The idea is that children — the great linguists, known, perhaps, to each parent. All of us are touched by a fun children's etymologies and naive, but surprisingly accurate intuition language. But the child grows, and this is his sincere interest in the children's native language is replaced by boring school rules and rote.
What can we do to make this interest has continued to grow, how to help preschoolers discover the world of the Word? Of course, in the form of games, fun and for an adult and child. We will start with phonetics (note: Phonetics — a branch of linguistics that studies the sound structure of language).
Many children love to play with words, they are fascinating "verbal transformations", when one letter is replaced by another, and the meaning of words is reversed. For starters, you can try to play, for example, in the "enchanted letter." Adult advance comes up with a couple of words that differ only in one letter, for example, LAMB, CANDLE, horns, spoons etc., and becomes a sorcerer.
Warlock says: "In the meadow grazed candles." The child must spell the word — to find the very letter that changed the meaning of the word. "In the meadow grazed sheep" — exclaims the child, and the sorcerer is defeated! This game is rescued us in the long queues to see a doctor, on the road and in the other boring situations.
After that we decided to record such verbal transformation and at the same time practice in reading simple words.
There are a lot of word strings that differ only by one letter. In order to play the letters in the word has become evident, we write these verbal chains in a special way. Suppose there is a chain of five words: THAT COM COM, CROWBAR HOME.
A4 sheet of paper we cut crosswise into three parts add up each rectangle in half, put all three into one another and fasten the stapler in the middle, so as to obtain a small notebook. Now we cut at the same time, all six of its pages fold perpendicular to the middle of the page.
Our notebook now consists of two halves, each of which can be switched individually. (Just think of how to say, turn-edged to himself, we get something like two tear-off calendars, connected together) On the right we can write the second half, continued (to think) part of the word OM, and on the left side of every page we write in the letter T , C, K, L, D. Thus, the two halves of each page make up the whole floor. On the back of the left halves of the corresponding object can be drawn, it will be a picture-response. Here are other options such chains: ONION, QMS, BEECH, Beetle, MAK, BAC, RAC, LAC, PAIN, MOLE, SALT, ROLE, ZERO, hummocks, KIDNEY, DAUGHTER, POINT BARREL; MOUNTAIN, KORA, NORA, TIME. In all of these chains is changing the first letter of the word. You can change and the middle letter (then all the pages of our books do not cut the baby into two but into three parts): BEECH, BOC, bull, BAC.
Changing the letter can be chosen in a special way, so that they reflect a particular characteristic sound: the voiceless-voiced (DAUGHTER-POINT, GPG-MOLE, Chagall-Shack, Costa GUEST) or hardness, softness (FINGERS-hoop nose-HEC , dust-PIL, BALD-fox, WHO-Wes). You can play with homophones which sound the same but are spelled differently (RCD-CAT, FOX-WOODS, BOW-ING, POND-ROD).
And here's a couple of words that show "extenuating" features a soft sign: MEL-stranded, Angle-COAL, SEED-FAMILY, KOH-HORSE, blood-to-blood, EL-FIR, SHELF-POLKA, GALKA PEBBLES-, six-six. Kids while you can not call (and certainly not in any way impose!) Strict school terms: voiceless, voiced, hardness, softness. Just surprised with the child — we only slightly changed the word, and the meaning it has a totally different!
We write on a slip of paper the word ducks. Now bend the strip so as to cover the first letter. It turned out a new word — POINT. Here are examples in which the first or last letter may be "superfluous", "Enchanted": GAP-FIR, prick-KOL, ZUBRs-TOOTH, KOS-OCA MRAC-CANCER REGIMENT-POL-ROD'S DAUGHTER, THE WOLF-PAR, SCREEN-CRANE, REGIMENT-POL, relish, sweet-tooth, a trouble-FOOD BOWL-SCARF, STO-TABLE, POST, mustache-BEADS, MOLE-MOUTH, blood-DOM, GPG-MOUTH-ROSE-STORM THREAT, LAD-GOLD-WAREHOUSE. These puzzles to decrease addition, the letter called logogrifami.
"Excess" letter can be inserted in the middle of the word:
CABIN-HAND, BODY HEAT, a handful of guests, PAINT-HELMET, PAW-LAMP, PAIR PARK. In this case, the "extra" letter can also be hidden in a fold paper only this fold will not be at the beginning and at the end and in the middle of the word.
Moms and dads will remember nursery rhyme about the ship "Victory":
- on the ship "Victory"
- After lunch
- disaster struck:
- FOOD gone.
- "You stole it?" "YES".
- The sailors cry, "Ah!"
For children who are just beginning to read, you can make a mini-book on the basis of a phone book or dictionary, where each page is one letter longer than the previous one. You can make up their own stories, rhymes and other similar words, such as fences, annoyance.
- "What is behind the fence,
- did not survive the hail,
- neighbor's the RADA,
- She does not know this HELL! "
- "Really?" "YES!"
- "What horror! Ah!"
