Helicobacter pylori — the cause of gastritis and ulcers

Helicobacter pylori - the cause of gastritis and ulcers

Our organism is packed with a variety of micro-organisms and represents a certain microbiological hostel. Most of its inhabitants — it is the law-abiding citizens who do not violate the ugliness, cooperate with the internal organs (bowel, for example), in a word, help a person. There, among the "tenants" neutral individuals — do not bring harm, but no benefit from them. Just a random companions.

And there is a third category — the sorts of hidden pests. Who, under cover of the mucous doing their dirty work, weakening and undermining our organism inside. Here is one such representative of the "fifth column" Today we'll talk.

History of discovery

The fact that the human stomach someone live yet usual, physicians began to suspect a long time. Back in the late XIX century were described some spiral microorganisms living in the stomachs of dogs. Then followed a series of more than a century of research, and only in 1983 by Australian scientists Barry Marshall (B.Marshall) and Robin Warren (R.Warren) was made a decisive conclusion: we live micro-organism in the stomach and he does not like us. Australians even managed to isolate and cultivate the previously unknown critter.

Found microbe got a beautiful Latin name Helicobacter Pylori, that is "a spiral bacterium that lives in the gatekeeper" (the lower part of the stomach, which goes into the duodenum). And so it began investigating harmful effect of H. pylori.

Reports by scientists of the research resembled reports from the front: "Helicobacter destroys the lining", "Helicobacter pylori in the stomach creates a colony." In 1994, Helicobacter pylori has received from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARK) the title of "carcinogen of the first order." In 1996 D. Forman showed up to 75 percent of cases of gastric cancer in developed countries, and about 90 per cent — in developing countries is associated with Helicobacter.

Russian scientists have even introduced a special term — Helicobacter pylori infection, calling it bad word everything that happens in the body after the introduction of the spiral Sinister. A foreign scientists conducted a census of the population of H. pylori and found that Helicobacter pylori infection affects around 60 percent of the world's population. This is the most common infectious disease of earthlings, not including herpes which has a viral nature.

The true cause ulcers

For a long time it was thought that the harsh climatic conditions of the human stomach can not survive more than one microbial individual. Like, she dies in the depths of the gastric juice, dissolving completely in hydrochloric acid. And all sorts of gastrointestinal trouble — ulcers, gastritis — all the nerves, smoking, coffee and alcohol. And of fried, spicy, salty and pickled. All of these excesses lead to increased acidity, gastric juice begins to eat away at the lining of the stomach, and here it is — the plague, gapes its jagged edges in the sight of the endoscope.

And so much money on this theory earned pharmaceutical companies that produce antacids (drugs to reduce the acidity) — scary to imagine. Certainly in every home medicine cabinet there Maalox, Rennie fosfalugel or, in extreme cases, almagel. The level of acidity in the stomach dropped worldwide, lady's finger and the series grew and became strong, taking in their ranks all the younger patients. Theories of peptic ulcer disease and breeding like rabbits, and in college textbooks there were at least 20. It is understood that more than theory, the farther is the true reason.

And the reason was under his nose. More precisely — in the stomach. In our stomachs all the while secretly lived OH — helicobacter. And harm to us to the extent of H. pylori forces.

Helicobacter pylori lives in the man, so the main source of infection is human. It is clear that in the modern world with its density and intensity of communication is very difficult to imagine how to protect themselves from this source.

The main way in which bacteria from person to person called contact-household— Through hygiene items, dishes, door handles in the bathroom. In addition, Chance oral-oral path — the so-called medical language usual kisses. Exchanging saliva, and we share germs and Helicobacter found in plaque on the teeth, and in the discharge of the salivary glands.

Not excluded skid microorganism medical equipment (the so-called iatrogenic) for example, through a poorly crafted endoscope.

It becomes clear why almost all of humanity can be attributed to a risk group, and why Helicobacter pylori infection is called a "family disease."

What's going on?

Once in our organism, Helicobacter down in his favorite habitat — stomach. To gastric juice did not catch it for parts, clever microbe surrounds himself with a protective coating of enzymes detoxifying acid. Its spiraling tendrils pest pierce the layer of mucus that covers the stomach wall, and rushes to the parietal (parietal) cells, hidden from the acid.

Here Helicobacter turns on the full — it just starts to eat parietal cells and release into the environment of toxic products of their life. This pogrom awakens to life neutrophils — the blood cells that keep order in the field. Neutrophils leave the blood capillaries and begin to chase the troublemaker, eventually eating it. Destroyed and "bitten" Helicobacter cells of the gastric mucosa.

Products protective mucus in the mucosal area decreases, and rushes toward the damaged area hydrochloric acid. Develops and inflammation in the lining of the defect is formed — the same unfortunate ulcer. Helicobacter loves best holiday (pyloric) section of the stomach and the initial division (bulb) of duodenum. It was there that most often occurs ulcerative defect in peptic ulcer disease.

How does Helicobacter pylori infection?

Of course, peptic ulcer disease develops is not at all Helicobacter pylori-infected patients. There are effective predisposing factors — wrong diet, those nerves, smoking, and alcohol, which help Helicobacter make it dirty deed. It becomes clear why people with first blood more prone to peptic ulcer disease — their cells produce more specific receptors, which clings to the microbe.

But here chronic gastritis develops absolutely everyone. This is the main manifestation of helikobakterioza. If you are concerned about recurrent pain in the stomach discomfort "in his stomach", heartburn, nausea, feeling of fullness in the stomach, coated tongue, bad taste in mouth, belching, increased bleeding gums — have a reason to think about H. pylori aggression against your body.

Diagnosis and treatment

Modern diagnostic techniques allow quickly to "calculate" the intruder. Laboratory and microbiological tests to determine the presence of H. pylori in the gastric mucosa. And here begins the real war.

There is only one method of treatment — the so-called eradication, ie elimination, the total destruction of the invading our organism microbial aggressor. And this is where the problems begin. Helicobacter in the laboratory (in vitro) very quickly killed by the simplest of antimicrobial agents, and in terms of a living organism (in vivo) takes just did a phenomenal resistance to the most modern facilities.

Therefore, prophylactic eradication is carried out only on the testimony of hard not to grow resistant to all existing antibiotics monster. Clinical management of patients with Helicobacter pylori infection is described in detail in Maastrithtskom agreement of the E
uropean Community (1996). Eradication rates should be considered in all patients with peptic ulcer disease have been identified Helicobacter. In addition, treatment is indicated in patients younger than 45 years with gastritis and gastroduodenitom also provided positive tests.

Therapy "for destruction" can be assigned and patients with common functional disorders of the digestive system, but only if, after a full and thorough examination revealed no other causes of these disorders.


Prevention helikobakterioza reduced mainly to personal hygiene, early testing and treatment for the whole family, if the disease is detected insomeone of relatives.

An effective method of infection control could be a vaccine. Studies in animals have shown that it can prevent and even cure the disease is already available, but the mechanism of action of these vaccines so far remains unclear. However, immunoprophylaxis helikobakterioza — it's not-so-distant future. I would like to believe that it will occur in our lifetime.

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