The trick grandmaster

The trick grandmaster

For each officer in the Russian army receive credit for military valor and courage of the nominal instrument has always been coveted and illustrious. And although it did not provide for unique jewelery, which is an advantage of the higher military ranks, officer sword with a laconic inscription "For Bravery" was more worthy of merit.

In the history of Russian weapons premium cool in 1788 is not for nothing is significant. If you have previously complained about the time the Golden gun only representatives of the Generalitat, the end of XVIII century was marked by the emergence of more of the 1st kind of premium tools, created to award particularly distinguished themselves in combat officers, also gold, but without jewelery.

This is explained first that specifically at the time of the Russian Federation had quite a long time to wage war on two fronts. In September 1787 began war with Turkey, and in the summer of 1788, realizing that all of the major military forces of the Russian army are concentrated in the south, Sweden has decided to use the situation to regain previously lost to himself in the wars with Russia. And although the official declaration of war was not followed, the fighting actions initiated by the Swedes on the northern borders of the Russian Empire, were very severe danger.

Successful acts of the Russian troops, during which was shown heroism and unparalleled courage, achieved fully deserved awards, while not only for senior military officers, and for officers. So there were Golden officer sword with the inscription "For Bravery". Although this type of writing did not change over the next 130 years, he developed a descent. In any case, after the capture of the fortress Ochakov Russian troops were awarded the first officer's sword with a golden honorable inscriptions, eight of which were inscribed "Courage, was in the battle of 7 June 1788 on the estuary Ochakov" and on the other 12 — the same inscription, but without dates. Soon enough, these extensive inscriptions were changed to laconic "For Bravery". At first, these words were applied to the blade, a bit later — on the hilt, and after the 1790 th — on Garda guns. In this golden gun officer issued both land and sea particularly distinguished officers.

In the final step of Russian-Turkish war, after the famous storming of Izmail, Golden gun was issued to 24 officers. All of these swords and sabers had the inscription "For Bravery" on both sides of the hilt. After the conclusion of peace with Sweden in 1791, the Russian army, which had only one enemy — Turkey, with the latest in strength began to put her defeat. In June of the same year for the storming of the Golden Anapa swords were awarded 4 officers, in the same days of when Machin (on the Danube), the Russian corps under the command of General-in-Chief, NV Repnina dealt a crushing blow 80000th army of Turks. And while for this victory, according to the documents, have been awarded many of the officers, as of today know the names of only six guns for the Golden Knights Machin: five of them received a golden sword "for bravery"And a major of artillery — a golden sword with that same inscription. The latest battle in the Russian-Turkish war of 1787-1791 years was the battle at Cape Kaliakra, July 31, 1791 when the first Russian squadron under the command of Rear-Admiral Ushakov soundly defeated the Turkish fleet. For this "sea victory", which ended with a peace contract with Turkey, have been awarded the Gold weapon as representatives of the generals and officers in accordance with the decree of Catherine II on September 16, 1792. They received 8 award a gold sword with the inscription "For Bravery". In total for the whole XVIII century, according to available data, the holders of the golden gun with the inscription "For Bravery" were about 280 officers of the standing army and navy.

The most outstanding period in the history of Russian gold guns were the years of Russian war. Only for 1812 it was issued more than 500 units. In this case, a huge part of the officers received. The unprecedented heroism, which became a way of life of the Russian army almost from the first days of the war, sharply increment the number of awards given out. January 27, 1813 army commanders were "power during the most important act for appointing the brilliant feats of swords for his bravery." Although the Gold Diploma officer's gun "For Bravery" asserted by the king, the move has permitted greatly expedite the receipt of awards to outstanding officers. Some of them were awarded the Golden tool more than once. In total for the Russian war of 1812 and the Foreign campaign of 1813-1814 Golden officer's gun was issued about 1700 times.

The trick grandmasterBy the beginning of the XIX century officer's Gold tool was one of the most notable differences fighting to get that dreamed almost every commander. The first battle of the century became known Austerlitz. Although Russian forces suffered a crushing defeat, the Golden gun "For Bravery" all the same was handed to those officers who in the current difficult situation then were able to not only keep his cool, and everything to facilitate the reduction of losses of the Russian army.

