Alexander S. Shishkov, outstanding municipal and public figure of the nineteenth century, the admiral and the Secretary of State, serving faithfully for four kings, the Minister of Education and President of the Russian Academy. He is the creator of invaluable works, the significance of which is not really understood until now. Some of them — "Slavyanorussky korneslov" the moral potential of the Russian language. Chapters in this book we are publishing.
Speech delivered by the President of Russian Academy festive annual meeting
OUR LANGUAGE — TREE, a breed called the friend INDUSTRY
Be multiplied, but will increase zeal for Russian word and laborers, and in the listeners!
I honor our language is so old that his sources are lost in the darkness of the times, so the sounds of their own faithful imitator of nature, which seems to him she was, so abundant in the breaking up of thoughts on the huge number of subtle differences, and together as a principal and an ordinary that each person saying they can special, solid rank own words explained, so together sonorous and tender that any trumpet and flute, one for driving and one for the tenderness of hearts, can look for it yourself decent sounds.
And in the end, so right that the supervisory mind often sees in it a continuous chain of concepts from one another born, so that the chain can still rise from the latter to its initial, very distant link.
The advantage of this correctness, continuous flow of thoughts that are visible in the words, so great that rather than be attentive and industrious minds opened, explained to the first power of the sea is so vast spill, the general knowledge of all languages lit up with a light hitherto impenetrable. Light, illuminating every word primitive that carried his idea, the light disperses the darkness of wrong conclusions, as if the words, these expressions of our thoughts, have their value from casual to let the sound of the hitch concepts.
Who will give to the trouble to get into the unfathomable depths of our language, and his every word will refer to the top, from which it derives, the one farther goes, the more will look for clear and nesomnitelnyh to prove it. No language, Especially of the newest and European, can not be equated these things to our advantage. Foreign slovotolkovatelyam, for finding the initial thoughts consumed in their words should be used in our language: it is the key to clarifying and resolving many oscillations which in vain to find a language of their own will. We ourselves, in almost all common words we, revered for overseas, would have seen that they are only at the end of chuzheyazychnye, and on the root of our own.
Profound, albeit very heavy study our language in all its majestic space would be of benefit not only to us, and all the foreigners, who are concerned to achieve clarity in their own dialects, often covered with impervious to their gloom. When seeking in our language of the initial concepts that darkness and they would have been lost and dispersed. For it is not the word of men should honor every nation arbitrary invention but a common kind of start current source, reached through the hearing and memory from the first to the last descendants Protz.
As the human race from the beginning of its own flows like a river, so the tongue along with it. The people of multiply scattered, and in almost all persons, clothing, character, habits have changed, and languages, too. They stopped but people are not to be one and the same genus in a human, as well as the language, not prestavavshy flow with people without ceases when all proper configurations to be an image of the 1st and the same language.
Take one word from father to all over the globe scattered dialects. We will see that it is, for all its own difference, is not special, every nation invented, but the same thing all the repeats.
Conclusion This majestic requests and lengthy exercise of finding a huge number of words, but Intimidating works, leading to the discovery of light from the signs expressing our thoughts, is unfounded fear, more loving darkness if education.
The science of language, or better to say, the science of words that make up language, contains all branches of human thought, from the beginning of their generation to a never-ending, ever, but well, the brain predvodimogo distribution. This science must be the first decent man, for without it he can not know the circumstances in which ascended from concept to concept, can not know the source from which the flow of his thoughts.
Than in the education of young men want him to know, from which it is made dress, which he wears; cap that fits over the head, cheese, which uses in food; how should not know from where the word, he says?
One can not but wonder what the science of euphony, luxury human mind fun and entertainment at all times cited in the rules and prosper. Meanwhile, as the basis of it, the science of language, always remained in darkness and obscurity. No one, or very few dare to come into her mysterious nativity scenes, and what we can say is impervious beyond the first at the gate of her limits.
Background of these things are obvious, and they are not easily overcome.
— New languages, took the place of the old, lost primitive words and eating only their industry can no longer be faithful guides to their principles.
— All the ancient languages, not counting slavenskogo, became dead, or not sufficiently known, and although the new pundits and try to get in their zaniya, but their number is not much, and information in an alien language may not be so voluminous.
— From the depths of antiquity streaming channels frequently, punctuated lose track of its own, and it requires finding the majestic forces of reason and judgment.
