Katigorichnye changes that occur in the world, the emergence of complex and sometimes difficult to predict situations demanded control of foreign countries of the world’s leading public review of military doctrines, strategic concepts and related views on military construction and use of armed forces. With all of this control many of the leading countries of the world come to the conclusion that to ensure the public interest in the evolving international situation criteria fully justified to resort to the danger of introduction of military force to direct its purpose.
Each government is reforming its armed forces on the basis of national interests and views on the conduct of war. One of the main trends of recent years has been actively carrying out the command of the armed forces of a complex of measures to transfer parts and controls of the Ground Forces to the latest organizational structure, also to equip them promising types of weapons, military and special equipment with a view to achieving their victory in all military conflicts (operations ) XXI century. A similar task is solved in the Russian Armed Forces. Of course, that effective solutions for its advisable to adopt all advanced developing in this area, more appropriate Russian realities. Consider the example of this thesis to analyze the experience of reforming the Armed Forces of the United States.
Brigade Combat power
Development of the Land Forces of the United States takes place in accordance with the applets «Army 21», developed under the concept of building the armed forces of the United States, received the name «United forces» and for the period until 2015. The purpose of ongoing large-scale reorganization is the creation of so called expeditionary ground forces capable of frisky on the transfer and deployment of remote theaters (TMD), also for the immediate commencement of hostilities and maintaining them for a long time without any additional means to strengthen and support.
Base combat power of new formations of land forces brigades constitute the latest organizational structure, kitted out with new weapons and military equipment and able to independently or as part of larger operational units perfectly solve tasks assigned to them to ensure that the public interest in the United States at least some part of the world.
It should at all be noted that in the process of reorganization of the U.S. Army organizational structure teams lead to one reference method of reducing the number of types from 7 to 3: languid, light and mechanized brigades of the «Stryker». Brand new structure teams views on the South American command should eventually allow excellent liking to do different tasks — from doing the «classic» fighting to the role in peacekeeping operations and activities to combat terrorism — as a part of their own divisions or tactical formations and entirely without the help of others.
The most powerful languid Brigade U.S. Army includes its own management team composition (headquarters and headquarters battalion), two mixed battalions, a reconnaissance battalion, an artillery battalion and logistics battalion. In addition, when operating in the brigade special criteria it gives additional units. With all this in such a brigade absolutely everything — organizational structure, rassredotachivanie forces and resources — are intended, to ensure the highest efficiency available to it weapons.
Great enthusiasm for professionals represent approaches to providing logistical support to the reorganization, not only providing them an opportunity to perform tasks more effectively as intended, and impart a new, extraordinary fighting ability. For example, make out one of the units combat support battalion headquarters heaviest American team — engineering company.
At a superficial assessment as if nothing new ordinary engineering company, as well as in the armed forces of many other countries in the world, which consists of organizational control department engineer reconnaissance and 3-engineering-sapper platoons and platoon engineering machinery, which in turn includes management, construction machinery and office equipment, office machines and earthmoving engineering two assault squads. Total in the company has 151 people personnel.
But a more detailed analysis of weapons and military equipment, which has a U.S. engineering company heaviest brigade main objectives which the conduct of hostilities are mobility, kontrmobilnosti, survivability and performance of common engineering problems, allows read about it as fundamentally a brand new military units with armed clash which have seriously not only similar in purpose Russian sapper company of engineering, but even maneuver company.
Standard armament, military and special equipment engineering company followed the heavy brigade looks as follows:
— M4 carbines — 133 units (all rifles equipped collimator sights and helmet-mounted night vision devices allow to conduct PVS 14 fire from the rifle with red-dot sight NIGHT MODE, in addition, all the squad leaders and platoon leaders are night vision goggles AN/PVS-7B) ;
— 5.56 mm M249 machine guns — 18 units (all guns equipped thermal sight AN / PAS 13 different modifications — such sights in the Russian army, according to Russian media reports, there are only the scouts, and then perhaps in minor amounts) ;
— 7.62 mm M240 machine guns — 26 units;
— 12.7-mm machine guns mnogokalibernyh M2NV — 9 units;
— M203 grenade launchers — 22 units;
— Hand grenade HM25 — 18 units (analogues in the Russian army does not exist);
— Easel MK19 automatic grenade launchers — 4 units;
— Anti-tank missiles (ATGM) «Javelin» — complex 3 (unique in the Russian army does not exist);
— Electron-optical system of surveillance and detection TLOS — 9 sets (allows you to adjust artillery fire and direct aviation);
— M113 armored personnel carriers — 7 units;
— Command and staff vehicles M1068 — 1 unit;
— Armored «Hummer» M988 — 7 units;
— Combat vehicles M2A2 ODS — 13 units (engineering modification armored combat vehicles «Bradley»);
— Trucks — 1 unit;
— Mobile cranes — 1 unit;
— Armored M1151 — 2 units;
— Universal engineering machinery M9ASE — 6 units;
— Excavators — 3 units;
— Elongated clearance charges MICLIC — 6 units;
— Power stations — 2 units;
— Different types of trailers — 20 units;
— PC ACS tactical AN/UYK-128-40 sets;
— PC AN/PYQ-6-2 sets;
— PC AN/TYQ-109V — 1 set;
— VHF radio users automatic positioning system, identification and data AN/NSQ-2 — 40 pieces;
— Radio and various mission types — 90 pieces.
