January 7, 2012 6:45
The Hammer of Witches — is the authoritative text, which people used to understand what the magic and understand this phenomenon. In the 16th and 17th centuries at about 30,000 copies of "The Hammer of Witches" is distributed in Europe like the plague. Over time, the idea of the book and reach up to the New World. By the end of the epidemic witch hunt thanks to this book about 60 000 victims were sent to the stake.
But as the hammer of witches could gain such a bad name and be so dangerous? This book is not invented a witch hunt. The first big trials against witches began in Europe a century earlier. And other theologians wrote texts that condemn a witch hunt, but to this day, although it has been more than 500 years, no other book on witchcraft does not have that reputation. No other book reading and discussing as rapidly as the hammer of witches. What is the secret of the immortal heritage of this book that made it such an influential and popular? Processes witch hunt 16-17 centuries inspired ideas popularized by the hammer of witches.
Why hammer witches had such power? The first fact over 500 years. They are one of the most famous witch hunters in history, to a man whom some called abnormal and even crazy.
1485, Innsbruck, Austria. Two of the defendants in the practice of black magic — in witchcraft. Their alleged crime — nasylanie curses on adulterers, use spells and potions to cause disease or death. Per woman brunt charges. Leadership of the process it takes a visiting inquisitor and ignites scandal. He asks her about the sexual acts committed under the influence of the devil, and insists that the sexual promiscuity — is the main key to its magical power. Something unexpected defender, who was sent by the local bishop. He accuses the visitor Inquisitor in adult and lawless behavior. It requires that all charges were dropped. Newcomer Inquisitor leaves Innsbruck, as his process failed. His name is Henry Kramer, a Latin name — Institoris — famous inquisitor and the future author of The Hammer of Witches.
1486. Still smarting from defeat in Innsbruck, Heinrich Kramer begins work on a book that proves that witches led by weakness and lust, that they — the vessels through which the devil takes on flesh, that witches should be destroyed and burned. This will be a major statement of Henry Kramer. Book revenge forever silence their critics and convinced him of his words the entire world. It will become a reference book of the Witch Hunters. The greatest achievement of the Cramer that he had taken the place of one man and made it to the cause. One possible reason influential hammer witches that for centuries, this book was considered blessed by the church. But what is obvious at first glance, may be misleading.
Papal Bull — a document, because of which the most powerful witch hammer approval received from the church. Bull declaration signed by the Pope and sets the official doctrine of the church. This bull about witches remains one of the most notorious in history. It articulates two important facts. First, it warns against witches. Bull describes what witchcraft and what do the witches, as by magic, they unleash hail and storms, as do people and animals infertile, as they kill and maim. And second, it gives official sanction to Henry Kramer witch hunt.
It is hard to imagine the power that had a papal bull. She urged readers that witches exist and that witches have been blessed hammer greatest spiritual leaders of the day.
Kramer does everything he can to prove that witches exist and that they are very, very dangerous. Witches Hammer details the dangers of witchcraft, clairvoyance, conspiracies, unleash deadly diseases, kidnapping and sacrificing babies; nasylanie weather, acts of cannibalism and blood drinking, flying through the air, witches committed to meet with the demon-spouse to attend the ceremony, and black magic — Sabbath. In his book, Kramer also includes examples of a witch hunt from the experience. A sensational trial became his standard.
This process came to his humiliation in Innsbruck. He sees it as an ideal prosecution of witches, fatal.
1484, Ravensburg, Germany. Hail ravaged the whole district. The purported reason — witchcraft. In court, 8 women were tried local authorities and Heinrich Kramer. The case comes to the favorite punishment of the inquisitor — hanging on the rack. Bound the wrists of the victim hanging for so long that your hands often go out of joint pits. In the end, according to Cramer, two women confessed to witchcraft. Henry Kramer gives the order to burn alive those women. For him, it Ravensburgskoe it was a great success. Two years later, he describes the process in his book The Witch of Ravensburg committed atrocities in their words, in the name of the devil and all the other demons. But Kramer was afraid that his own recommendations would be enough to sell a book. To convince readers he needs illustrious co.
In fact, all editions of the book The Hammer of Witches indicate two authors — Kramer and professor of the prestigious University of Cologne Jacob Sprenger. Jacob Sprenger was one of the leaders of the Dominican Friars in Germany. Some experts believe that Sprenger not configured in the Malleus Maleficarum, besides the preface, and others — that the famous scientist acted as literary adviser. There are those historians who believe that Sprenger had nothing to do with the book, and Kramer just forged the name of the famous scientist.
By the end of 1486 Witches Hammer was completed. Reference guide, further-reaching than any other book that was created before him — a book about the dangers of witches. One of the fundamental problems of witchcraft — that it does not make much sense. This whole idea of conspiracy out devil, that God allows Satan to give these women a supernatural power, does not sound very plausible. A hammer witch clearly describes how it works and why God does. The book provides evidence that witches exist.
To achieve its goal, the book is divided into three parts. Part one — philosophical arguments to prove the existence of witches. Part Two (a guide for clergy) — how to recognize witchcraft in your community. Part Three — the official guide, a practical guide for the prosecution, the prosecution and capital punishment of witches.
To understand the extraordinary influence Hammer of Witches, scientists are investigating how the witches were treated before and after the appearance of this book. Single cases of accusations of witchcraft began to occur during the time of the early Middle Ages. First European splash witch hunt occurred in the mid-14th century, 100 years before the hammer of witches. With the spread of fear of witchcraft, and change attitudes. What began as an attempt to eradicate pagan magic nasylanie weather sorcery and practical magic, turns into a more virulent hatred. Witch of the Gentiles are heretics-Satanists.
"Witches — a sign of the apocalypse. All of them will be thrown in the last day in hell. " Institoris dyavolopoklonnichestvo binds to the apocalyptic end of the world fear. God is so angry with witchcraft heresy that first he allows Satan to help witches do the crime, but then will our world for the end of the world, and it will happen sooner rather than later — so he wrote in his book Institoris.
After the publication and distribution of the hammer of witches, cruel witch hunt began in Northern Europe, bringing terror in Switzerland, France, Germany and other countries. Witches Hammer makes popular new scourge trials, torture and the death penalty.
1563, Vizmshteyk, Germany. Less than a century has passed since one of the most notorious of the processes described in the Malleus Maleficarum — the so-called Ravensburgskogo hail. The same accusation appears again. This time, the famous gentleman gathers a group of women and accuse them of the same crime — in connection with the devil for nasylaniya hail destroyed the crops. Launched known landowner, this process brings two critical elements necessary for a witch hunt — panic and protection. Women tortured. Inquisitors, consult a reference book of a witch hunt, they know that torture — this is the most convincing way to get a witch to confess. Torture is used to "witch" named his accomplices. Among the worst instruments of torture was an iron helmet that fits over the head and screw, breaking the bones of the skull, breaking his hand rack and thumbscrew. Processes in Vizmshteke lasted for months. In total, more than 60 women confessed and were burned.
Suspected of witchcraft were mostly peasant women. Some of these people were treated with herbs, others had unusual abilities, some were mentally ill, and many are poor. Their only crime was poverty. According to the Malleus Maleficarum weakest are the most dangerous.
Analyzing psychology processes witch hunt, historians agree that for two centuries, transforming doubt crimes hammer witches transformed misogyny, paranoia and fear of a terrible organization. By the late 18th century, according to some estimates the total number of victims of a witch hunt composes 40 to 60 thousand.
In the dark history of witchcraft comes through one unforgettable figure — Heinrich Kramer (Institoris).