— Hope to work with the commission of this tribute racheniem can not flatter a person because of his age is brief and expected benefits may not in another mature as a long exercise of many learned men.
— The science of language, although closely related to science euphony or general literature, but it is very different. First delves into the origins of words, finds the connection of the 1st concepts with others so that on clear and transparent basis to establish the rules of grammar and vocabulary to make slovoproizvodny, the only show of the language in all its procedure and the device. 2nd enjoys only approved skill words, trying to come up with their pleasing to the brain and hearing properly, without any concern for their initial meaning and origin.
First searches for their light in dialects of all ages and nations, the second does not extend beyond their own investigations of real time.
Prosody priuchivaet mind shine, thunder, find fiction, jewelry. On the contrary, reason, study, practice the language, finds its clarity, a sure sign of evidence to the discovery of his cherished principles, always getting lost in the darkness of configurations, but without finding that he ceases to be the result of talented minds of creatures, from time immemorial, the current thinking of the flood.
Language with purity and correctness of their own will power and tenderness. The Tribunal of the dignity of the works will be the tribunal of reason and knowledge, and not a lot about the poison of ignorance or backbiting. Language our excellent, rich, loud, strong, profundity. Should only know the value of it, to think about the composition and the power of words, and then make sure we are not his other languages, but he can educate them. This old, original language is always a teacher, a mentor of modest means, who said he roots for hi
s breeding of their new garden.
With our tongue delving into it more deeply, we can, without borrowing from other roots, plant breeding and sumptuous vineyard.
Jezliah at the Russian Academy of monarchic bounty fed the hope that over time the success of hardworking minds, led by the lordship of reason, will open the rich language of our sources, it will be removed from the diamond back in the field covering almost all its bark, and show the full shining of the light.
Want to kill people, destroy it LANGUAGE
Let us go up to the highest tower, take off from the roof of houses, and we'll see what happens to them. Where to start? With education. Is there at least one, except the very poor, no matter what our kids are not brought up the French? These things used to increased and intensified so that has to be the hero to overcome prejudice and do not follow the general flow of things! Try telling that to our language, sciences, arts, crafts and even the nature of damages adopted by all the misfortune rule.
Angry and unintelligible to scratch out your eyes. Those are softer and more intelligent, will be for you to justify, "Do not you say a vain? When it is better to learn a foreign language, but in the kidding? The child will learn to effortlessly read first, and later read, write later, and the French language to need (note that expression), will end up writing so smoothly, as if born in Paris. " It was in this very thought, and it is the dominion over us and our slavery.
Why are education and intelligence are told to learn foreign languages? In order to acquire zaniya. But then all the languages needed. Plato wrote in Greek, Homer, Demosthenes, in Latin, Virginia, Cicero, Horace, the Italian Dante, Petrarch, the UK Milton, Shakespeare.
Why do without these languages we can be, and we need French for? It is clear that we do not think about the usefulness of languages: in another for what we all others, and even your own so despised before the French that they mean the little we, as in French, rather than not it say how natural the French are ashamed to Light Show?
Therefore, we are not on reason and not for the usefulness of learning it, well that's another, if not slavery?
Utter: yes it is needed so you need that became common, and commonly used in Europe. I'm sorry about Europe, but even more sorry for Russia. For this cause, perhaps, Europe, and drink the bitter cup, before that if an instrument in French, the language was already defeated them. Read translated from the French book "The Secret History of the new French court": it describes them as ministers, dining at the prince's own Ludwig talked about methods to eradicate the UK. The universal use of the French language, read some of them, Portalis, serves as the first foundation of all ties that France is in Europe. Have a read as well as in the UK, in French, as in other lands. Attempt, he said, to destroy people's language in the state, and later have myself people. Let the young Brits are immediately sent to France and trained in a French language, that they may not read by another, as in French, at home and in society, in the family and Away: that all ordinances, reports, decisions and contracts are written in French were language — and then the UK will be slave of nasheyu.
That's the argument of the 1st of their municipal husbands and it is very fair. If Frederick the second does not despise their own language of its own, rather than used every power retained its people's pride, the French revolution would have been entirely in the corner of his creepy. Their flimsy philosophers did not went to so many goals, the French would not have stepped out of the kingdom to the kingdom.