Make like a storm — but I got a goat …
Now let's try a bit more of a challenge. Your child will need to turn into a witch and a magic word. How? Cross out the "extra" letter! Well, for example, in what one can to turn the word "storm"? That's right, in the "Rose"! Here are the raw material for such transformations: Nick, Vanya, scarves, lamps, kitchen gardens, MOLE, baby, laugh, TAPE, WILLOW, game, jigsaws, TIGER, spurs, razors, Cork.
Another version of the game — do not cross out "extra letter", and change it so as to obtain a new word: CAT (PEEL), protein (a loaf of bread), tar paper (Kol), deer (autumn), SALUTE (SALAD), etc. . Do you remember the famous puzzles on the transformation of words to be executed is not the one, and in a few steps? Maybe a self-taught magician try the goat turned into a wolf? Yes, easily! GOAT — POSE — SEX — REGIMENT — WOLF. Now let's Day turned into night: NIGHT — DAUGHTER — DOLE — DAL — TRIBUTE — DAY.
Now try not to play with the letters, and with the whole syllables!
They can also be inserted into a word: PAP-galoshes, TOAD-COMPLAINT, RIVER-GUM, CORTEX-BASKET, HAND — SHIRT, CORA — holster. Here are examples of the replacement of one another in the middle syllable words: Mermaid with her little hands; HOLSTER-HUD-kennel.
You can change only the second part of the word, leaving the first syllable of the same.
BA + BARREL
- + CANCER
- + JUICE
DAC + ZHIK
- +The CCP
CAR + TINA
That give similar phonetic game? A child plays with a word, try it on taste, learns to associate words with phonetic form its lexical meaning, and by the way, quietly acquired skills in reading.
The first experiments of classification — settles sounds
So, your baby is already quite grown expert in verbal transformations, he felt like a real magician who flick of the wrist (or a pen!) Performs miracles. It is likely that he goes to school.
It's time to learn how to construct the sounds, how they differ from each other. To begin with we come to the mirror and try to say something, looking intently at her reflection. Have you noticed some sounds we utter with his mouth open and free air comes out of our mouth (it is — the vowels), while others are pronounced with closed or parted lips,
and the air you exhale met with some obstacles — lips, teeth, tongue (these sounds are called consonants). Uttering various sounds, try to see how changing your face, what organs are involved "in the work." My daughter once came up with that different vowel sounds reflect different moods: Oh — surprisingly, D — offense, A-boggling, N — resentment, and — like a smile, E — (quote) "when a person does not know that did he say. "
And what do you want vowels and consonants?
Imagine if, in our language would only vowels? Or only the consonants? Let's play this game. One player conceives and writes any word on a piece of paper only the consonants of the word (or vowels). Another is to guess what the word was intended. For example, TLVZR, KRNDSH — EEO, AAA (TV, pencil). In which case it is easier to guess and why?
By the way, mankind is on the "dawn" of his stories also played these games. For example, in the Phoenician alphabet was not the vowels! So often it turns out that different words on the letter looked exactly the same. We write on the method of Phoenician word "whale." We can do CT. But it is so, we would have to write the word "cat". BC — it's tank, side, bull, beech? ML — soaps, small, chalk, chalk, they say, nice? LP — lime, paw, magnifying glass?
Let's build some houses for our vowels and consonants! The cabins can be drawn on a sheet of drawing paper and attach to the wall. The houses do windows for each sound, so you can see who lives here. In the "consonant" house has double windows for paired sounds-friends (hard and soft voiced and voiceless), and is — single (for unpaired).
Voiced and voiceless
Say aloud the different consonant sounds and whispers. You will immediately notice that the ringing sound whisper to say impossible — he immediately becomes deaf. We find all the voiced and voiceless pairs, and settled them on the appropriate box. And now we will come up with the words and sentences that consist only of the voiced or unvoiced sounds only. To remember all the voiceless consonants, remember this phrase: "Fock, you want to eat cabbage soup?" If the cross out all the vowels in it and the soft sign, leaving only the voiceless consonants.
Now decode with your child is very SECRET offer:
Scheele-fervor in papuzhki zerengy goslig.
Well, as it turned? Of course, this is the beginning of the famous tragic stories about my grandmother and her goat, only it messed up all the pairs of voiced and unvoiced consonants. Now try to do some simple cipher text. So you can write secret messages to each other and at the same time to train in the classification of sounds.
Hard and soft
Vowels, as we have seen, is very like to meet with consonants. Only here a five vowels (a, w, e, and f) is more like soft consonants, while the other (a, u, e, s, o) — solid. Here are the consonants under them and adapt: a meeting with the top five, are soft (me, mu, me, mi, me), and the second — firm (ma, mu, doe, we can). But there is one way to make a hard consonant in a soft — is, of course, the soft sign. Remember how we were looking for "extra" in the words of the letter gravel, coal, polka? What happens if you remove the soft sign? And now, on the contrary, we add soft sign with the words: ate concentration, chalk, they say, was, shelter, weight, given, clear.
So, quickly, easily and effortlessly we were introduced to a very important linguistic concepts, and most importantly — could cause him to live and genuine interest.
According to the magazine "Aistenok"