In addition to the French campaign, 1805, 1806-1807's our homeland before the Napoleonic invasion again had to fight wars with Turkey (1806-1812) and Sweden (1808-1809). According to far from complete data, over the years in the course of the fighting weapon Golden officer "For courage" were awarded to about 950 people. Among them: 20-year-old Ivan Dibich Guards officer, who during the battle of Austerlitz was wounded in his right hand, but did not leave the battlefield, while continuing to fight the left, on the Turkish front — then no one has recognized the captain, and later Field Marshal of the Russian army, Ivan Paskevich, the Swedish — the future famous guerrilla commander and Colonel Denis Davydov Yakov Kulnev. Gold award officer instrument performed well for the differences in the fighting against the Highlanders in the Caucasus.

In the subsequent decade after the war, Russian Gold Award instrument were a single character. But from 1826 to 1829, when our country did not stop military actions as with the mountaineers in the Caucasus, and from Persia and Turkey, their number has increased significantly.

Until 1844 all the premium Gold instrument issued from the Cabinet of the governor, and in April of the same year there was an instruction to continue to golden gun with diamonds as before issue of the Cabinet, and the Golden officer without decorations — from Chapter of Orders. And because since 1814 when sending the Golden guns awarded to all supplies to the amounts added to 10% who were in favor of disabled war, the Chapter was invited to continue this tradition.

The Crimean War of 1853-1856 gave the Golden Knights RF 456 guns "For Bravery". In addition, virtually the entire first half of the XIX century lasted continuous combat actions in the Caucasus. In the period from 1831 to 1849, the first officer's golden gun "For courage" were issued 176 times, and from 1850 t
o 1864, the second — more than 300. A distinguished themselves in warfare officers operating in Central Asia from 1853 to 1885, there were more than 100. During the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 Golden gun "For Bravery" was awarded about 600 officers, and the war with Japan, 1904-1905 — more than 800.

Special page in the history of Russian weapons premium has been the emergence of so-called Anninskii guns. This species has been associated with the Order of St. Anne, established back in 1735 the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp Karl Friedrich in memory of his deceased wife Anne, daughter of the first Russian ruler Peter, and having a single degree. After the death of Charles the throne of the duchy of Holstein ran to his son Karl Peter Ulrich, who later was destined to become the Russian Tsar Peter III. When, after the overthrow of Peter III seized power his wife, Catherine II, their young son stately Prince Paul Petrovich became the Duke of Holstein. Our homeland then relinquished it duchy, but the Order of St. Anne and remained in the country.

After the death of Catherine's own coronation day — April 5, 1797, referred to the Order of St. Paul. Anne, among other awards Russian Empire. From now, it has been split into three levels, the lowest of them, III, worn on a cool gun in a small circle, decorated with the imperial crown, in a reddish enamel ring is placed reddish enamel cross vtochnosti the same as in the central medallion Star of the Order. The symbol of the Order is not worn on the inside as on the outside of the cup epee, because the hide he was no longer appropriate. Most had a huge number of awards for the period of Italian and Swiss campaigns AV Suvorov (1799 year), Also at the time of successful actions of the Russian squadron under the command of Admiral FF Ushakov in the Mediterranean campaign (1798-1800 years). In total, during the period of the reign of Paul's own instrument granted Annino 890 people. The last of their February 10, 1801, for a few days before the death of the ruler, was the captain of PG Butkov.

In 1815, Emperor Alexander I divided the Order into four degrees, from this point on it is a Grade III is a cross nosivshiysya the ribbon on the chest, and IV, the latter again is — a tool. In the 1829th came first official Tired of the Order of St.. Anne, according to which Anna's arms received for military distinction, was placed not only the symbol of the Order, and the inscription "For Bravery". Unlike other Russian orders lowest level of the Order of St.. Anna was not removed from the award even in this case, if he received a higher degree of it. Cannon continued to be worn as a symbol of excellence gained in battle. The Statute of the Order dated the same year, 1829, it was argued, that the character of its grade IV can be worn on all kinds of cool guns, in other words, not only on the usual tools for premium sabers, but also on polusablya, broadswords and sea dagger . The new Statute of the Order, adopted in 1845, proving once again the old establishment, he brought in his destiny is one fundamental change. At this point the officers who practice non-Christian religions were handed medals, topped with the image of the Municipal Russian Falcon instead of the cross and the type of St. Anne, on Anna's arms and fastened reddish not cross, and the dark-headed eagle.

