The cost of skulls. 65 years ago ended in Nuremberg Tribunal of Nazi doctors

May 1945. North Westphalia, occupied by the Yankees. At night the bridge are holding a convoy of soldiers — three "jeep" and 5 armored personnel carriers. They said that on the other side of the river — the German "Panther". Some scraps of an SS Panzer Regiment jumped at one point to the bridge, thought to cross, and the bridge is already ours. We tell them: Germany surrendered, the war is over, give up, to which the victim? They take counsel, but did not seem to believe, are preparing for a breakthrough …

Meeting on the Bridge

Vegetarian column — is not just. This is a consequence of being taken to the 1st pillar of the Reich, the chapter on "Labor Front" Nazi Robert Ley. Lay offers responsible for shipping Colonel Harrison: I'm going to let the tanks truce and say that you miss them. Because guys have nothing to lose, hit — all swept away. I did not run away, my family — you. And then let the wheel, where the desire. Will not go far. Harrison agrees.
In the middle of tankers — tired, Zapyataev, embittered — Lei suddenly sees a sudden character. Dr. August Hirt, shturmbannfyurera, the head of the Anatomical Institute of the SS, managing medical software company "Ahnenerbe." Creator of the famous collection of skulls, showing the differences and advantages of some races over others. Where there? Hirt looks at the crazy eyes of Leah: I'm saving collection! Pulls to one of the "Panthers" of the boxes gets the skull, sticks under his breath, look, priceless artifacts! How annoying would it sounds, part of the "exhibits" — fresh, full treatment did not have time to go from their nauseating smell. Hirt does not notice, but the crew was looking at him with hatred in the car all the stinking, we go with open hatches. Leigh asks the commander: what for you is it? He shrugs crazy professor said that skulls are not cheap, and I have commanded lower just in case. Suddenly tomorrow who will want to buy!

About skipping SPG can agree. In the darkness they came roaring rush past. From one moment to be heard mixed with the smell of gasoline smelly spirit Hirth "artifacts" — and Leia began to vomit uncontrollably. All life — in vain! Germany in ruins, millions of lives ruined, we curse the whole world — and for what it was? To prove that a skull rather the other?

1st of the following

We rehearsed one of the most powerful scenes in the novel, the writer (and unchanging creator of the "Academy"), Lena Syanovoy "To each his own." After two years with a small staff naizloveschego Dr. Hirt had to listen to the verdicts at Nuremberg "Doctors of the process." He ended 65 years ago — August 20, 1947

In general, "the trial of the doctors" — the first of a series of processes to proceed after the trial of the major Nazi offenders. Later were "trial judge" (Nazi legal bureaucrats), the tribunal in the "case Krupp", the tribunal over the command of the Wehrmacht — a whole string. But started with doctors. Why? Previously gathered evidence base? Either very yavna situation itself? People most humane profession deliberately thrust humanity for the sake of solving their own problems.

Hirt on the dock was not. I managed to escape. And who was that? 23 people — doctors "experimenters" who worked in the concentration camps and the honey of the highest ranking bureaucrats (like Karl Brandt, Hitler's personal doctor, and Reich Minister of Health — he was tried for the deployment of a "program of T-4" — is forced euthanasia crazy).

Applied puzzles

The accused was charged in a military trespasses and sins against humanity, expressed in the form "medical crimes." These have been recognized: the killing of prisoners in order to replenish the anatomical collection of A. Hirt (official — "a collection of skeletons Institute in Strasbourg"), the development and implementation of programs of forced sterilization and euthanasia (not required Reich were all sorts of crazy and racially inferior, they had to be put to death or deny the ability of the fetus), a series of ruthless enforcement of tests that were carried out with the application goals.

What is meant? Well, for example, a study commissioned by the Luftwaffe. The pilot shot down somewhere over the Arctic Sea. The plane falls from a great height. Parachute jump. How the body reacts to the pressure difference? How many will be able to sustain the body in ice water? What should be the design life jacket? That the pilot will drink — because sea water all around? After the rescue — what procedures are needed, so that the body quickly returned the supercooled temperature normal? ..

As such, questions were put to himself entirely reasonable. Answers to find them (and seek out) doctors in many countries. Just in Nazi Germany to the solution of all problems came up in the Nazi. And here too smooth a logical link between the search for answers to specific medical questions and cutting off heads in the name of theorizing Dr. Hirt.

