Risk Factors and Prevention

way of life

Risk Factors — are any predisposing factors that increase the probability of occurrence or worsening of the disease. In Europe and the United States, there are specially designed to assess the scale of cardiovascular risk, the most important of them — the Framingham scale and the scale of SCORE. They allow you to within a few percent predict risk of heart attack or other heart disease in the next 10 years. To some extent, these scales are applicable to other countries, but only after careful calibration and modification. For Russia, this scale has not been developed.

Risk factors for coronary heart disease is fundamentally divided into avoidable and unavoidable.

Unrecoverable risk factors:

  • Age — 40 years
  • Paul — the greatest risk are men and older women after menopause.
  • Heredity — having relatives who have died of heart disease, and genetic mutations detected by modern methods of screening.

Avoidable risk factors:

  • Smoking
  • High blood pressure
  • Elevated blood cholesterol
  • Diabetes or high blood sugar
  • Malnutrition
  • Overweight and obesity
  • Low physical activity
  • Alcohol abuse

The main objective of prevention of coronary heart disease is the elimination or reduction of the maximum magnitude of the risk factors for which it is possible. To do this, even before the appearance of the first symptoms should follow the recommendations for lifestyle modifications.


Lifestyle modification:

  • Quitting smoking. Complete cessation of smoking, including passive. The overall risk of death in those who quit smoking, reduced by half within two years. After 5 — 15 years, it is aligned with the risk in those who had never smoked. If you yourself can not cope with this problem, contact a professional for advice and help.
  • Physical activity. All patients with CHD recommended daily physical activity at a moderate pace, such as walking, — at least 30 minutes a day, domestic activities such as cleaning, yard work, walking from home to work. If possible, 2 times a week are recommended endurance training. Patients with a high level of risk (for example, after a heart attack or heart failure) need to develop an individual program of physical rehabilitation. It must adhere to all life, changing periodically on the advice of a specialist.
  • Diet. The aim is to optimize power. Necessary to reduce the amount of solid animal fat, cholesterol, simple sugars. Reducing the consumption of sodium (sodium salts). Reduce the total calorie intake, particularly in overweight. To achieve these objectives it is necessary to adhere to the following rules:
  1. Avoid or to limit the consumption of any animal fat: lard, butter, fatty meat.
  2. Restrict (or better to completely eliminate) fried foods.
  3. Limit the number of eggs up to 2 units per week or less.
  4. Reducing the use of salt and 5 g per day (in salt plate), and in patients with hypertension to 3 grams or less per day.
  5. The maximum limit pastries, cakes, pies, etc.
  6. Increase the intake of grains, minimally processed as possible.
  7. Increase the amount of fresh vegetables and fruits.
  8. There is a sea fish at least three times a week instead of meat.
  9. Included in the diet with omega-3 fatty acids (ocean fish, fish oil).

Such a diet has a high protective effect for the vessel and prevents the further development of atherosclerosis.

Weight reduction. The objectives of the program of weight reduction in ischemic heart disease is to achieve a body mass index in the range 18.5 — 24.9 kg / m2 abdominal circumference and less than 100 cm in men and less than 90 cm for women. To achieve these figures, it is recommended to increase physical activity, reduce calorie intake, and if necessary, develop a customized weight loss program and stick to it. The first step is to reduce the weight of at least 10% of the original, and maintain it.

If obesity is a strong need to appeal to the specialist dietitian and endocrinologist.

Reducing the consumption of alcohol. According to the latest WHO recommendations adopted by the amount of alcohol does not exceed one bottle of dry wine for a week.

Control of the main indicators

Arterial pressure. If it is correct, it should be checked twice a year. If your blood pressure is high, it is necessary to take action on the recommendation of a physician. Very often requires long-term use of drugs that lower blood pressure. The target pressure level — less than 140/90 mm Hg in humans without concomitant diseases or less 130/90 people with diabetes or renal disease.

Cholesterol levels. Annual screening should include a blood test for cholesterol. If it is raised, it is necessary to begin treatment by a physician.

Blood glucose.  Control the level of blood sugar carefully to the presence of diabetes or addiction to it, in such cases, the constant supervision of a physician endocrinologist.


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