F-117 and U-2. You probably know them: the first — superbombardirovschik invisible, second — …
If you, the reader pochetaemy, hope meet here the story of the famous high-rise Scout U-2 "Dragon Lady", that must disappoint you: that the U-2, which will be discussed below, only just perkalevy biplane design NN Polikarpov.
"Stealth" and "corn-cob" — two famous aircraft that have become favorites of the whole people. About their shot rolls of films and books written by the library.
The principal South American programm to create an invisible plane — a resounding debut and just loud end, with running on television personnel shot down "Invisible Man." Naizloveschy dark plane, quintessence of modern
NanoInnovative technologies and solutions, has turned to the end of a career in a global laughingstock. Just surprisingly, many were able to make some noise 64 aircraft "Naythouk" (including models).
Second current character — anecdotal "Russian-plywood", took off for the first time in 1928. Ordinary, like a chip, a biplane with a 100-horsepower engine — reliable and easy to operate, capable of landing on any "patch" issued a circulation of 30 thousand copies.
But on closer inspection the two cars, despite a half-century age difference, are more alike than you could imagine. "Naythouk" and "corn-cob" — just twins. Take your time to twist a finger to his temple …
Development «Stealth» — a set of measures reducing the visibility of military vehicles in the radar, infrared and other areas of the range of detection, allowing to reduce the possibility of finding constructive battle machine and so to improve its survival. The creators of F-117 sought to reduce all, without exception, unmasking the causes of aircraft: the ability to reflect radar radiation, most exude electric waves, produce a sound, smoky and leave contrails.
Switching the lights faded away on the wings of "stealth" was moved inside the antenna housing a radio altimeter shut down and the defendant "friend or foe" — dark as pitch F-117 dissolved in anthracite black sky over enemy territory.
The enemy will see "Naythouk" only when the opened sash bombolyuka break EPR super-bombers — F-117 will shine in the night sky like a star of the first magnitude. It's too late! — Bombs are dropped on the target. Flame Blast splits the night, snatching a moment of darkness faceted profile racing clouds above the bottom edge of the "stealth". F-117 quickly "cover their tracks", the system turns off the laser target illumination and dark plane disappears again into the night sky.
The whole operation takes about 20 seconds. Duration of anti-aircraft missiles mode of preparation of C-200 (including electronics, promotion gyros) — 1 minute. First 80s of the F-117 had a good chance to sneak away from retribution.
As a result — 1 to combat the loss of 3,000 sorties. The main goal of "Naythouka" — objects with a strong defense. In all this is a question of an awkward subsonic aircraft, without a defensive weapon and a low vitality! On the "Naythouke" was not even a back-mechanical control systems, as failure of electronics man still was not able to manage the "lame dwarf."
F-117 "Naythouk" was lost somewhere in the middle of the stars in the night sky and suddenly a quiet, almost weightless rustle …
— Hans, did not you hear?
— Heinz, relax, it's only a Russian vodka.
— No, there's something there. I clearly heard the sound — like a big bird wing flap.
Heinz leapt to his feet and began to stare intently at star-studded velvet sky, as if he felt like a night on the heights of his eyes staring attentively death. About a year back, Heinz heard chilling story — grizzled sergeant, told how at one point, NIGHT MODE, lying in a trench near Vladikavkaz, one of his colleagues struck a match — and a second trench in the Russian bomb fell, crushing a hapless smoker. Fortunately, it did not explode — and then they heard from the sky clicks. Women clicks!
Here Heinz saw his own invisible enemy — one by one blinked stars of "Bucket" Ursa Major, in a moment went out and broke out again bright orange Arcturus. "Shayze …" — Heinz and pale ass to the ground. Flame Blast raskalola night, snatching a moment of darkness profile rushing through the trees "stack." Fallen Hans and Heinz have not heard rumbled up the engine, carrying the East Russian bomber night. How did you first raced girlish voice echoing, "Fritz! Get behind Tanya Makarova and Vera Belik ».
46th (Taman) Guards Night Bomber Aviation Regiment, more recognizable as "Dunkin regiment", performed majestically over the years Russian War 23 thousand sorties! "Night Witches" rained down on the heads of the Nazis three million pounds of bombs!
Martial loss regiment — 32 people. Taking into account that the crew of the U-2 consists of 2 persons, Fritz managed to bring down the entire war less than 2-10-s "Russians fanerov"! Throughout the war the regiment never left to re-form. And despite the fact that:
— Rakobolskaya IV, Kravtsov NF — "We called the night witches"
Here now, behold! No armor, no radio, no sights, and often without a parachute. The only defensive weapon — TT pistols. The intensity of the night bomber was so high that the girls were doing immediately after 6-10 sorties per night. And yet — the U-2 "Dunkinogo regiment" had only one loss to a thousand sorties! — Survival 10s times higher than the front edge of armored attack of IL-2.
Realizing that their main tool — stealth, fighter pilot of all their might to reduce the possibility of detection of aircraft — on the other, the end! The bombardment of German positions often used a special strategy: the U-2 was doing "hook" and shut down the engine, silently planning on the part of the enemy's target areas. Dropping bombs, the plane engine cut in and, without turning around, went down to th
e side with its own airfield. Faster, faster, until the Germans came to their senses and opened heavy fire in all directions.