What does this, not as a common language of their razliyaniya that subordinated our brains are their brains?
But let other European lands and return to their own homeland. Thanks to the holy faith Our homeland is not like that.
But the French prefer to have all the others, not for pocherpaniya of his knowledge, but in order for him to chat. What appears from the investigation? The one who's own natural language grammar knows, a little time ought to learn to read in a foreign language. On the contrary, to read them as his natural, from infancy to continually engage them. This will let you to know your own language, obviously, not the one that you have learned on the street, but one which in the sacred temples of the word of God is preached, and what we find in the books of the University to Nestor, from Igor's songs to Derzhavina. These things will take you a lot of information relating to the Russian Federation. You may have a lot of excess learn about the French postal houses and theaters of Paris, festivities and alleys, but a lot of very suitable not know about his own country. You all this sacrifice for untainted pronunciation of French.
Look: your little son to learn better and faster, in other states do not, as with everyone and everywhere, in French, with the teacher, with you, with my mother, with her brother, a sister, Madame, with guests at home, street, in a carriage at the table, while strumming, exercise and going to bed.
I do not know the language in which he prays to God, perhaps, on any. Starting from 4 or 5 years of being in the hands of the French, he priuchivaet own language to pure accent of their speeches, hearing your own art to the preparation of their expressions, and mind your own to the sound and meaning of their words. Do you think that the habit, and especially the very young age of a beginning, has no power over our heart, mind, soul and taste?
In the tenth year he was reading by heart Rasinovy Kornelievy and poetry, but still no 1st Russian writer did not read the Psalms, Nestor, Lives of the Saints, and had never seen before. The thirteenth year, he began to argue with his teacher, who from their naskazhet more pleasant words vendor prestigious things and actresses. Between the fifteenth and osmnadtsatym year it has a profound philosopher. Talks about education, which, according to his views, not that is to know how to plow tiller, the referee judged merchant trade, the cobbler to sew boots. No, but the fact that they all know how to comb their hair, dress up and read French prose and poetry. On the immortality of the soul, he never worries, and believe the immortality of the body, as well, and eats against ten. Often, judges the moral things, and the most exalted freedom, which, in his opinion, that is not to be considered nothing sacred, do not obey anything, apart from the passions of their own. On the twentieth, or May 20, the year he made heir of your death your estate.
Oh, if only you through a dozen years could get up out of the coffin and look at him! You would have seen that it is mined from the earth with the sweat proliyaniem 10 tyschami hand domain wasting two or three or five of his cheating foreigners. You would have seen his huge library of all kinds of French books, decorated with portraits of Helvetia secured and Diderot.
And your wife and your picture, do not be angry, submitted to the attic, and is given only when it is necessary pohohotat as you were wearing amazing. You would have learned that it is not only on your grave never was, and in a church where you are buried, or better to say, none. You would have seen that he is over his grandmother, a bit to breathe, she laughs and says: "Lusha Fedorovna, tell me what-nibudt about the old days." You would have seen that he was not able to be neither warrior nor a judge, nor the other, neither husband nor father, neither the owner, nor the guest. You would have seen the …
After all this, you would have comforted that he is fine, red and freely reads in French?
Habit and the dominant ideology is so strong in such a taking of human bondage, that he is again
st the beliefs of the mind of its own, against his will, like a magnet, is drawn into the vortex of public prejudice.
Multiply that outlandish your teachers, mentors, friends, adepts incessant his inventions, tricks, inventions in all these things we nourish, support, sustain.
Meanwhile, they lead us to glory, but it is in the opposite direction. We can about where they lead us to conclude from the fact that before they brought us.
Old Slavic, roots, principled, our beautiful language in which the characters are loyal to us, and the case law of our Protz, which was based church service, faith and preaching the word of God, this language is abandoned, despised.
What of it coming out? Feofanova Georgieva sermons, which we must be to remain immortal, rattle in the later offspring of Russian colleges and be euphony, like how the Greeks and Romans were the words of Demosthenes and Cicero — these sermons not only did not have many rich and publications, such as in other lands with the least done their writers.
How many people in Russia read Voltaire, Cornelia, Racine? A million or so. How many people read University, Cantemir Sumarokova? First read more thousand people is another, and the last 2-scarce and rack up a hundred.
