The church is often referred to as the "second power", most of the secular kings took Orthodoxy as a tool for the maintenance of its own tyranny. Power trying not to spoil things with the Orthodox Church. The clergy had privileges, special status. Orthodoxy has always bring to the hard life of the Russian peasant peace of mind and a sense of protection above. Church engaged in charity, in parochial schools children were given initial education. Often she stood up for the offended one way or another, gave his assessment of the political transition, in other words, took an active role in the life of the country.
The Bolsheviks, when they came to power, did not speak frankly with the position of atheism, although their favorites have long lost touch with the religion. The first event does not read as well as of the colossal breaking, to be deployed in the coming years. VI He wrote 20 November 1917 in the appeal "To All Working Moslems of Russia and the East", "Muslims of, the Tatars of the Volga and the Crimea, Kirgiz and Sart Siberia, Turkestan, Turks and Tartars of Transcaucasia, Chechens and Caucasian mountaineers, all those mosques and chapels which were destroyed, beliefs and practices which violated by kings and oppressors of the Russian Federation! From now on your beliefs and customs, your national and cultural institutions are declared free and inviolable. "
One of the first decrees of the Russian government began a decree on the separation of church and state on 23 January 1918 by Sam discover the decree did not carry anti-religious, anti-Catholic colors. In most European countries the church was divided on the country back in the era of bourgeois revolutions. Western society is, certainly secular character. But in most states, the government officially supports those religious organizations that are more in line with national interests and traditions. In the UK — it's Anglican church (Its head is the Queen), Sweden, Norway, Denmark — Lutheran, Spain, Portugal — church, etc. As for the eastern societies, for their inherent inseparability of secular and religious spheres of life. As can be seen, the act of separation of church and state in Russia meant a movement in the western channel.
But this act was perceived in reality became the legal basis of persecution against the church. The first blow came at the Orthodox Church as the official church an old Russia. In addition, there were other churches in areas where there has not been the Bolshevik government. Closure of the temples, the confiscation of church property, executions with pastors have begun already in the first months after the October 1917 Patriarch Tikhon of 13 October 1918 addressed to the CPC with a message in which he wrote: "… the coffers of bishops, priests, monks, and nuns, nor what is not guilty, but simply scapegoating of a vague and uncertain counter-revolutionary. "
On the territory of the pre-revolutionary Russian Federation there were 78 thousand Orthodox churches, 25 thousand mosques, synagogues, more than 6 thousand, 4.4 thousand churches Church, 200 Old Believer churches of Georgia and Armenia. The number of churches in Russia in 1941 decreased by 20 times. Most of the temple was closed in the 30s. By 1938, it was closed for more than 40 thousand prayer houses. It is not only the Orthodox churches, and mosques, synagogues and others in 1935-1936. government forbade the activities of the Synod and "Metropolitan magazine patriarchy." In 25 regions there was no 1st action of the temple, and in 20 different areas of acting 1-5 temples.
Destroyed and priests. VI Lenin, in a hidden annotation of August 19, 1922, said: "The more obscurantist clergy and representatives of the bourgeoisie will obscurantist us about it shoot, the better." So Makar, svyaschennocluzhiteli and the bourgeoisie — they are for the same order of Lenin concepts. This is the case from the standpoint of civilizational identity. Creating a new could be successful only in this case will be destroyed spiritual base, destroyed its carriers.
In 1926 he was created "Alliance for the godless Soviet anti-religious" which then was renamed the "Alliance of militant atheists." The number of members has grown: in 1926 — about 87 thousand people in 1929 — more than 465 thousand, in 1930 — 3.5 million people in 1931 — about 51 million increase in the number of active fighters against religion indicates how quickly destroyed the spiritual sphere. Interestingly, the pro-Western trends in Christianity, in particular, such as Baptists, who seemed stupid and savage, more ruthlessly persecuted. But failed to eliminate religion.
Strangled religious denominations were ogosudarstvleny, subject to the party-state control and performed in his own work only that which is not contrary to the socialist ideology, in other words, in practice, did not work out the separation from the country, as divined Decree 1918 and the subordination of the church to the state.
In an effort to save their own inner world in balance, many people stubbornly held on to the classic religious beliefs. Anti-religious campaign, reaching certain of success, in some cases, cause all sorts of backlash. Illegal material previously Soviet census of 1937 show that, in spite of the obvious fear of commitment to find a religion, a significant part of the population admitted that she believes in God. Of the nearly 30 million illiterate adults (over 16 years) of more than 25 million people (84%) zaregat believers. Of the 68.5 million literate population of 30 million (44%) were also believers.
Generations have grown up in Russian time, had no idea of the role of traditional religions in society, church organizations took action bad. But that part of society that has lost touch with the classical religion, took the latest. Here was its attributes: reddish corners, monuments and portraits of leaders, etc. Its rites, its dogma. Marxism-Leninism was only the outer membrane, and is often hid classic for the RF values.