Decree of 19 March 1855 the first issued in the period of the Crimean War of 1853-1856, was prescribed for a "more visible differences of" Order of St.. Anna grade IV, gave for military exploits, worn in Anna's arms "For Bravery" sword knot of red and gold sash with silver tassels. Clarification "for military exploits" here is not the case — the fact that before 1859 Anna's officers were handed instrument not only for fighting, and for the civilian award. And during the Crimean War of 1853-1856 registered an imperial decree was allowed to give IV degree of the Order of St.. Anne doctors, at the risk of his life rescues injured in the fields of fights, but with a slip of the tongue, that the inscription "For Bravery" at such premium weapons should not be.

Curiously, the hilt Anninskii guns, as opposed to 2-Gold award other tools, has always been made of base metal. The very same symbol of the Order is placed on the hilt, was made of red brass (an alloy of copper and zinc), while any other signs of Russian orders without exception classes were always made of gold. Explained by the fact that Anna's weapon, being inferior officer Military Merit, issued significantly more often other differences. Over the years the Anninskii guns as it was handed to award hundreds of thousands of officers. While in the army, it was not listed as a notable, as order St. ZHoru or golden gun "For courage" to get at least some of his dreams officer.

The trick grandmasterIn 1913, the Order of St. ZHoru and numbered with a gold premium instrument according to the Statute of the newcomer has been called George, and on it was placed a small symbol of the Order of the enamel in the shape of a cross, the hilt of such weapons was not gold, as previously, and the gold, but if you want award-allowed True, at its own expense, to change it to gold.

At the outbreak of the First World War was the instrument of the Golden St. George, though noble, but very kind vserasprostranennym awards. Explained it first hitherto unheard of scale hostilities. St. George Gold premium instrument during the years of the First World issued more often than ever before. Judging from the surviving documents, in 1914, it was handed to 66 officers in 1915 — 2377, in 1916 — about two thousand, in 1917 — 1257.

Despite the impressive amount of premium as guns, each candidate before its getting passed of mandatory and it is very strict and tested. At first, the regimental commander sent representation division chief, while making all this evidence of witnesses on documents received by the corps commander, the commander of the army, the War Minister (or his chief of staff). Letter signed by him handing Chancellor orders.

Unfortunately, most of us come down to the Golden St. George guns nameless, information about the holders of its rare. In the Historical Museum houses with George saber hilt of gold and untainted by the inscription "For Bravery", which belonged to Lieutenant General of the Russian army Joseph Romanovich Dovbor-Musnitski.
In Novocherkassk Museum of Don Cossacks is St. George with a bronze sword hilt gold, presented to Lieutenant General Alexei Maksymovych Kaledin. Besides him, who would become "white" General, in the First World War, St. George Golden gun deserved a few more active members of the snow-white movement — PN Krasnov, NR Dukhonin, AP Kutepov and others.

After the February Revolution procedure Award Gold premium instrument does not actually changed, but not so on its outer form. Since February 1917 issued a decree "on the hilt and the blade weapons officer monograms of kings continue to do, leaving a smooth oval monogram in place on the hilt." Earlier time hilts and blades decorated with the monogram of the officers' guns of the ruler in whose reign was the owner of your own first officer rank. In October, the 17th, for a few days before the overthrow of the Provisional Government, it was found that the sign of the cross of the Order of St. Anne IV degree, decorated crown, in connection with the establishment of republican government is not entirely appropriate. Yet to make new signs, proper republican spirit and do not have time to …

In 1913, in connection with the introduction of a new kind of premium instruments — George were made to the configuration and rules regarding Anninskii guns. Since then, each having Georgievskoe least some kind of weapon, had the right, as a Knight Commander of the Order of St. Anne IV degree, to put on it is not only a sign of a snow-white cross of the Order of St. George, and the symbol of the Order of St. Anne. With all of this St George's character is always placed at the head of the hilt, and Anninsky — on a special iron plate under the hilt, although there are other options for fixing it.

And in February 1918, after the Bolsheviks came to power, in connection with the seizure of the population of available tools on the Petrograd Military District issued an order: "Due to the petitions received former Knights of St. George for permission to store weapons such as the role of memory in the war … I declare that the soldiers who were awarded in past campaigns for distinguished George weapon, have the right to remain at such … Chief of the Air Defense Forces Yeremeev. "

On it, in fact, the Institute of the Russian premium guns, which had a 300-year history, ended its existence.

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