Honey atrocities

The difficulty of the body to respond to the sharp pressure drop? Well … At Dachau equipped with pressure chamber, in which the conditions are simulated drop. In it are driven guinea — concentration camp prisoners. Of the approximately 70 200 people were killed.

Stay in the icy water? Put in the experimental bath with floating ice. Or naked in the snow. Later, we check that quickly returns promorozhennaya (if still breathing) to life. Burning bath? Unmount herbal infusions? Living warmth laid next to the ladies (also out of the prison)? What to drink the pilot, floating in the sea water? We have two options for desalination products. Take the control group (44 inmates of Buchenwald), hold no water, but desalination of ASIC products. We'll see who survives.

The same unpretentious technique — in tests of pharmaceuticals, from tuberculosis, typhoid, hepatitis. Also, when looking for protection against chemical warfare gases — phosgene and mustard gas. We take prisoners. Infect them. Or grass — when it came to gas. (When tested varieties streptotsida — cause gangrene.) Enjoying the survivors. And who did not survive … Well, why clutter up your head about all sorts of ideas "racially inferior" but the enemy of the Reich!
Note: specifically, after the "process of physicians' was adopted by the" Nuremberg Code "- a set of international rules governing the procedure for medical tests. This is the lesson for the future. Implies a strictly voluntary on the part of the subjects. Fully informed about their health status, interrupt the test in case of deterioration. Insurance … One of the most important documents of medical ethics.

Fanatic pathologies

Writer Lena SYANOVA — for "AN":
— For me, August Hirt — the scientist-type fanatics who are important only his ideas — and then even if the grass does not grow! In Nazi Germany, he came to the court completely.

Hirt started with the case fully worthy: himself a fighter of the First World, he found an antidote for mustard gas. Conducted experiments to discover, came to the clinic. A mustard gas in the First World was poisoned by Hitler. He reported: doctor — Yesterday soldier almost died trying to save themselves from the gas with which you, the Fuhrer, so bitterly familiar. After that career Hirt was provided. He continued to experiment, but already experimented on concentration camp convicts. People are dying, going blind …

His "anatomical collection" Hirt created on orders of Himmler (in general, the enthusiasm was mutual.) "Materi
al" also came from the concentration camps. On the "course of physicians' understood the fact of murder for the sake of updating of the collection 88 prisoners of Dachau. Hirt also cooperated with the heads of the various camps, such as Bergen-Belsen. In addition, the materials Nuremberg figured Hirt signed document to the Eastern Front: in our collection of skulls lack of "Jewish-Bolshevik commissars," that's abstract, as separate from the body. Sam Hirt explained that apart from anthropological skull-racial goals he needs in connection with the research work of all kinds of pathologies.

The degree of guilt

Medics tried Americans. Were heard by witnesses, prosecutors, lawyers, defendant was given the last word.
Seven people were sentenced to be hanged. 5 — to indefinite detention. Four — to long terms. Seven were acquitted — minor participants in the events and those whose experiences did not cause casualties.

Indefinite no one fully served. Sentenced to terms came out a few years. People recognized the Nazi offenders in West Germany after doctors successfully operated, kept their own clinics, someone got a premium honey, some continued research in the U.S. Air Force.
But somehow they have responded. A conversation would be incomplete if we do not remember those who went from legal retribution. Too, is emblematic characters.

Dr. Josef Mengele, the "Angel of Death" of Auschwitz …

Dr. Sigmund Rascher, who began his experiments with hypothermia (hypothermia). Outstanding figure — a staunch Nazi, who even his own father sent to a concentration camp. But fame is not it. Rascher was married to an old friend of Himmler, the lady much older than himself. We had three of their children. It was believed that Dr. Rascher experiments in the field of gynecology, and that's the result — so fundamental to improve the demographic situation in the Reich! Later there was a scandal at the Munich train station someone tried to steal the baby, and police arrested a felon. It turned out — Frau rusher. It turned out the lady set off on the topic of their own infertility. Therefore, the spouse at Buchenwald simply took babies that are born in the camp-fitting ladies (at one time he had the chance), and the couple rusher presented them as their own. For the "deception of the Reich," the doctor was sent to Dachau. Killed by security for a day before the Americans came to the camp.

In the end, Dr. August Hirt, we started with a story. This finding to the end of the 1950s, later finished by coming to the conclusion — was shot in June 1945.

Lena Syanova — for "AN", "Do I believe it? I believe you. Hirt was a fanatic. Not only the fanatical Nazi, and fanatic of what he did. Such a man could not sit quietly somewhere in Latin America. He needs the scale and favorite bloody business. "

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