razed to the 2-thirds of the infrastructure of the republic, in part or one hundred percent.
Plainclothes war suspended the agreement in Dayton (USA) — It was agreed in November, signed in December 1995 in Paris, a favorite Bosnian Alija Izetbegovic, Serbian President Slobodan Milosevic and Croatian President Franjo Tudjman.
Under this agreement, it was decided that the government will consist of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Republika Srpska. The capital city is Sarajevo. Inhabitant of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina could be a citizen, as a united republic, and the 1st of 2-structures. The Serbs were 49% of the territory, Bosnians and Croats — 51%. As head of the country passed to the Presidency, consisting of three people — one from each nation. The legislature was to belong to the Assembly of the Parliamentary consisting of the House of Peoples and the House of Representatives. The third part of the deputies elected from the Republika Srpska, two-thirds — from the Federation Bosnia and Herzegovina. With all of this type "people's veto": if a majority of members elected from the 1st of the three nations voted against that or any other suggestions, it is the number rejected, regardless of the position of other 2-nations. In general, the ability of the central authorities, by convention, have been very limited. The real authority was transferred to the Federation and the authorities of the Republic of Srpska. The whole system is supposed to work under the supervision of the Supreme Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina.
At the current time is increasingly there are calls to renegotiate the agreement at Dayton. So, Croatian President Ivo Josipovic, in the United States participating in the conference marking the 15th anniversary of the signing of the Dayton Accords, has expressed dissatisfaction with the position of Croats in Bosnia. According Josipovic: "The Dayton agreement has fulfilled an important function — to stop the war in Bosnia, and gave a new path. But it does not solve all problems. Now everyone understands that Bosnia and Herzegovina needed some changes, first in terms of the equality of all nations."
What is still unhappy with the Croats?
Faster Serbs must be satisfied, in its time banished from the capital — Sarajevo (more than 100 thousand people).
At the current time there are approximately 600 Croats thousand (14% of the Confederation), in conjunction with the Muslims they are state-forming ethnos Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Croat is president of the Federation.
Up to 1878 (the defeat of the Turks by Russian Empire) Bosnia was part of the Ottoman Empire, the Turks pursued a policy of Islamization of the Serbs and the Croats. Then this area annexed by the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Then the Croatian intelligentsia was not uniform, part of the favored South Slavic unity, part of an independent Croatia. In 1918, the land became part of Yugoslavia, under the authority of the Serbian king. Evenly arise prerequisites Union of Nazi Croats and Bosniaks-Muslims.
After the capture of the Third Reich, in April 1941, was formed by the Nazi government vassal independent Croatia. That honors the mass genocide of Serbs and Jews, Roma. According to various estimates, the Croatian Nazis killed between 400 and 800 thousand people. Croats partly cooperated with the Muslims, but there was a full alliance, Muslims remember that at one time they were the masters of the region. After the defeat of the Nazis, the government of Croats were eliminated, created Yugoslav Federation.
In the first half of 1992 the Croats and Muslims fought wars together with the Serbs for independence, while Serbs were preserving the unity of the country. Croats and Bosniaks supported NATO and the European Alliance. But then the "allies" had a falling out, the Muslims want to make a "united and undivided Muslim Bosnia," Croats wanted to include the western regions of Bosnia into Croatia. Because the second half of 1992 and 1993 year Croats and Muslims fought with each other. Bosnian Croats supported Croatia (and through it the German secret service), Bosniaks Islamic organizations around the world, including the militants who had experience of the Afghan war. Only the intervention of the United States, the war stopped them, forcing Zagreb (Croatia), under the threat of sanctions, to go for an alliance with the Muslims.
In 1995, the Croats, almost against their will, all put together with the Muslims and Serbs in one government. Being on the abundance, third, they can not keep control of the whole policy of the country. Because, today announced the president of Croatia and that it is time to change position. The Croats are not satisfied with their position in this "ugly" is not the viability of education. Confederation of Croatian economy is weaker than the standard of living in Croatia above. Croats, and so in the minority, and the birth rate of Muslims above, ie, the percentage is more evenly over the falls.
In the end, we look abnormal picture — Croats and Serbs outside their own countries, it is essentially divided civilization. And Muslims do not zahochut loss of these territories, that is, the world can not agree. In the second half of the 90's and early 2000's there was a hope that the entry into the European Alliance of old times reconcile enemies, solve economic problems, it will extinguish ethnic and religious strife, but now that hope is lost. With the entry of the EU in the period of "global storm" Germany and France are considering, not to throw a "ballast" in the face of Southern Europe (Greece, Spain, Portugal), and not on the question of the adoption of the new "freeloaders."
However, the danger of war in the coming term, no, but the ability of repeating the Bosnian massacre there. The problem can not be solved within the framework of modern Western project.