It should be noted in all this, that not only weapons, and the entire organization of the American engineering company riddled offensive spirit shock. This is emphasized in their charters and recommendations public notes — engineering companies can not only without the aid of other tasks to do in some areas, and act as infantry, fight with Groops enemy and even attack fortified facilities.
To this end, unlike many other engineering units with backward armies organizational and staffing structure, regarded engineering company very languid facilitated by engineering equipment, such as a means of remote installation minefields. All right it will provide the division because division has only assault and attack abilities. Even tank trawls are specifically divisions. By the way, the same approaches practiced in the Israeli Armed Forces.
And here it should be recalled that during the Russian war majestically like formation, with even larger scale — real engineering assault brigades, — were in the Russian army. They broke into the German defense vigorously attacked the town. However, the true time from them, not counting the memoirs nothing left.
Available now in the Russian Armed Forces engineering units, like the South American systematization, even a little wrong to associate with them. The main purpose of their existence has remained constant and highly specialized — like 100 years ago. All tasks apply only to engineering ground combat, namely:
— Engineer reconnaissance of the enemy, terrain and objects;
— Fortification equipment lines, areas and items;
— Device and content of artificial barriers and the creation of destruction;
— Breaching and content passages in engineering obstacles and demolitions;
— Clearance areas and facilities;
— Preparation and maintenance of traffic routes and maneuver forces;
— Installations and maintenance of crossings of the aqua-bottlenecking;
— Energy field troops;
— Equipment and content Fri (districts) extraction and clean water;
— Hides and imitation principal areas and objects using funds Army Corps of Engineers and local materials.
The main difference in the appointment of an engineering company Russian Armed Forces from the U.S. engineering company is that for a successful solution of all our sappers assigned to tasks they need to act to provide cover from the infantry.
But that being said, still half woes. The main problem is that most combat abilities Russian Army rifle company, having in its composition three mechanized infantry platoon and 10-11 infantry fighting vehicles BMP type-2 and BMP-3, in contrast to the engineering company of the U.S. military look like something watery. Because when our motorized infantry company met in combat engineer company with U.S. Army brigade, it will have a very hard time. To prove this thesis, we will not calculate the combat effectiveness and other characteristics of these 2-units, but simply evaluate their night vision equipment on board and modern reconnaissance equipment, communications and fire support (see table).
As a result, the analysis here can see the disk imaging that Russian motorized infantry, not including senior commanders and gunners have night sights on the group in the main armament (PC, RPG, SVD), and it is an electron-optical sights and observation devices, Gen 2 or 2 + . The amount of thermal weapon sights for small exclusively in one engineering company of the heavy brigade of the U.S. Army is seeking 53 sets. Well ability 1PN-93 of all kinds, in the opinion of some professionals lose PVS-14, PVS-7, PVS-10! Pro Series imagers «Shahin» generally better to remain silent, well they are almost there.
Naturally, you can make an objection that the Russian designers have a lot of new developments night sights even have good experienced instances and imagers, upgraded BMP-2M The BMP-3M with thermal imaging sights. We could not agree, but where they are in the army? Will be in 2020? Whether they will by then also hopelessly outdated?
Not enough weapons
Unusual as alarming fact that virtually all of these kinds of weapons are inferior South American Russian counterparts. And some types of modern weapons, such as, for example, the XM-25 — and not at all.