The idea of the messianic, salvific role of the Russian Federation was transformed into the idea of the Soviet Union as the vanguard of world revolution, which should pave the way for the future of all people, assist them in this difficult journey. Internationalism actually turned a basis for tight Russification policies, the imposition of the Russian standard. The leaders, who were seen as the media and commentators higher values also turned into an object of worship. The process charismatization leaders immediately turned around and gained strength during the consolidation of the Bolshevik Party in power. Evenly VI Lenin turned into a charismatic favorite, and then, after the death, was canonized as a new Christ or Prophet Mohammed.
VI Lenin always conducted himself as a prophet, surrounded by his disciples and followers, and not as a favorite political party. It is common knowledge that he was not born in the Bolshevik Party, and in its own surrounded by people who were not agree with him, showed the i
ndependence of judgment and behavior. Hence the constant schisms, exclusion, disengagement, since the II Party Congress and the rest of his life.
Formation kind of charismatic leader began after the Bolsheviks came to power. But while Lenin managed small. In the full sense of a charismatic leader, he was practically a god after death. "Lenin lived, Lenin was alive, Lenin will live!" — This slogan could be met on the streets of the capital, and in malehankih village. What is not "Christ is risen!"
The new leader of the IV Stalin was a substitution as a faithful disciple, faithful Leninist. His charismatization occurred in the 30s. He became a god during his lifetime. Throughout his portrait hung in the towns and villages were erected monuments. His naming were called the town, streets, schools, factories, collective farms, divisions, regiments, etc. Press praised the leader. Here are the lines from the pages of the newspaper "Pravda". January 8, 1935: "Long live the one whose genius led us to unprecedented success — stately organizer wins Russian authorities, dignified leader, friend and teacher — our Stalin". March 8, 1939: "Let him live his father, long live our dear father — Stalin the sun!"
The deification of leaders appropriated the "sanctity" of the regime. In the public mind, this meant the adoption of new values and new topical guidelines. The system, which to a large extent kept on violence, regained the spiritual foundation.
Typically, during the war, was made a bet on the Russian people. Russian patriotism has become an important source of victory. By constantly addressing the topic of the Russian IV Staiin, especially in the first, a more difficult period of the war, Nov. 6, 1941, he read about the inability to overcome the "… majestic Russian civilization, the civilization of Plekhanov and Lenin, Belinsky and Chernyshevsky, Pushkin and Tolstoy … Suvorov and Kutuzov" .
Christianity has always carried the charge of high moral strength, which is especially important was during the war. In religion, drew comfort and strength for living and working in the most difficult criteria of the war. The Russian Orthodox Church called for humility and patience, of charity and brotherhood. War showed the best features of the Russian Orthodox Church.
In 1943 he had established the Order of Alexander Nevsky, Suvorov, Mikhail Kutuzov, the other prominent Russian generals, admirals, introduced George Ribbon, returned to the pre-revolutionary form of the Russian army. Orthodoxy has gained tremendous freedom than other denominations. Already 22 June 1941 the Patriarchal Locum Tenens Metropolitan Sergius made an appeal to believers, calling to defend the homeland with a gun in hand, to take part in the collection of funds for the defense.
A number of telegrams representatives of the Orthodox clergy with messages about the transfer of money for the defense in the first months of the war appeared on the pages of major newspapers "Pravda" and "Izvestia", the same information was given on the work of the Orthodox Church, published a biography of the newly elected Patriarch Sergius and Alexis. In other words, the patriotic activities of the Church and newspaper coverage recognized by the government. Liberated from the camps 10s clergy, including six archbishops and five bishops.
At Easter 1942 in Moscow were allowed unrestricted movement around the town for the night. In 1942 in Ulyanovsk was built first in the entire war Council of Bishops. In spring 1943, the government provides access to the icon of Our Lady of the Iberian mother, who was brought from a closed Donskoi Monastery to worship at Resurrection Church in Moscow.
During the period from 1941 to 1944. Church brought it to the defense fund of the country more than 200 million rubles. In the first years of the war as the temples of Moscow has raised over three million rubles for the war and defense. In the temples of Leningrad collected 5.5 million rubles. The church community of Nizhny Novgorod for the years 1941-1942 to the defense fund collected more than four million rubles. Novosibirsk diocese for the first six months of 1944 brought together the needs of the war-time about 2-million rubles. The money raised by the Church to have been made air squadron of the Alexander Nevsky and the tank column of the Dmitry Donskoy.
Here are some examples. Lord of Bartholomew, Archbishop of Novosibirsk and Barnaul, urged people to donate to the needs of the army, performing worship in the temples of Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Barnaul, Tyumen, Omsk, Tobolsk, Byisk and other cities. Fees were going to buy warm clothes for the soldiers, the contents of hospitals and orphanages, to restore areas damaged during the German occupation and to help disabled veterans.
Metropolitan Alexy of Leningrad remained with his own flock in the besieged Leningrad throughout the siege. "… Lights the hearts of men the spirit of unity and animation, which is now living the whole Russian people" — says his appeal to the faithful on Palm Sunday.