There will there be a writer, where painstaking years of work and no one reads? No! There in no one is born the idea of doing something hard, in principle. There, we do not find the hard-working people who are before his work finished, about a thousand other writers read, the best of their knowledge acquired, and their art with their own arguments consent. Only time will show hunters to write little essays which do not require any exercise science or knowledge in the language. About Sumarokova verse can be said that they "When there are, and then die."
Under such conditions language our increasingly will have buried in oblivion, literature and upadana deteriorate. But without language and literature can the spread of science? Could it be education? Can thrive even artistry and crafts? No! Without the language of science are not clear, the laws are dark, awkward arts, crafts rude, and in a word all with no view, no view, no soul. Language and Slovenia are not required for some science, law and arts. Every craft, crafts and trades of their own light highlights from their borrow his perfection.
Upadana own language, as he preferred someone else. With the decline of the native language of the invention is silent, does not grow in any sorts of art. Meanwhile, other nations take advantage of this and do not stop to various means of averting our attention from themselves and pay it on their tricks.
100 years ago, we started back to learn from foreigners. Well, if our significant achievements? What are the fruits of their collected? Maybe utter: the expansion of land, victory, winning! But it was not they have taught us. Without natural courage and love for the Fatherland, we would not win the Poltava victory. No! This is not the fruit of their instruction. In doing so, they learn a faster, if would be willing to teach us, if they could. I think they would give dearly to have our fighter was not orthodox soul, not a Russian heart, not copper chest.
100 years, not one year. It's about time in a long time, and we ourselves become qualitative. But meanwhile, brought up and around uchyat us foreigners. Our houses, temples, buildings are built the same, and dress shoes us, our wives, sons and daughters, they are the same. No they do not know how much we hang curtains or chairs dotting or bonnet, no coat, no boots to wear themselves. Our kids to stand up straight, bow, dance, horseback ride, gaze into her glass uchyat they are the same. Orchestras and theaters as they amuse us. At least, our dishes are prepared in the kitchens of our Russian cook? No, and then they do the same!
Is endowed by nature with reason and foreigners most excellent opportunities? Is it their mother and stepmother to us? Who ponder it! He did, who do not know the Russian people, savvy, all apt.
Where a foreign language is used rather own, where books are read more than other people, if your out there in the silence of literature all wither.
When we're on one of the 2-gardens we let our attention, and then the brain, hearing and vision, taste and cling to it, from what the other will suffer. Be patient, continue to plant, prune, breed, multiply is not bad, destroy slim: you will see that it is stretched over time and will be beautiful.
The same people that garden. Do not turn away from the sight of his works, they fall in love at first imperfect, his preferred someone else, he settled in his ambition, revive jealousy aroused his respects to him. Then the natural talent will find for themselves write, will start to grow, rise above, become more skilled and eventually reach perfection. But as long as there is not in our national pride, its own pros loving, until then we will just look like foreigners do. Own brain remain dormant, the spirit nepredpriimchiv, eye neprozorlivo, unskilled hands.
Foreigners often favor us names des barbares (barbarians), des esclaves (slaves).
They lie, but we feed them to the occasion. Could he have respect for me, who teaches me, clothes, cleans, or better said, robbing, and without whose management can not I set foot step?
After overthrowing the yoke of alien language and education, it is necessary to say to them: "What? We, the barbarians, the age of his own glory and the characters of the instrument, and you are not barbarians, fears its own revolution took away the glory from hell itself. How? We esklavy, obey God chosen the supreme power, and you do not esklavy after infernal liberty, that brought murderous hands of your kids and the elderly, in the end crawl when you are forced to stick to obey! How? We unenlightened honor the faith, the only source of virtues, the only bridle passions, and you, the enlightened, trample it and the very being of God, not by the miracles made them the world, but for definitions Robesperovym! How? We are having a root, old, secured language, let us prefer him your not rich, composed of different languages adverb! "
So it must answer, not thinking, "Where do we chase after you! You and the men they say in French! You know how to do and bonnets, and head to impale, and flowers to the colors clean up. For the sake of Paris, do not give up on us! Always be our teachers, naryazhatelyami, obuvatelyami, poteshnikami, and even then, when your fellow citizens are going to burn and ruin us! "
If our outlook on them will always be that, then postpone the care of their own sciences, arts, crafts. Let us hoard gold and pay them for all the things themselves do not know how. We are not making money out of glory, but will live agent.