Automatic guns HM25 Punisher («The Punisher»)
Work on analog South American anti-missile system third generation FGM-148 «Javelin» entitled «Autonomy», working on the principle of «fire — forget it» closed. Felt that — cheap. With all of this left, though modernized, but outdated «Fagot» and «Competitions». ATGM «Kornet» and «Chrysanthemum» is also problematic put on a par with the «Javelin» and «Spike.» Namely, almost all modern western ATGM beating the top, the least protected projection tanks, we do not have such. In addition, anti-tank «Javelin» thermal type IIR seeker which is capable of producing a takeover target before firing and autonomously control the missile to the target, can shoot even from space. His combat unit armed with a programmable electrical device serial undermining the Favourites and main charge, which allows the operator to change before shooting time interval between switching the first and second charge — regardless of the type of target that provides average overcoming armor protection. When the firing range from 50 to 2500 m provided armor over 700 mm! Highest efficiency «Javelina» and promote two possible modes of attack: in the horizontal plane and dive (at an angle of 450). First mode is designed to engage targets types of «helicopter» / «dot» / «bunker», the second — the type of «tank». Modernized version of BGM-71 anti-tank «TOW» too peel the roof tank.
They say ATGM GOS type «Javelin» IIR and «Spike» we do not need as reckless road. But although it is true, but only part of it. All our upgraded ATGM «Bassoon M», «Competition-M», «Mixed-2M», of course, deserve attention, but the problem is that they are fit to fight only with tanks obsolete structures. You can, of course, expect when will our salvation complex «Hermes», but even in his statement varieties something like «Javelin» and «Spike» has not yet observed.
ATGM newcomer to the 100 mm gun of the BMP-3, naturally peel 5.5 km, but how often in a modern war in the European theater to shoot at this distance? In addition, even this increased armor missiles, according to some reports, still does not provide the latest defeat, modernized versions tanks «Abrams», «Leopard» and, even more so, an Israeli tank ‘Merkava-4Mem «complex with active protection» Trophy » which is protected from not even our existing ATGM hitters in the roof. But the new missile complex «Lahat» which can shoot from all over the western tank guns, beating over the hill and into the roof of the tank (adjusted from the ground or UAV) at a distance of 8 km. On the ability of western tank thermal imagers can be judged according to the latest Nizhny Tagil exhibition where the imager from the tank «Leclerc» showed their highest ability. Watching him through the actions of our armored vehicles, the target environment and exponential firing, could only envy the French tankers and frightened: and suddenly have to wage war against him.
2nd Lebanon war showed that the old missiles, of course, are not bad, but perfectly to kill the enemy tank can no longer — just do damage to temporarily carve it out of action. With all this tank «Merkava-4» in general showed a unique vitality. Zabugornoy against armored tanks M1A2SEP type (W2) or «Leopard-2A7» old antitank more so hopelessly outdated. This can ask the fighters «Hezbollah» or Iraqi guerrillas who paid dearly for the victory over the enemy tanks. I would not want our soldiers so again had to repeat the feat of Alexander Matrosov, or bear the loss both during the Rzhev-sychevskoj offensive operations when the altar of victory were haphazardly put thousands of lives.
IDF Soldiers on the tank Merkava Mark IV
As our tankers to fight with anti-tank «Spike» and that really strikes «over the hill»?
Create memories that many of those who produce or purchase different types of anti-tank weapons for the Russian army, do not think about those who will be on the battlefield to keep in sight the enemy tank by placing the guided missile. After system «fire and forget» would have increased their chances of survival.
In the Russian Armed Forces, many managers understand and realize the value of the organization and the best weapons for troops of success in battle. Thus, during the last anti-terrorist operation in the Caucasus, where the old ways and methods of warfare came to a standstill, commanders have always found ways to get out of this situation.
Namely, when extremists deserted to semi-guerrilla strategy, large military units and formations could not fight well with their small mobile groups. Enemy acted on its territory, knowing the terrain and environmental conditions. Operated on a «blow — a departure.» As a result, the standing army came under small but tangible impacts and become tangible enough to bear the loss — from mine warfare, shelling, sniping. The enemy was severe. Captured by 18-year-old graduate of terrorist training camps «Caucasus», who studied with Khattab, during the interrogation showed military knowledge that would envy though what Lieutenant — Military School graduate who studied military science 4-5 years. A period of training under Serzhen-Yurt militants have been a little more than 3 months!
Life claimed the creation of small, well-armed, mobile, filled with reliable means of communication units. At the initial step this role Reconnaissance different formations and regiments, special brigade, part of the Internal Troops.