4th September 1943 meeting between Stalin and accomplished senior hierarchs of the Orthodox Church. It marked warming in relations between the government and the church. Regime decided to use the classic religion to mobilize the forces and resources in the fight against the enemy outside. By order of the IV Stalin was tasked to "Bolshevik pace" to return normal practice of religion. It was also decided to develop a theological academies in Moscow, Kiev and Leningrad. Stalin agreed with the pastors on the need to release the church books. When the patriarch was decided to form the Holy Synod of the three immutable and three temporary members. A decision on the formation of the Council for the Russian Orthodox Church.
In general it should be noted that war significantly and positively influenced the affairs between the Orthodox Church and the Russian government. After the war, the People's Commissariat of Education issued a decree on the preferential admission of soldiers in schools. In this case, the church followed the decision of the authorities in the seminary while many highly trained soldiers. For example, ID Pavlov, the future Archimandrite Kirill, he became confessor to the Patriarch and Metropolitan of All Russia Alexy II.
During the war, the people there were a legend that during the coming to Moscow, in the plane positioned Tikhvin icon of the Moms, the plane flew around Moscow and sanctified borders, as in the Old Rus', when on the battlefield often carried the icon of the Lord to protect the country. Even if it was false information, people believed it, and if you were expecting something like this from the government.
At the front, often before the fight fighters overshadowed the cross — asking God to protect them. Most of the accepted orthodoxy as the national religion. Recognizable Marshal Zhukov before the fight with the soldiers was: "Well, with God." The people kept the tradition that Zhukov drove the directions Kazan icon of Our Lady of Moms.
In the "time of change" (1917-1941 gg.) Shall be removed from the Bolsheviks of the Russian classical religion. But durin
g the war, "the time to gather stones", it was necessary to go back to time immemorial Russian, traditions helped unite people through a common history and a common confession. It is well aware and Hitler. One of his instructions say that the Nazis should prevent exposure of one church on a large area, but the emergence of sects in the occupied territories as a form of division and separation, should be encouraged.
Stalin did not organize the Church revival, he held back his. In the Pskov region before the arrival of the Germans had 3 of the temple, and the return of Russian troops, there were 200. In the Kursk region to the Germans was 2, it was — 282, but in the Tambov region, where Russian power was constantly and had 3 of the temple. Thus, the first 18 temples were allowed to open only after almost six months after the meeting between Stalin and the metropolitans of the Council of Ministers Decree 5 February 1944. And the total number of invocations of believers on the opening of churches collected in the years 1944-1947, the Council of Ministers granted only 17%.
16 November 1948 Synod was forced to make a decision on prohibiting convert preaching in churches in the lessons of the Law of God for children. Moreover, in the late 40's — early 50's temples were again selected by clubs and warehouses. In 1951, during harvesting exclusively in the Kursk region on the orders of the executive committees of about 40 buildings were temples in operation for many months bombarded with grain. Were persecuted perform religious rituals Communists and Komsomol members. Went a brand new wave of arrests of active priests. For example, in September 1948, was arrested for the seventh time, Archbishop Manuel (Lemeshevsky). If on January 1, 1949, there were 14,447 officially open the Orthodox churches, by 1 January 1952 the number decreased to 13 786 (120 of whom did not act because of their use for the storage of grain).
During and after the war, Stalin's policy in relation to the Church knew two fractures. Now recall the positive more often fractured 1943-1944 years, but we should not forget the new "Ice Age" that began with the second half of 1948. Stalin wanted to make Moscow Orthodox Vatican, the center of all the Orthodox churches in the world. But in July 1948 Pan-Orthodox Conference (with the role and the Metropolitan Elias) to the expected result in the Kremlin does not lead: the hierarchy of churches caught in the removal of Russian tanks (first Greece and Turkey) have shown intransigence. And Stalin, realizing that in global politics religious life, he will not be able to use, dramatically lost interest in church affairs. So, mercantile pragmatism of Stalin's church policy during the war and immediate transition to new persecutions in 1948, they say that no ideological crisis, appeals, return to the faith, Stalin was not.
For the conduct of religious policy in the occupied areas the Nazis responded several departments — Confessions of a special ministry to the right of the military command and the Gestapo. In the occupied territories, first the war, the Germans allowed churches to their activities. Some priests perceived fascist culture, citing the fact that in Russia the church was persecuted. Still, most of the clergy showed themselves during the war humbly zapamyatyvaya past wrongs. The Germans finished the opening practice of churches as priests performed patriotic sermons among the population. Now the priests were beaten and shot.
The Orthodox Church had merged with the secular authorities in the fight against the fascists. Declared holy war, liberation, and the Church has blessed this war. In addition to the real help, the Church of the moral support of people at the front and in the rear. At the front, believed in the miraculous power of icons and the sign of the cross. Prayers acted as spiritual solace. Tylovikov in prayer asking God to protect the family from death. The Orthodox Church had brought a large contribution to the general Soviet struggle against the Nazis during the war, Russian majestically. The situation in the Russian Orthodox Church at the time of the Russian Federation strengthened. But power followed, first, their interests, and it was only a temporary strengthening. Ordinary people also often believed in God and had pinned hopes on him as a support above.