In the middle of a little-known names as long there is one worthy of special attention. In the history of the Russian Federation were two generals with a similar name and, curiously, with similar initials. The actual article is devoted to Stepan Aleksandrovich Khruleva. Mind-boggling professional fate of the commander is closely intertwined with the troubles and victories of the Russian army because of his official biography reflects the state of the military forces of the empire during this period.
The scion of nobility leader Stepan Hrulev Born in the province of Tula in 1807. Rhode Khruleva was one of the ancient Russian noble families, leading back to the middle of the XIV century and had a common Protz with native AV Suvorov-Rymniksky. With young boy showed interest in the art of war and dreamed of a career military leader. Stepan assisted passion communication with other Bronevsky father, who was the creator of "Notes of a naval officer." His dreams of feats of arms resulted in a detailed study of the biographies of the generals and their majestic works, strategies and tactics. Stepan was a good student, just mastered several languages and has received good marks in the Tula Alexander School. Final exams he effortlessly passed in the 2nd Corps of Cadets of the best military institutions of St. Petersburg. The once he graduated from the corps Kutuzov himself.
Successfully completing program from learning Hrulev went to Noble's Regiment, later renamed Konstantinovskoe military school. Then the guy probation, was also involved in teaching, thanks to a good knowledge of arithmetic. In 19 years, Stepan Khruleva was promoted lieutenant. Fate decreed that the beginning of the military operations began in the 25th cavalry company of light artillery on the border with Poland.
Baptism of fire took place in the young commander of the Polish uprising begun and already in 1831, when he was about 20 4 years, showed initiative and resourcefulness. Non-standard generalship capabilities supported by accumulations of theoretical knowledge and a little practice. In Kozienicka battle Stepan decided to put guns in front of the infantry, which allowed to kill the enemy without engaging him in hand to hand combat. With 100 fifty paces from the Russian was an open fire grapeshot, the scattered ranks of the enemy. The Poles were so amazed so unusual tactic that ultimately failed to do much, or intelligent action, have suffered heavy losses and lost the battle.
But, despite the successful finale, an initiative of the young Khruleva scared of his boss Gen.-Major Kreutz. Baron saw in Stepan Aleksandrovich unsafe competitor, because not only did not submit to his merit, and tried every possible way to hide the episode. Hrulev was first used in combat grapeshot grenades, while they all started to be used only after 20 years. Military company for the title of lieutenant Khruleva ended, the Order of St. Anne 4th degree with the inscription "For Bravery" and the Order of St. Vladimir, 4th degree with a bow.
In 1848, after the Battle of weizen, being in the center of the Hungarian superior forces of the enemy, when he was a colonel, Hrulev successfully stalling until the main forces. Daring, but effective solution to impersonate the authorized representative of the Russian troops, allowing it to not only save power entrusted, and to achieve the surrender of the Hungarian army.
He sent envoys to the headquarters of the enemy, and as long as they got, and then ceremoniously held talks with the Hungarian commander in chief, coordinating every item in the contract, podtyanuvshy troops forced the surrender of the Hungarians. For this bright and bold move Khruleva bestowed. Since then, the command does not simply become afraid of him, but even experience to Stepan Aleksandrovich dislike. For the Hungarian company Hrulev was awarded a gold sword engraved with "For Bravery", the title of major general, also the Austrian Order of the Crown Steel 2nd degree. In Kokand campaign on a successful assault on the Ak-Mosque in 1853 was the commander of a professional, after all, is marked by a general Perovsky.
Crimean War Hrulev met on the Danube front. March 4, 1855, SA Hrulev was appointed commandant of the Ship party with the subordination of the Selenga and Volyn redoubts Kamchatsky lunette (the name given by division, which enhance and protect the data), and all forces stationed in the 3rd, 4th and 5th wards defensive zone. The general was unusually is popular in the middle of soldiers and officers, had the glory of a fearless leader. It was noted that he was appointed to where the currently difficult and dangerous of all. Even then Hrulev was acclaimed as the "soldiers' general, and for the care of subordinates got the nickname Miner, all without distinction as to who turned prototype," my benefactor. " He hit officers humility and asceticism own field welfare. He was commander continues the tradition of "Suvorov schools." Fight off Kamchatsky lunette brought Khruleva still huge fame: on the night of 10 to 11 March, General made a sortie from the Kamchatsky lunette, Russian soldiers vorvavlis the main French trench sryli all produced there adversary work. Fight lasted all night and just before dawn Hrulev gave the order to retreat. I saw a brave general, and gave himself the ruler. June 6, 1855, during a general assault on Sevastopol, he parried with a handful soltat battery Gervais (on the right wing Malakhov).
After numerous assaults by the French Marshal Pelissier took Malakhov Kurgan. Count Totleben was wounded in the leg, but the defense kept for some time, then this part of the town was abandoned. Despite the controversy with the engineer Totleben, Hrulev used his respect and trust. The engineer is often consulted him on military and field fortifications. Almost all thanks to the ideas of Stepan Alexandrovich starting to be used to strengthen the trenches as a group, referred to in the upcoming cradles.
The command did not pay attention or, rather, did not want to notice the award Stepan. Of particular interest is the minister of war memorandum filed by him in 1856. The paper was devoted to the justification of the likely routes of the military campaign in India. The proposed solution demonstrates the foresight and political literacy Khruleva. This quality allowed him to find the weak and painful
point of the main opponents of — England. The situation in India is becoming more and more tense, the natives were ready to revolt at any moment, since the invasion of Russian troops will certainly have provoked the overthrow of the government of the colonists. Such a maneuver would not only undermine the power of Great Britain and force her to abandon the subsequent military action, and reduce its impact on the international arena, as well shake its financial stability.
The experience of military clashes Khruleva gave a hint that the offensive strategy should be to find new and better techniques. So Stepan a thought to the latest form of a military order as skirmishers. In addition, he considers it appropriate to change the outdated muskets in the union. As shown, the decision was really successful and contributed to the victories in the clashes.
Fate decreed that professional Gen. did not command armies, but it personally knew and appreciated the Emperor Nicholas I. Flattering responded about it in his letters and general perovskite. But most of the commanders tried to keep Khruleva in the shade. The reason for that was the envy and fear of the originality and boldness of his thoughts. Even Hungarian Chief, stunned and delighted exceptional tactical capabilities, read about it, "Our brave knight Colonel Hrulev. " It's hot and devotedly loved Stepan Alexandrovich Ordinary soldiers, have composed the song about him. But the commanding general've only housing, the potential of this man was not exhausted by a variety of circumstances.
Stepan was killed in 1870 on the night of May 22, he was buried in Sebastopol, which he so bravely defended. On the headstone monument reads: "Khruleva — Russia." In this rather short phrase is the whole life of the general, dedicated to their own homeland.