One of the examples. In 2002, when the commander of the joint group was General Valery Gerasimov, with the assistance of Commandant Gen. Alexander Severe Pavlyuschenko command with the FSB and MVD formed on the basis of the city commandant temporary unit consisting of about forty people, very well-armed and equipped for those criteria. Organizational unit consisted of 4 divisions: 1-Attack, 2-intelligence department and military vehicles. On his arms were four BRDM-2, one BTR-80 armored and «Ural», plus constantly were attached installation ZU-23-2 on the car «Ural» and calculation of 82-mm mortar. Also in the division were AGS-17, two mnogokalibernyh gun «cliff» with night sights, ATGM, three PKM-H (with night sights), two 9-mm rifle silent BCC, four machine «Val», four sniper rifles with night sights and two RPG-7 with night sights.
TNK-5 (combined portable thermal imaging night observation device). Source: RF Gun
All firearms was absolutely Resettled night sights. Even at ZU-23-2 was a night sight 1PN93-3 with a specially made bracket. There was also a three binoculars BN-2-3, three observation device NNP-23 imager TPN-1 station near intelligence. FSB provides a means of electronic intelligence (SIGINT) and communications, MIA — operational information and support special forces. This approach has permitted to apply almost immediately tangible strikes on militants. In the first armed clash harsh night the score was 27:0 in favor of the scouts. Winter of 2002 near the village was destroyed Fri Ersenoy terrorist base. When withdrawing funds SIGINT FSB serving as a unit, it was found that the waste unit intercept were several huge groups of bandits. By coordinates defined means SIGINT, struck artillery. Unit with decent fruit came to armored group.
Particularly effective were ambush act NIGHT MODE when 12.7mm «cliffs» with night sights did not leave a chance to terrorists. When confronted with militant groups bolshennymi huge efficiency showed 82-mm mortar «Tray» and AGS-17, which have always been a part of division. The secret of success was very frisky response to current information, the highest mobility unit, good communications and SIGINT, a massive fire support. Is forgotten and was not premature preparation: a lot of attention was paid to the selection of personnel, stubbornly held classes on fire training and work with night sights and other means of intelligence, controlled fire in combat.
Over the two years of existence units produced about 300 combat activities captured several bases in forested mountain and desert terrain (Nadterechnoe district). Despite this, in 2003 the commander of the mountain group nullified all efforts to the use and application of the unit — just disbanded it.
Create memories that many of those who influence the effectiveness of the soldier on the battlefield, in fact just do not think about it. Reluctance experts thoroughly engaged in military affairs negates all efforts by Russian Defense Minister high-quality training of the Armed Forces, and leads to an empty cyclopean spending real resources to reform the Armed Forces. Turn the tide will turn only when every soldier and spec of the Defence Ministry will apply to military real way.
Armament Engineer Company and the U.S. Army rifle company CB RF
|Name||Engineer Company, U.S. Army||NE Russian motorized infantry company|
|Combat vehicles||M2A2 ODS — 13 pieces||BMP-2 (BMP-3) — 11 pieces|
|Automatic grenade launchers||MK19 — 4 pieces||No (only in the battalion — 9 AGS-17)|
|LAW (3rd Generation)||LAW «Javelin» — 3 pieces||Counterparts in the Armed Forces no|
|Hand grenade||HM25 — 18 pieces||Counterparts in the Armed Forces no|
|Hand guns||5.56 mm M249 — 18 pieces||RPK-74 — 9 pieces|
|The regimental guns||7.62 mm M240 — 26 pieces||RMB («Pecheneg») — 3-9 pieces|
|Mnogokalibernye guns||12.7 mm M2NV — 9 pieces||No (only in the battalion, the number varies)|
|NightVision||AN/PVS-14, AN/PVS-7B — about 140 pieces (allow to conduct aimed fire from small guns)||Series devices 1PN-93 — 30-50 pieces (outdated)|
|Thermal sights||AN/PAS-13 different modifications — 53 pieces||No. Approximate Russian counterpart — «Shaheen» (South American properties are inferior)|
|Hand grenade launchers||Only single type or M72 antitank missile system FGM-172 SRAW to defeat main battle tanks, light armored vehicles and long defensive fortifications on the battlefield at ranges up to 600 meters (with a lightweight wearable complex guidance system designed to substitute regular antitank grenade launchers in service with the Commission and the U.S. Army)||RPG-7 — 9 pieces, single RPG-26, RShG-1, -2 (analogue type SRAW in the Armed Forces is missing)|
|Sniper Rifles||In battalion||SVD — 3-9 pieces (for the systematization of American marksman — sharpshooter on small and middle-distance)|