Facelift (lifting of the face)

Facelift.  Photo from www.plastischechirurgie-ap.de

Recently, a marked increase in the number of men and women seeking help from plastic surgeons to improve their appearance. Young and well-groomed face in our time is the key to success in almost all areas, so the circular Lift face and neck gradually become one of the most common plastic surgery in Russia.

Unfortunately, the aging of the soft tissues of the face is inevitable and is part of the general biology of natural changes in the body. First of all, involutional reconstructions are subject to the following anatomical structures: skin, sucking pad (lump Bichat), surface musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS-system).

Age-related changes are largely attributable to the decrease support collagen structures in the soft tissues and the impact on them the force of gravity. The result is sagging tissues down — eyebrows, upper and lower eyelids, cheeks. Formed and deepened infraorbital and nasolabial furrow. Age-related changes also affect the neck — skin become loose, forming horizontal wrinkles disappear neck and chin angle. Accelerate the aging process of soft tissues of the face are a variety of medical disorders, exposure to harmful environmental factors and bad habits. Thus, under the influence of the complex reasons for 40 years forms the wrinkles in the forehead, eyes, nasolabial, orbital fissure, is changing the face and then it becomes clear that even the professional cosmetic care enough.

History facelift

  • 1906 — The first mention of surgical correction of age-related changes in the soft tissues of the face
  • 1926 — A technique for excision of excess skin around the eyes and temporal areas
  • 1974 — A technique for facelift, which was carried out in the course of plastic is not only the skin but alsomusculo-fascial complex
  • 1976 — described in detail the anatomy musculo-aponeurotic layer and introduced the term SMAS (subcutaneous musculoaponeurotic system)
  • 1979 — A technique for subperiosteal facelift forehead and midface, developed a method of moving the composite (multi-) grafts
  • 1982 — A method for resection and fixation SMAS

Since then and until now continues to develop numerous modifications and combinations of methods facelift. Current knowledge and perennial scientific and practical studies on the anatomy of the human face had surgery facelift as effective and safe.

When shown a facelift?

Typically, aged 40-50 years, the skin of face and neck are highly susceptible to stretching and sagging. Sometimes due to the individual characteristics of a serious correction required appearance at an earlier age (premature aging30-35 years). Of course, there is a non-invasive method of tightening threaded Aptos, but it works effectively when there is no need to move large excess skin. Operation lift, or facelift, can affect the soft tissues of the face and neck, successfully eliminating all manifestations of age-related changes, even if they are severe.

Indications for surgery

  • Sagging skin of the forehead and eyebrows
  • The formation of wrinkles in the nose
  • Ptosis of eyelids
  • Pronounced wrinklestemporomalar area
  • Lowering the outer corners of the eye
  • Deep vertical wrinkles on the cheeks
  • Deep nasolabial folds
  • Ptosis of the soft tissues of cheeks below the edge of the lower jaw ( "Bryl ")
  • "Double" chin
  • The formation of deep wrinkles and creases in the neck

Contraindications

  • Severe diseases of the internal organs
  • Infectious diseases
  • Neoplastic Diseases
  • Coagulation

Preoperative patient

  • 2 weeks prior to surgery did not take drugs affecting blood clotting (eg, aspirin, anti-cough)
  • The day before surgery to "dump" the day (light food in small amounts)
  • In the morning before the surgery did not eat or drink
  • Coagulation

Anesthesia

Facelifting and neck — long operation (4-5 hours), requiring general anesthesia — inhalation anesthesia. Lifting of the individual zones parties, such as the forehead and eyebrows can be performed under local anesthesia or intravenous anesthesia.

Operation

During the operation, due to the removal of excess skin and pulling it, strengthening the deep lying musculo-aponeurotic structures (lift SMAS), using the method of liposuction can remove large folds, wrinkles, improve facial contours and adjust the age-related changes in the neck. It should be noted that the isolated skin tightening without affecting the structures if necessary SMAS provides short-term aesthetic results.

Endoscopic facelift

Endoscopic Lift— It is a modern facelift procedure. All surgical manipulation of the endoscopic facelift produced thin the optical fiber endoscopes. Endoscopes are held under the skin through 4-5 microcuts (up to 1 cm) placed on the scalp. Endoscopic facelift is generally used for skin tightening the upper third of the face. It can be used for braces and the middle third of patients with minimal sagging of soft tissues.

The postoperative period

  • Hospital stay 2-3 of the day
  • Postoperatively, the patient should wear a special compression mask for a week
  • Postoperative edema peaks at 2 — 3 days after surgery and falls at the end of the first week
  • Sutures are removed in front of the ears on6-7 day (for the formation of a flat invisible hem) in the scalp — on the 10th day after surgery
  • You can wash your hair a week after the surgery, hair dye — in a month
  • A week after the operation, you can use decorative cosmetics
  • Through 10-14 days, the patient can return to their workplace
  • You can not play sports (heavy load) for 1.5 months
  • Sunbathing and sauna can be in 1 month
  • Through 3-4 week for best results it is desirable to carry out a course of lymphatic drainage massage, up to that time facial massage is contraindicated
  • The final result of the operation is formed by the end of the second month, when finally disappears swelling of the skin

Complications

The most likely complications:

  • Swelling of the face and sinyachki — mild by using fibrin glue, are themselves
  • Skin pigmentation — occurs in patients with sensitive and delicate skin with intradermal hemorrhages, disappears on their own within six months after surgery
  • Temporary hair loss around the incision in the skin of the scalp, their subsequent growth is restored independently

Rare complications:

  • Bleeding in the postoperative period -1%
  • Necrosis edges of skin grafts — less than 1% (increased risk in chronic smokers and elderly patients)
  • Damage to the branches of the facial nerve
  • The weakness of the individual facial muscles — less than 1% (disappear on their own within 3-6 months)
  • Branches of the ear nerve damage, a temporary violation of the sensitivity of the ear lobe — less than 1%
  • Infection of surgical wounds
  • Hypertrophic scars occur when the patient has an individual tendency to form rough scars

Findings

Facelifting and neck will help patients look for7-8 years younger. The final result depends on the age of the patient, the initial state of the skin, the presence of concomitant diseases and harmful habits, lifestyle factors (work, food, etc.). Those factors will determine the duration of the rejuvenating effect after surgery. Repeated facelift can be performed at intervals 5-10 years. Therapeutic beauty treatments significantly alienate term reoperation. Mesotherapy, rejuvenation, lymph drainage massage and mask secure
d the result for many years and are the prevention of the recurrence of ptosis of the soft tissues of the face and wrinkles.

Source: Medical center "Paracelsus 2001"

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