But from time to time the disaster occurred — German searchlight beam case snatch "bookcase" from the darkness of the night, and then the "heavenly slug" was doomed. Pilots with a tremor in his voice, recalled how on the way to the goal, beheld floundering helplessly with searchlight beams airplane of their regiment. And from him stretched carnivorous band tracers …
Correctly chosen strategy means almost everything — "Stealth" and "corn-cob" great acting nights, but both were contraindicated to climb into the sky in broad day or. In general, perkalevy U-2 still had a definite advantage in air combat — a very low rate. Very much!
April 15, 1953 the South American jet interceptor F-94 "Starfire" spotted a North Korean U-2, carrying courier functions on the front line … Do you think that South American pilot was an easy target and generous merit of their own leaders? At the moment!
"Starfire" poorly cut circles around slowly floating "shelves" until, in the end, not thrown off speed below 180 km / h, causing lost control and crashed. Funny loss recognized by the American side.
During the Korean War, the Americans noted the great difficulty of interception "corncob" — even showed radars could not distinguish so special designs with the lowest metal content. A very low rate of successful interception did a very confusing exercise.
Miracles do not happen. A successful military career U-2 is explained with 2 factors: the skill of pilots and the fact that of the combat aircraft at the time required a little. A simple U-2 is one hundred percent fit to its status of "night bomber", becoming, in the end, in the 1st of the most effective night bomber second world war.
The creators of "stealth" had even harder — The epoch of radars and thermal imagers are not allowed to be constructed from the funds are on hand effective stealth aircraft. At this point, 30 years later, became known to some details of the history of the creation of the F-117 "Naythouk" — numerous facets implemented in the architecture of the aircraft, the radar scatter radiation in the opposite direction — which side do not irradiate "Naythouk" is "distorting mirror" reflect the rays away from the radar antenna. Sawtooth edges of all joints, electrically conductive coating canopy, mesh grilles on vozduhozabrnikah, ferromagnetic paint and coverings, the specially shaped nozzles forming a "flat" jet stream for a quick cooling of exhaust gases — in the end, when irradiated by radar, the reflected radiation F-117 difficult to distinguish from background noise, and "dangerous sector" so narrow that the radar can not learn from them rather disk imaging.
In the end, the creators of "stealth" task was the creation of a modern combat aircraft with a massive sighting and navigation system, which is able to deliver at transonic speeds of 2 tons of bombs over a distance of 800 km.
Since the main problem in the development of the F-117 was associated with the provision of stealth aircraft, the implementation of such a moderate flight hell did not cause particular problems: despite its own magnificent view, the engines' Naythouka "were borrowed from everyday multipurpose fighter F/A-18, the elements of the control system — from the F-16 and an old training aircraft T-33 (made in the late 40s), and elements of the electronic system of the aircraft — from transport C-130 "Hercules". By the way, the technology itself stealth (ferromagnetic inks, coatings canopy, etc.) were taken from the extensive recognizable SR-71 and U-2 (which is high-altitude spy).
— Pilot concise answer to all disturbances Head Airport
Night piloting the U-2 and F-117 is like driving a car with closed eyes. First, because of its own innate primitiveness, was stripped of some complex instrumentation and navigation equipment. Available in the U-2 pilot was only 5 major aviation devices: compass, gyro horizon (determines angles and pitch), speedometer, altimeter (barometric altitude indicator), and vertical speed indicator (vertical speed indicator aircraft). Indications of these simple devices provide a complete picture of the position of the aircraft in space. When tribute skill, pilot, guided by these testimonies can (and should!) Lead plane blind. Night sortie: Takeoff, flight on this route, guided prompts navigator and using non-rich landmarks, the bombing, the return to their area — seen looking skyward spotlight — is there own airfield. That's it!
Naturally, the criteria of extreme stress, in full darkness, and in the absence of radio, at some point it could not end well — on the night of April 10, 1943 penetrating the airplane Lida Svistunova and Pauline Makagon faced standing on the tarmac other bombers . In the terrible tragedy of the death of three pilots, the fourth — Hiuaz Dospanova was saved miraculously.
One can only wonder the courage of the girls, who for 10 times a night, for a thousand days of the war, flying on their own "bookcases" in the black darkness of the linear front.
The situation with the F-117 "Naythouk" is even more interesting — during combat missions pilots were strictly forbidden to use the radio all operations directly to the in-flight refueling made in the criteria for radio silence. It was impossible to include the radio altimeter. Until recently, the Indescribable, but super-aircraft already in the beginning … there was no radar! — Take advantage of the radar was stupid, otherwise "Naythouk" lose stealth.
Despite the powerful set of tools to collect passive disk imaging, high-quality devices, "night vision" and inertial RAARS to return to the airfield based in automatic mode, night flying the F-117 were associated with a greater risk: a minimum of three "Night Hawk" broke in the face with natural handicaps. For example, May 10, 1995 F-117 aircraft, controlled by the U.S. Air Force Captain Kenneth Levens, during the execution of a night flight lost orientation and collided with the mountain terrain of New Mexico. The pilot died.
account the complexity of night flights, frisky changing circumstances and special conditions of local wars, F-117 more than once had to perform combat missions during daylight hours. The main condition similar operation — the complete domination of NATO in the air. In this case, the F-117 had a great chance to fool enemy radar and get unnoticed to the target, and the high altitude of the flight gave an additional guarantee of protection from the visual detection and destruction of anti-aircraft fire.
In every joke there is some truth. Concept creation unobtrusive attack aircraft F-117 and facilitated the training (multi-) U-2 biplane was completely different, as well as their age and level of technology. Yet, gaze at from the standpoint of night bombing, we litsezreem almost 100% similarity in the use of these aircraft, divided between a half centuries.